MATH 102 National Louis University Statistical Research in Healthcare Essay

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Mathematics

MATH 102

National Louis University

MATH

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Last week you formulated a research question and procedures for studying this question. You also reviewed two articles with main ideas similar to your own research. You were then able to see what kind of data is used to answer similar research questions.

This week you will synthesize your findings into a 4-5 page analytical essay that further elaborates on and explores your research methodology. Modern statistical research relies on many of the concepts we studied in this course. Of course, the statistics used are often at a much higher level than what we have studied this term. In this course we studied statistics that only involved a few variables; however, in real research, statistics involves many more variables.

Imagine that you have become a high-ranking executive with your prospective employer. You have vast resources to expand, including a team of statisticians and “number-crunchers”. In this case, you would most likely be the last person conducting research. However, you do need to understand the results of your research and explore various methods for conducting research.

Your essay should have three parts, described below:

Part I: Discuss how your team would collect your data? Would you review the entire population or would you select a sample? If you choose to select a sample, what sampling technique would you use to form a representative sample? Would you divide the members of your sample into additional groups, such as a randomized control group?

Part II: Describe the methodology your team would use to analyze your data. What kinds of statistical techniques would you use that you have learned in this course? How would you present your statistics—in a table or with a graph? How would the statistical techniques you choose help you answer your research question?

Part III: Identify how your team would interpret the results of this study? What kinds of values would you be analyzing from your study in part 2? If you are using hypothesis testing, what confidence level would you like to use? If you’re using regression analysis, what value would be favorable? How will your team report on these results? Last week you formulated a research question and procedures for studying this question. You also reviewed two articles with main ideas similar to your own research. You were then able to see what kind of data is used to answer similar research questions.

This week you will synthesize your findings into a 3-4 page analytical essay that further elaborates on and explores your research methodology. Modern statistical research relies on many of the concepts we studied in this course. Of course, the statistics used is often at a much higher level than what we have studied this term. In this course we studied statistics that only involved a few variables; however, in real research, statistics involves many more variables.

Imagine that you have become a high-ranking executive with your prospective employer. You have vast resources to expand, including a team of statisticians and “number-crunchers”. In this case, you would most likely be the last person conducting research. However, you do need to understand the results of your research and explore various methods for conducting research.

Your essay should have three parts, described below:

Part I: Discuss how your team would collect your data? Would you review the entire population or would you select a sample? If you choose to select a sample, what sampling technique would you use to form a representative sample? Would you divide the members of your sample into additional groups, such as a randomized control group?

Part II: Describe the methodology your team would use to analyze your data. What kinds of statistical techniques would you use that you have learned in this course? How would you present your statistics—in a table or with a graph? How would the statistical techniques you choose help you answer your research question?

Part III: Identify how your team would interpret the results of this study? What kinds of values would you be analyzing from your study in part 2? If you are using hypothesis testing, what confidence level would you like to use? If you’re using regression analysis, what value would be favorable? How will your team report on these results?

Please see the example paper for an idea of the layout and what to include.

The question for the Research in Healthcare is: "What is the rate of the insured population in the United States?" You will find all of the information for the research paper in the uploaded doc, "What's Your Statistical Research Strategy WorkSheet". This will provide you with the 2 scholarly articles that will be used and the type of statistical techniques that can be used to analyze the data.

