Content analysis paper

Anonymous
timer Asked: Apr 17th, 2017
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Question Description

I need a research paper to be done on 23th of April. It a content analysis about a twitter's hashtag, 50 tweets or less from that hashtag. Then complet the paper analyzing the finding and completing the work for 18 pages in total, in ABA style, would you be able to do that? I have the literature review part done already.

The hashtag is #Muslimban, on Twitter, we need to analuze random sample of 50 tweets of the period of the first two weeks of launching the hashtag. and talk about the hashtag in general

The requirement:

Critical Essay Components:

Statement of the Problem, Theme, or Issue & Research Goals (1-Page).

First describe the problem or issue that is addressed by your study and make an introductory case for doing the study. What problem is addressed by your study? Why is your study important? Who will be interested in reading your study? What contributions will it make? This is a general overview of the issues orienting your study and a justification for the value of the study. [After writing your review/critique of past research literature, you will be able to add to/refine your problem statement and add more detail pointing to the need for your study. For example you can describe gaps in the literature or theorizing that will be filled by your study or needs of groups that have not been met with past research, the need for a new approach, etc.] You may revise this opening section several times because these first paragraphs are essential in establishing the need for and context of your study and motivating the reader to keep reading!

Conceptualizations & Critique/Evaluation of Past Literature (4-5 pages).

Prepare a literature critique and review in order to provide a strong rationale for the value of your study. Discuss how your study will fill gaps in existing literature, improve current theorizing, or improve the quality of scholarly knowledge about an issue or topic. Go beyond “reviewing” literature (providing lists of findings and describing findings) to evaluation of theoretical assumptions, commenting on consistency of theorizing with methods of analysis, comparison and contrast of research findings, etc. Increase your skill in synthesizing findings, organizing findings with similar findings or approaches, and compiling succinct claims about gaps in research or theoretical inconsistencies. Conclude this section by summarizing what is known from the selected literature, what challenges remain, key arguments and findings as well as debates in this particular area of research. Limit use of textbook material and internet websites. As a rough guide and depending upon your topic, you should include a review of at least ten outside sources.

Include your own modified or other authors’ conceptualizations (definitions) of key concepts, with citations, such as culture and intercultural communication and other key concepts or processes included explicitly or inferentially in your topic (i.e., adaptation, individualism, ideology, etc.). Incorporate course material or outside literature. For those of you working toward publication in scholarly journals, limit or avoid textbook citations.

Theoretical Perspective(s) (2-3 pages).

You may select one or a combination of theoretical perspectives (an orientation to theory and research that is based on ontological, epistemological, axiological and practical assumptions about humans and conduct, how knowledge is constituted, the role of context, goals of inquiry, and methodological orientations). For instance you may select a Social Psychological, Neopositivist, Interpretive, Sociohistorical, Critical, Post-colonial, Feminist perspective, etc. For example, you may offer and test additional axioms that apply to anxiety and uncertainty management in a setting not addressed previously, using “objective,” testable predictions; you may select an interpretive orientation to build understanding of conflict management processes used by organizational teams of volunteers in international non-governmental organizations using open-ended questionnaires or interviews. You may also choose to conduct a feminist rhetorical critique of the public positions taken by a religious organization or local community leaders with regard to a political issue in the U.S. or international development, etc.

In this section, briefly but clearly explain the principles and assumptions that are foundational to your version of the selected theoretical perspectives as it/they apply to your research study. This section will also contain additional literature critique and review.

Outline why your theoretical perspective(s) is/are appropriate to the goals of your study. Defend your standpoint and perspectives to building knowledge about your selected intercultural issue/problem. Outline assumptions you are making about culture and humans as communicators that emerge from your perspectives. If you haven’t included this in the previous section, justify your approach to culture and communication as consistent with your theoretical perspective. What is the role of context affecting culture and communication? For instance, what are your assumptions about the role of context, agency and individual’s intentions? To what extent does the context constrain and enable individuals’ freedom to act? How do contextual factors, including histories, structures, ideologies, institutions, social norms, etc. relate to communication and culture in your study? What epistemological orientation do you take to conducting the research study and methodological moves you’ll make? Are cultures best understood from a macro-structural level, and/or from focusing on individuals’ social psychological orientations, and/or from examining a micro view of situated discourse patterns, etc.?

