Speech on Obsessive compulsive disorder focusing on my teaching

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Question Description

Obsessive compulsive disorder

Question and Scenario:

Create a speech in a word document about your inclusive practice for a 9 year old boy who has obsessive compulsive disorder for your colleagues at the beginning of school year.

Word length: 2500 words or equivalent. +/- 10%

·Identify the key learning needs of the student in the case study. You will need to research widely and base it on the diagnosis of the student to identify all relevant needs. In addition to general areas of need, identify a particular skill or aspect of the Australian curriculum content that is relevant to this student and describe the student’s current level of performance. If relevant, briefly identify the needs of the other students in the group setting as well.

·Explain how you differentiated your teaching to meet the individual needs of the student in the case study. Focusing on your teaching of a particular skill or aspect of curriculum content, explain the differentiation strategies you used to accommodate the learning needs of the student and how you created an inclusive learning environment. Justify your strategies with reference to appropriate scholarly literature. If you also made reasonable adjustments for the student explain these adjustments, including how the student benefited, and why they were made. Ensure that you explain the difference between reasonable adjustments and differentiated tasks.

·Show the learning plan that you developed for the student in the case study. This may take the form of an Individual Learning Plan (ILP) or a Positive Behaviour Support (PBS) plan. I have created this, so please use this in the speech.

Criteria

·Comprehensive identification of needs of the student, supported by reference to the literature.

·Suitability of your differentiation strategies and quality of your supporting evidence.

·Relevance of and justification for your student’s learning plan

·Adherence to academic writing conventions including grammar, clarity and referencing



Note: If it is badly written I will withdraw.