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Running head: EFFECT OF YOGA ON BP AND RESTING HR Effect of Yoga on Blood Pressure and Resting Heart Rate National Louis University 1 EFFECT OF YOGA ON BP AND RESTING HR 2 Effect of Yoga on Blood Pressure and Resting Heart Rate Studies since 1921 have shown the number one cause of death in the United States is heart disease, a condition that is largely preventable through a healthy diet and regular activity (Advisory Board, 2019). Why are over 600,000 Americans a year dying from a disease that can be avoided (Advisory Board, 2019)? Heart disease should be treated at a preventative level when early signs of potential escalation present themselves. Early indicators can be found in routine physician’s visits with blood pressure readings and sharing of activity levels, namely when blood pressure is measured above the normal range (over 119/79) and the individual is not exercising regularly (American Heart Association, 2017). We are seeking healthy alternative measures to reduce the risk of heart disease in individuals who do not exercise regularly (no more than once per week) and are proposing a study to examine the effect of yoga on normal to hypertension stage 1 individuals. Through regular ECG measurements and final statistical analysis via T-score hypothesis testing, we hope to support the assertion that yoga reduces systolic blood pressure and resting heart rate in these individuals. Data Collection In order to gain clear data on the effect of yoga on the health of individuals who do not engage in regular exercise, we will review a sample of volunteers that fit certain criteria. We first look to eliminate as many external variables as possible by limiting our sample to individuals age 18 to 50 who are non-smokers with no identifiable disorders related to stress, anxiety, or depression. We further specify that participants: have no pre-existing heart condition or take medication to treat a heart condition, have blood pressure readings in the normal to prehypertensive range (90/60 to 139/89) without the assistance of blood pressure regulating EFFECT OF YOGA ON BP AND RESTING HR 3 medication, a BMI of 18 to 29.9, are not diabetic or pregnant, and do not engage in regular exercise beyond once a week over the last three months. Participants can be male or female and will be grouped based on similar health profiles as detailed below: - Group 1: Elevated Blood Pressure/Normal BMI – Individuals with hypertension stage 1 or pre-hypertension (blood pressure reading of 120/79 to 139/89) and BMI of 18 to 24.9 - Group 2: Normal Blood Pressure/Elevated BMI – Individuals with healthy blood pressure (blood pressure reading of 90/60 to 119/79) and BMI of 25 to 29.9- Group 3: Elevated Blood Pressure/Elevated BMI - Group 4: Normal Blood Pressure/Normal BMI A test and control group will be formed for each of the above identified profiles in order to gain clearer insight into the effect of regular activity on affected individuals. Participants will be randomly assigned as a test or control participant using random number generator, adjusting only for health profiles. The test groups will complete a 12-week yoga course through an assigned instructor three times a week. Data will be collected for all participants using electrocardiography measurements of resting heart rate and blood pressure three times during the week prior to the beginning of the yoga course, each measurement at least two days apart from each other. During the yoga course, control groups will follow the same schedule for measurements, and test groups will be measured 20 minutes prior to each yoga class. Finally, the week following the last yoga class, all participants will be measured again using the same schedule as the first week. Methodology It is our opinion that those completing the yoga course will see an improvement in blood pressure and resting heart rate (Ha: Yoga reduces systolic blood pressure by at least 5 points and EFFECT OF YOGA ON BP AND RESTING HR 4 resting heart rate by at least 10 bpm in people who do not engage in regular exercise). As such, we will analyze the aggregated data using T-score hypothesis testing with a confidence level of 95%. Though correlation does not prove causation, we believe obtaining low p-values (as they relate to the t-score and sample size) will provide significant evidence to reject the null hypothesis, which is yoga reduces systolic blood pressure by less than 5 points and resting heart rate by less than 10 beats per minute. The data would be shared in table, clearly identifying test and control groups as well as the assigned health profiles and regular ECG readings. Interpretation Given a confidence level of 95% and calculating for p-values, we will analyze the data of each health profile’s test and control groups to assess for statistically significant improvement in both blood pressure and resting heart rate. If the data we obtain provides sufficiently low pvalues (based on the sample size and t-score), we will be conclude that yoga, when added to the routine of an individual who does not exercise regularly, provides heart healthy benefits and reduction of systolic blood pressure and resting heart rate. This assessment will need to be made for each health profile in order to make this claim for the entire study, though it is possible we will only see this impact some groups, or none. The final results will be displayed in a table (Figure 1) to aid the reader in visual interpretation of the test data and analysis. Conclusion The prevalence of heart disease related deaths in the US calls researchers to action to guide the public’s understanding of healthy ways to promote heart health. There is no shortage of fads and quick fixes on the market with the aim to make money off of those looking to regain control of their health. This study is squarely focused on a healthy alternative to pharmaceuticals and fad fixes for those at risk of developing advanced heart disease. Through voluntary EFFECT OF YOGA ON BP AND RESTING HR sampling and specified health profiles, we will collect ECG measurements over a 14-week period on participants who complete a 12-week yoga course. A control group will be measured with the same frequency for comparison, and the data will be analyzed using t-score hypothesis testing at a confidence level of 95%. Analysis will review p-values from like health profile test and control groups and present the final results in table format. It is the opinion of this research team that yoga will positively impact the blood pressure and resting heart rate of the test participants, suggesting it as an alternative to more aggressive measures in those who do not engage in regular exercise. 