Watch the video and answer the questions
This assignment is based upon a documentary movie made in 1998 during what was then
the largest El Niño event ever recorded.
1. In the normal situation, what is the approximate depth of the pool of warm water?
The approximate depth of the pool of warm water is about six thousand feet.
2. In El Niño, what happens usually to dry places? To wet places?
During El Nino, the dry places become wet and the wet places become dry. The
anomalous pool of unusually warm water in the South American coast causes the reversal
of the trade winds. They start blowing from West to East as opposed to their normal
direction of East to West. This change in wind patterns disrupts the normal weather
conditions everywhere, making the dry places become wet and the wet places become
3. What is the role of the buoy system that span the Equatorial Pacific West to
West? What parameters are measured?
The role of the buoy system spanning the Equatorial pacific is to detect the symptoms of
the El nino. The parameters measured by the buoy system include the surface
temperatures, surface winds, operating temperatures as well as the oceanic currents in
some places. The normal measurements of all these parameters are believed to be
affected by El nino, and thus can be used to predict its approach.
4. What was the main design constraint in this system of buoys?
The main design constraint with these systems of buoys is that, they can be easily
submerged, and their satellite transmitter signal can only be received from a shorter
5. How does Peru rank in the world fishing industry?
In the world fish industry, Peru ranks as the number one fish exporter. However, the
Peruvian fish industry collapsed in 1982/1983 El Nino due to the high temperature
fluctuations in the ocean.
6. How much more rainfall can Peru get during an El Niño event?
During the ElNino, Peru is known to receive about thirty times more rainfall than its
normal rainfall. This happens especially in the Northern Peruvian region.
7. How predictable was El Niño in 1982 or before? Why?
The predictability of El Nino before 1982, was a bit challenging. This is because, it
depended solely on the satellite system which sees only the surface conditions.
8. Why did a volcano in Mexico complicated the predictions that year?
The volcano eruption in Mexico obscured the vision of the satellite. The eruption falsely
lowered the sea surface temperatures by several degrees. Due to this, the symptoms of the
growing El Nino were masked from the satellite leading to a complicated prediction.
9. Why, despite the wide use of satellites, buoys remain irreplaceable? (in other
words, what is a limitation of what satellites can do)
Despite the wide use of satellites, buoys remain irreplaceable. This is because; the vision
of the satellites is limited only to the surface conditions whereas the buoys can measure
both the surface and below the su...