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INDIVIDUAL LEARNING PLAN Name: Joshua Elphick Date commenced: March 2012 Review date: July 2012 Team participants: Lyndal Andrew, Chris Shaddock Focus area linked to curriculum Social Completing set learning tasks Specific learning outcome • Following instructions • How to play with others successfully – turn taking, sharing, listening to others and maintaining eye contact. • Joshua will work on a given activity for at least 10 minutes. • Joshua will complete an agreed upon minimum of each task. Intervention plan, curriculum adaptations, teaching strategies, resources, personnel • Participate in the school LOT program • Tally chart – Joshua gets a Tally on his chart when he follows instructions. • Telling Josh that something is an instruction to assist in building his understanding of what instructions are. • Playing team and games that require turn taking and sharing resources. • • Adjust learning activities and expectations to assist Josh to feel he can be successful in completing tasks. Ensure Josh understands the minimum requirements for each task. These can be slowly build up as his confidence improves. Monitoring and evaluation strategies • Use of reward chart for following instructions • Joshua will participate in LOT program on most days at recess and lunch • Joshua will play successfully with peers during developmental play and LOT activities • Tally chart for following instructions and completing set tasks. • Work samples Inclusion in education towards towards equality equality for for students students with with disability disability Issues paper Written by Dr Kathy Cologon Children and Families Research Centre Institute of Early Childhood Macquarie University Policy recommendations written with Children with Disability Australia Inclusion in education towards equality for students with disability Issues paper Written by Dr Kathy Cologon Children and Families Research Centre Institute of Early Childhood Macquarie University Policy recommendations written with Children with Disability Australia This work has been produced with the assistance of funding from the Australian Government Department of Education to expand the education policy capacity of Children with Disability Australia. The views in this publication are the authors’ own and are not necessarily held or endorsed by the Australian Government. On 18 September 2013, Machinery of Government changes established the Department of Education and the Department of Employment out of the former Department of Education, Employment and Workplace Relations (DEEWR). All references to DEEWR in the document should now be read as the Australian Government Department of Education. Table of Contents Summary .............................................................................................................................. 4 Definitions ............................................................................................................................ 6 Introduction ......................................................................................................................... 7 Method ................................................................................................................................. 11 Section 1: Understanding ‘inclusive education’ ................................................................ 13 Macro and micro exclusion ............................................................................................... 14 Ableism: Enculturated exclusion ....................................................................................... 17 A contemporary definition of inclusion............................................................................... 20 Section 2: Outcomes of inclusive education...................................................................... 23 The social side of inclusion ............................................................................................... 23 Inclusion and academic development ............................................................................... 24 Communication and language development ..................................................................... 25 Physical development ....................................................................................................... 26 Outcomes for teachers ..................................................................................................... 26 Outcomes for families ....................................................................................................... 27 Section 3: Capacity Building—Bringing about inclusion in practice ................................ 29 Attitudes ........................................................................................................................... 29 Teacher education for inclusion .............................................................................. 32 Structural barriers ............................................................................................................. 35 Labelling/categorisation .......................................................................................... 36 Systems of support ................................................................................................ 37 Paraprofessional support........................................................................................ 39 Developing a culture of inclusion ....................................................................................... 41 Conclusion: Implications for going forward ....................................................................... 45 Policy recommendations ....................................................................................................... 46 References ........................................................................................................................... 49 Children with Disability Australia 3 Summary All children in Australia have the right to an inclusive education. However, there are many barriers to the realisation of this right in the lived experience of children and families. Current efforts towards upholding the rights of all children are impeded by a lack of understanding of inclusive education and misappropriation of the term. Additional barriers include negative and discriminatory attitudes and practices, lack of support to facilitate inclusive education, and inadequate education and professional development for teachers and other professionals. Critical to addressing all of these barriers is recognising and disestablishing ableism in Australia. This paper draws from recent research in addressing gaps in current understanding to provide a firm basis from which to inform research based policy development. Taking a rights-based approach, the paper focuses on developing a clear understanding of inclusive education and identifying strategies to enhance the education of all children in Australia. 4 Inclusion in education: Issues paper Children with Disability Australia 5 Definitions Children People 0–18 years of age. Education The provision of education to people from early childhood through to adulthood (although it is recognised that education is an ongoing lifelong process). People who experience disability The reality in current Australian society is that the use of ‘disabled person’ generally involves a negation of personhood, rather than recognition of the social imposition of disability. Consequently, in this paper the term people who experience disability is used to recognise the social imposition of disability, whilst still identifying the person first. Ableism Ableism is to disability what racism or sexism is to ethnicity and gender. Ableism involves discriminatory attitudes and practices arising from the perception that a person who experiences disability is in some sense inferior to a person who does not experience disability. Universal Design for Learning Universal Design for Learning (UDL) ensures that environments and experiences are inclusive of children and adults in all their diversity. This includes providing multiple ways of accessing information, approaching learning tasks and engaging and participating in learning. UDL ensures that all environments and experiences are ready for all children, rather than targeting learning experiences to a homogenised ‘middle ground’, which excludes most learners, including many children who experience disability. Inclusive education 6 Inclusive education involves embracing human diversity and welcoming all children and adults as equal members of an educational community. This involves valuing and supporting the full participation of all people together within mainstream educational settings. Inclusive education requires recognising and upholding the rights of all children and adults and understanding human diversity as a rich resource and an everyday part of all human environments and interactions. Inclusive education is an approach to education free from discriminatory beliefs, attitudes and practices, including free from ableism. Inclusive education requires putting inclusive values into action to ensure all children and adults belong, participate and flourish. Inclusion in education: Issues paper Introduction The right to an inclusive education is articulated in both the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC)1 and the Convention on the Rights of Persons with a Disability (CRPD)2. Consistent with ratifying these conventions, the Australian Government expresses its commitment to inclusive education in an array of documents and policies, including the National Disability Strategy3, the Australian Curriculum, the Australian Professional Standards for Teachers, the National Quality Framework and the Early Years Learning Framework for Australia4. Each of these documents recognises the