5 EFFECT OF YOGA ON BP AND RESTING HR References Advisory Board. (2019, January 16). How Americans die, in 5 charts. Retrieved June 11, 2019, from https://www.advisory.com/daily-briefing/2019/01/16/deaths American Cancer Society. (2016, February 5). Normal weight ranges: Body mass index (BMI). Retrieved June 12, 2019, from https://www.cancer.org/cancer/cancer-causes/dietphysical-activity/body-weight-and-cancer-risk/adult-bmi.html American Heart Association. (2017, November 30). Understanding Blood Pressure Readings. Retrieved June 12, 2019, from https://www.heart.org/en/health-topics/high-bloodpressure/understanding-blood-pressure-readings Blood Pressure UK. (2008). ECG. Retrieved from http://www.bloodpressureuk.org/BloodPressureandyou/Medicaltests/ECG I-Hua Chu, Yuh-Jen Lin, Wen-Lan Wu, Yu-Kai Chang, & I-Mei Lin. (2015). Effects of Yoga on Heart Rate Variability and Mood in Women: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Journal of Alternative & Complementary Medicine, 21(12), 789–795. https://doiorg.nl.idm.oclc.org/10.1089/acm.2015.0138 6 EFFECT OF YOGA ON BP AND RESTING HR 7 Tables Table 1 Changes in Heart Rate Variability in Both Groups Note: Reprinted from Effects of Yoga on Heart Rate Variability and Mood in Women: A Randomized Controlled Trial, by I-Hua Chu, Yuh-Jen Lin, Wen-Lan Wu, Yu-Kai Chang, & I-Mei Lin. Retrieved from https://doi-org.nl.idm.oclc.org/10.1089/acm.2015.0138 Copyright 2015 by The Journal of Alternative & Complementary Medicine. What’s Your (Statistical) Research Strategy? Part One: Formulating a Statistical Research Question Instructions: Please answer each of the following questions below. You can find example responses to these questions in the boxes to the right. Use these examples to help guide your research question. 1. What topic would you like to research in your prospective career field? Researching the impact of the uninsured population in the United States. Example: Researching the Effect of Aerobic Exercises on Heart Health 2. What would be the explanatory and dependent variables in your study? Explanatory Variable: The exercises used to determine the percentage of the uninsured population. Dependent Variables: Actual data used to determine the number of the uninsured population. 3. Use the first two parts to formulate a research question for your study. What is the rate of the insured population in the United States? Explanatory Variable: The types of exercises used Response Variable: Metrics established by echocardiography and quality of life Do specific types of aerobic exercises provide beneficial effects on heart health and the quality of life? 4. How would you conduct your study? What sampling techniques would you use? I would use any data presented in the articles and use stratified sampling. Conduct a research study where participants are at risk for heart disease or have reduced heart functioning. In this case, participants are self-selected, but must be screened to be eligible. 5. What statistical techniques could be used to analyze the data from this study?. Regression Hypothesis Testing/T-Test Part Two: Formulating a Statistical Research Question 6. What are your key words? These are the main ideas from your research question. Uninsured, Population, United States, Medically Uninsured Exercise, Heart, Aerobic, Quality of Life, Heart Disease, Beneficial 7. What are some synonyms for your key words? These are words that are related to or mean the same thing as your key words. Not insured, People, America Exercise: train, drill, exertion Aerobic: High-Impact Quality of Life: standard of living, well-being Heart Disease: Angina, Stroke, Cardiac Dysfunction, Ischemic Heart Disease Beneficial: advantageous, favorable 8. In which library database will I search? EBSCO Host, NLU Library US National Library of Medicine National Institutes of Health Example: Academic Search Complete 9. Use your keywords and synonyms to find two sources that will help you answer your research question. Record them here. Use the template below, or do your best to create APA style citations for the two sources. You’ll need to create a reference list for them next week. Source One: Scholarly Article Author: McWilliams, J.M. Title of Article: Health Consequences of Uninsurance among Adults in the United States: Recent Evidence and Implications Name of Journal: The Millbank Quarterly Publication Year:2009 Volume Number:87 Issue Number:2 Page Numbers:51 Example: Author: Dorheim et Al. Title of Article: Improvement of Cardiac Dysfunction with a Novel Training Circuit Method Combining Simultaneous AerobicResistance Exercises Journal: PLoS One Publication Year: 2018 Volume: 13 Issue: 3 Page Numbers: 8-9 Source Two: Scholarly Article Author: Ayanian, J. et. al Title of Article: Unmet Health Needs of Uninsured Adults in the United States Name of Journal: JAMA Network Publication Year: 2000 Volume Number: 284 Issue Number:16 Page Numbers: 9 Make sure you’ll be able to find these articles again. It’s a good idea to save them to your computer or copy their permalinks so you can access them later. From example: https://nl.idm.oclc.org/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=a9h &AN=127636917&site=ehost-live&scope=site Paste Permalink for Article 1: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2881446/ Paste Permalink for Article 2: https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jama/fullarticle/193207 10. Did the article present the statistics in a credible way? Was the evidence used qualitative or quantitative? If quantitative evidence was used, did you feel like the author(s) were transparent about their data practices—sampling techniques, methods used, and mode of presentation? If qualitative data was only used, do you think the author would have been more successful conducting a quantitative study? Write your response in at least 2-3 cohesive paragraphs, referring to specific examples from your sources. The articles chosen, present the statistics in a credible way and the evidence used were quantative evidence. The regression used in McWilliams article provided necessary information to present the case. What’s Your (Statistical) Research Strategy? Part One: Formulating a Statistical Research Question Instructions: Please answer each of the following questions below. You can find example responses to these questions in the boxes to the right. Use these examples to help guide your research question. 1. What topic would you like to research in your prospective career field? Researching the impact of the uninsured population in the United States. Example: Researching the Effect of Aerobic Exercises on Heart Health 2. What would be the explanatory and dependent variables in your study? Explanatory Variable: The exercises used to determine the percentage of the uninsured population. Dependent Variables: Actual data used to determine the number of the uninsured population. 3. Use the first two parts to formulate a research question for your study. What is the rate of the insured population in the United States? Explanatory Variable: The types of exercises used Response Variable: Metrics established by echocardiography and quality of life Do specific types of aerobic exercises provide beneficial effects on heart health and the quality of life? 4. How would you conduct your study? What sampling techniques would you use? I would use any data presented in the articles and use stratified sampling. Conduct a research study where participants are at risk for heart disease or have reduced heart functioning. In this case, participants are self-selected, but must be screened to be eligible. 5. What statistical techniques could be used to analyze the data from this study?. Regression Hypothesis Testing/T-Test Part Two: Formulating a Statistical Research Question 6. What are your key words? These are the main ideas from your research question. Uninsured, Population, United States, Medically Uninsured Exercise, Heart, Aerobic, Quality of Life, Heart Disease, Beneficial 7. What are some synonyms for your key words? These are words that are related to or mean the same thing as your key words. Not insured, People, America Exercise: train, drill, exertion Aerobic: High-Impact Quality of Life: standard of living, well-being Heart Disease: Angina, Stroke, Cardiac Dysfunction, Ischemic Heart Disease Beneficial: advantageous, favorable 8. In which library database will I search? EBSCO Host, NLU Library US National Library of Medicine National Institutes of Health Example: Academic Search Complete 9. Use your keywords and synonyms to find two sources that will help you answer your research question. Record them here. Use the template below, or do your best to create APA style citations for the two sources. You’ll need to create a reference list for them next week. Source One: Scholarly Article Author: McWilliams, J.M. Title of Article: Health Consequences of Uninsurance among Adults in the United States: Recent Evidence and Implications Name of Journal: The Millbank Quarterly Publication Year:2009 Volume Number:87 Issue Number:2 Page Numbers:51 Example: Author: Dorheim et Al. Title of Article: Improvement of Cardiac Dysfunction with a Novel Training Circuit Method Combining Simultaneous AerobicResistance Exercises Journal: PLoS One Publication Year: 2018 Volume: 13 Issue: 3 Page Numbers: 8-9 Source Two: Scholarly Article Author: Ayanian, J. et. al Title of Article: Unmet Health Needs of Uninsured Adults in the United States Name of Journal: JAMA Network Publication Year: 2000 Volume Number: 284 Issue Number:16 Page Numbers: 9 Make sure you’ll be able to find these articles again. It’s a good idea to save them to your computer or copy their permalinks so you can access them later. From example: https://nl.idm.oclc.org/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=a9h &AN=127636917&site=ehost-live&scope=site Paste Permalink for Article 1: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2881446/ Paste Permalink for Article 2: https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jama/fullarticle/193207 10. Did the article present the statistics in a credible way? Was the evidence used qualitative or quantitative? If quantitative evidence was used, did you feel like the author(s) were transparent about their data practices—sampling techniques, methods used, and mode of presentation? If qualitative data was only used, do you think the author would have been more successful conducting a quantitative study? Write your response in at least 2-3 cohesive paragraphs, referring to specific examples from your sources. The articles chosen, present the statistics in a credible way and the evidence used were quantative evidence. The regression used in McWilliams article provided necessary information to present the case.
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Running head: MATH 102 - STATISTICAL RESEARCH IN HEALTHCARE

MATH 102 - Statistical Research in Healthcare
Student’s Name
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Date

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MATH 102 - STATISTICAL RESEARCH IN HEALTHCARE

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What is the rate of the uninsured population in the United States?
Introduction
Lack of health insurance among adults in the United States is an issue that has been of
concern for a long time. The lack of health insurance among adults is associated with significant
health outcomes. Examples of such problems include barriers to preventive services, treatment of
chronic diseases, and forego necessary care for critical signs and symptoms (McWilliams, 2009).
The uninsured adults also delay seeking health assistance and are more likely to report poor health
status. Another health effect of lack of insurance is that uninsured adults receive fewer screening
services for chronic diseases, such as cancer, and face a higher risk of death when hospitalized.
Despite the critical health consequences associated with not being insured, the uninsured
population in the United States has increased in the last few years. The high cost of coverage
contributes to the increased rate of the uninsured population. As a team, we seek to determine the
rate of the uninsured population in the United States.
Part I: How the team would collect data.
To understand the rate of the uninsured population in the United States, the team...


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