importance of responding to student diversity and ensuring the participation of all students as learners. However, while children who experience disability continue to be denied equal access to inclusive education from early childhood through to adulthood, the requirements of these conventions are not being upheld.5 Following Australia’s ratification of the CRPD in 2008, the Council of Australian Governments agreed on the National Disability Strategy (NDS) in 2011. The NDS provided the local context for action following the ratification of the CRPD. It contains six areas of policy action, including one covering education (Learning and Skills). This was preceded by Australia’s national Disability Discrimination Act 19926 (DDA). The Disability Standards for Education 20057 outline legal obligations for education under Australia’s national Disability Discrimination Act 1992 (DDA). These legal obligations include ensuring the right of every child who experiences disability to education on the same basis as any child not labelled disabled. Following Australia’s ratification of the CRPD in 2008, and the development of the NDS in 2011, a review of the Disability Standards for Education was undertaken in 2012. In the opinion of the author the review identified many issues currently resulting in violations of the right to an inclusive education. Serious concerns were raised regarding inadequate education and professional development for teachers and specialist support staff, lack of funding and limited support from education authorities.8 Consistent with UNICEF’s recent report on the State of the World’s Children9, attitudes were identified as a major barrier to inclusion.10 The review found that for many people, stigmatisation was such that they did not feel they could disclose the difficulties they may be having or identify their support needs.11 In sum, in the opinion of the author the review clearly identified that Australia is far from meeting its obligations under the CRPD and revealed many legislative breaches of the DDA. People who experience disability form the largest minority group in our world today.12 However, the rights of people who experience disability are repeatedly denied.13 Exclusion or discrimination 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 Convention on the Rights of the Child, 1989, http://www.unicef.org/crc/ Convention on the Rights of Persons with a Disability, 2006, https://www.un.org/disabilities/default.asp?id=150 COAG, 2011 ACARA, 2012; ACECQA, 2011; AITSL, 2011; DEEWR, 2009 The State of the World’s Children 2013, http://www.unicef.org/sowc2013/files/SWCR2013_ENG_Lo_res_24_Apr_2013.pdf Disability Discrimination Act 1992, http://www.comlaw.gov.au/Details/C2013C00022 Disability Standards for Education 2005, http://www.comlaw.gov.au/Details/F2005L00767 DEEWR, 2012 UNICEF, 2013 DEEWR, 2012 Ibid World Health Organisation (WHO), 2011 UNICEF, 2013 Children with Disability Australia 7 on the basis of disability remains a common occurrence and children who experience disability are amongst the most excluded in Australia14 and throughout the world15. Article 24 of the CRPD states the right of every person who experiences disability to participate fully in an inclusive, quality education on an equal basis with people who are not labelled disabled. Specifically this involves the right to inclusive education at all levels of education intended to support “the full development of human potential and sense of dignity and self-worth, and the strengthening of respect for human rights, fundamental freedoms and human diversity” (CRPD, Article 24). Additionally, the realisation of the right to education requires ensuring accommodations will be made and support will be provided to “facilitate effective education…consistent with the goal of full inclusion” (CRPD, Article 24). The right to education for all has been recognised for many decades. Given this, it should not be necessary to specifically recognise the right of people who experience disability to an inclusive education—after all, all people are people. However, “for some people these rights are conceived as natural, while for others these same rights are conceived as ‘privileges’”16. “[T]o be excluded is to be disempowered, to be constituted as ‘other’ and outside of a ‘normal’ frame of reference.”17 Inclusion naturally implies exclusion, thus in order to understand inclusive education it is important to consider who is included and into what, and likewise who is excluded and from what. While inclusion is about everyone, as noted above, children who experience disability are amongst the most excluded groups, thus particular attention to the rights of people who experience disability is required. The CRPD articulates the rights of people who experience disability and clearly states that these rights are not privileges. As a signatory to the CRPD Australia is obliged, under international human rights law, to respect, protect and fulfil the rights articulated within, including the right to inclusive education. Thus “to adopt appropriate legislative, administrative, budgetary, judicial, promotional, and other measures toward the full realization of the right” including provision of assistance and services as required to bring about inclusive education.18 This requires acting upon the recognition that “[i]nclusion is a right, not a special privilege for a select few”19. Ill-informed attitudes and low expectations form a vicious cycle limiting opportunities for children who experience disability.20 Additionally, research has found that by age six children demonstrate internalised cultural preferences and prejudices reflective of the communities in which they live, including making unsolicited prejudiced statements about community members.21 The development of these entrenched prejudices in the childhood years creates a cycle of prejudice that inhibits social cohesion. Fostering inclusion in the childhood years has the potential to break this cycle22, thus making childhood an important focus area for developing inclusion. However, changes in the views and behaviours of children are unlikely without changes in adult views and behaviours.23 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 8 Hobson, 2010 UNICEF, 2013 D’Alessio, 2011, p.141 Barton, 1997, p.232 Jonsson, 2007, p.118 Kliewer, 1998, p.320 Cologon, 2012 Connolly, Smith & Kelly, 2002 Cologon, 2012 Ainscow, 2007; Beckett, 2009; UNICEF, 2013 Inclusion in education: Issues paper One issue that contributes to the difficulties in upholding the right to inclusive education, in Australia and internationally, is confusion regarding what comprises inclusive education and the frequent misappropriation of the term. Despite the right to inclusive education specified in the CRPD, what constitutes inclusive education varies across contexts and interpretations.24 Inclusion is often viewed as an ‘added extra’ or a ‘special effort’ born out of kindness or charity. By contrast, inclusion is a right and is fundamental to a functioning society.25 Since the 1970s the move towards inclusive education has been gradually building. Subsequently considerable research has focussed on the outcomes of inclusive education. However, our current understanding of the implications of this research for policy and practice in Australia is hampered by a number of factors including a current lack of shared or common meaning for ‘inclusive education’, and a lack of knowledge about developing inclusive practices and attitudes towards inclusion. These issues are addressed in this paper. In addressing the current gaps in understanding, this paper seeks to draw together research findings to develop a clear picture of the implications for improving policy and practice—in order to facilitate greater inclusion for children who experience disability in Australia. The intention of this paper is to provide a firm basis from which to inform research based policy development. This paper seeks to address the following questions: • What understanding of the term ‘inclusive education’ can be drawn from current research literature? • What does the literature tell us about attitudes towards inclusive education and the impact this has on practices? • What can we learn from research on ‘inclusion’ and ‘inclusive education’ to inform capacity building in childhood education, work against low expectations and increase inclusion in education? • What are the implications of the reviewed research for developing policy and practice to facilitate inclusion of children who experience disability in Australia? 24 25 D’Alessio & Watkins, 2009 UNICEF, 2013 Children with Disability Australia 9 10 Inclusion in education: Issues es p aper paper Method An extensive literature search was conducted to develop this issues paper. Drawing on more than 170 research papers, in light of the questions outlined above, the current paper addresses: the meaning of the term ‘inclusive education’; outcomes of inclusive education; and barriers to or facilitators of inclusive education. Where relevant, links are also made to recent national and international reports. There has been a consistent lack of evidence to suggest any benefit of segregated education over time.26 By contrast, there is a considerable body of research demonstrating the benefits of inclusive education. This literature is considered in this paper. Taken together this paper provides a clear evidence base to inform policy and practice in inclusive education in Australia. It should be noted that while there are many considerations relevant to inclusive education that fall outside of the scope of this paper, this is not to suggest that they are not important. A number of gaps in the literature are identified and further research is urgently needed to address these gaps. 26 Calberg & Kavale, 1980; Dunn, 1968; Jackson, 2004, 20 ...
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Tutor Answer

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School: New York University

Attached.

Introduction
Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) refers to an anxiety illness in which time
individuals have recurrent, undesired thoughts, sensations, or ideas that cause them to feel driven
to act in a repetitive (compulsive) manner. Examples of these repetitive behaviors include but not
limited to repetitive washing of hands and cleaning. These behaviors can greatly interfere with
an individual’s daily activities as well as social life. Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder can also be
defined as a chronic but common disorder in which an individual has irrepressible, reoccurring
behaviors (compulsions) and thoughts (obsessions) that make him/her repeat an activity over and
over.
I.

Obsessions

II.

Compulsions

III.

Facts about Obsessive-compulsive disorder

IV.

Key learning needs of the student

V.

Academic support strategies

VI.

Aspect of the Australian curriculum content relevant to the student

VII.

Differentiation Strategies

VIII.

Learning plan developed for the student
Conclusion

In conclusion, there seems to be a supposition that the development of ‘reasonable
adjustments’ to the program and curriculum will result in ‘inclusion’. However, various research
studies show that this is not the case. The aspect of inclusion is complex and multifarious, and
the development of specific adjustments to help a student may prevent other elements of their

inclusion. Practices and traditions used by teachers to ‘normalize’ students with disabilities can
have an inadvertent impact. It’s, therefore, essential that students in the classroom are informed
about the nature of their classmate.


Running Head: SPEECH ON OBSESSIVE COMPULSIVE DISORDER

Speech on Obsessive Compulsive Disorder
Name
Instructor
Institutional Affiliation
Date

1

SPEECH ON OBSESSIVE COMPULSIVE DISORDER

2

Introduction
Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) refers to an anxiety illness in which time
individuals have recurrent, undesired thoughts, sensations, or ideas that cause them to feel driven
to act in a repetitive (compulsive) manner. Examples of these repetitive behaviors include but not
limited to repetitive washing of hands and cleaning. These behaviors can greatly interfere with
an individual’s daily activities as well as social life. Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder can also be
defined as a chronic but common disorder in which an individual has irrepressible, reoccurring
behaviors (compulsions) and thoughts (obsessions) that make him/her repeat an activity over and
over.
This disorder basically makes an individual have obsessive thoughts which drive him/her
to engage in compulsive behaviors. It affects children, men, and women and can develop at any
stage of life. There are some individuals who develop the disorder early, whereas there are those
who develop it at the later stage of life. Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) can be upsetting
and greatly interfere with a person’s social and personal life. However, there are some treatment
and medications that can help keep it under a manageable state. This paper will address the
aspect of obsessive compulsive disorder and the inclusive practice for a 9-year-old boy.
Most people have repeated behaviors or focused thoughts. However, these does not affect their
daily life, in fact, these thoughts and behaviors make tasks easier. Conversely, for individuals
with OCD (in this case a 9-year-old boy), routines are stiff and thoughts are persistent and thus
failing to do them result in great distress. In order for one to be diagnosed with obsessivecompulsive disorder, there must exist an obsession and/or compulsions that disrupt one’s social
life as well as impair work and causes great distress. Approximately 3 in every 100 people will

SPEECH ON OBSESSIVE COMPULSIVE DISORDER

3

develop obsessive-compulsive disorder at some point in their lives; this amounts to
approximately 450,000 Australians (Goodman, et al, 2014).
Obsessions
Obsessions are recurring and persistent impulses, thoughts, or images that result in
distressing emotions like disgust or an...

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Anonymous
Tutor went the extra mile to help me with this essay. Citations were a bit shaky but I appreciated how well he handled APA styles and how ok he was to change them even though I didnt specify. Got a B+ which is believable and acceptable.

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