Explain any theoretical frame and methodological approach that is applicable to your study. A theoretical frame as we are using the term in our seminar, is a subcategory of theoretical perspective, and points readers in the direction of methodologies. Examples of theoretical frames/approaches are ethnography of communication, critical discourse analysis, thematic analysis, critical rhetoric, phenomenology, and postcolonial critique. This section should also include an overview of any specific theory with which you are working.

Method (1-3 pages).

This section of the paper should be modeled after a comparable study in our course reading packet or from a publication you like. First briefly review your goals and objectives, or research questions, or hypotheses. These should follow logically from the literature review and be consistent with your conceptualization of intercultural communication as well as your theoretical perspective(s) and assumptions (e.g., it is not appropriate to define culture as a system of shared symbols, meanings and norms and then offer a hypothesis in which you predict from nationality, a group affiliation, to friendship communication).

For critical studies make sure you provide the reader with adequate contextualization of the communicative texts selected; where the texts are from, who is the author/producer, who is the audience, and provide a rationale for the particular days/dates of telecasts or types of texts selected. Analysis of the texts should follow the procedures appropriate for your perspective and study goals.

At this stage in the project the student will have established their research, theoretical grounding and methodologies across disciplines to meet the following standards

I. Cross-disciplinary Reasoning

I.A. Connections between disciplines - Independently creates wholes out of multiple parts (synthesizes) or draws conclusions by combining examples, facts, or theories from more than one field of study or perspective.

I.B. Evaluate information and sources critically – Chooses, evaluates, and interprets a variety of credible information sources appropriate to the scope of the multidisciplinary question to develop a comprehensive analysis or synthesis.

I.C. Analysis – Organizes and synthesizes evidence to reveal insightful patterns. Conclusions are logical and reflect student’s informed evaluations

I.D. Influence of Context and Assumptions - Thoroughly (systematically and methodically) analyzes own and others' assumptions and carefully evaluates the relevance of contexts when presenting a position

Analysis & Interpretations (7-9 pages)

What did you find? What can you conclude? Were your results consistent with your predictions/guesses, if you are using a traditional model? How can readers make sense of your findings? What relationships or co-occurring patterns of discourse do you see? (e.g., How did context affect norms that emerged? How was conflict constituted and managed regarding different topics?) What theoretical assumptions did you confirm/disconfirm?

What concepts and principles that we have discussed in class are helpful in making sense of your data/texts? For instance, were intersections between cultural locations apparent (showing that homeless men of color are constructed to be “invisible” by overworked law enforcement personnel and business owners in the downtown area). With regard to contextual forces, what historical events, institutional policies, and/or social norms emerged as salient? In normative studies, what variables may have affected your results or contributed to within-group differences and multivocality? Examine relationships across key concepts.

Limitations, Implications, and Conclusion of Study (2-3 pages)

Describe, for instance, what was left out of your study? Are there theoretical issues from other perspectives that might be useful to consider? Whose voices were not heard from? What interfered with validity or reliability? If you were going to pursue this study as a dissertation or long-term funded study, what needs to be changed? What recommendations do you have for future research in this area? What are implications for intercultural communication research? Who could benefit from knowing about your study? Who can apply the findings? How are your conclusions applicable to enhance conditions of social justice? Critical Essay Components:

Statement of the Problem, Theme, or Issue & Research Goals (1-Page).

First describe the problem or issue that is addressed by your study and make an introductory case for doing the study. What problem is addressed by your study? Why is your study important? Who will be interested in reading your study? What contributions will it make? This is a general overview of the issues orienting your study and a justification for the value of the study. [After writing your review/critique of past research literature, you will be able to add to/refine your problem statement and add more detail pointing to the need for your study. For example you can describe gaps in the literature or theorizing that will be filled by your study or needs of groups that have not been met with past research, the need for a new approach, etc.] You may revise this opening section several times because these first paragraphs are essential in establishing the need for and context of your study and motivating the reader to keep reading!

Conceptualizations & Critique/Evaluation of Past Literature (4-5 pages).

Prepare a literature critique and review in order to provide a strong rationale for the value of your study. Discuss how your study will fill gaps in existing literature, improve current theorizing, or improve the quality of scholarly knowledge about an issue or topic. Go beyond “reviewing” literature (providing lists of findings and describing findings) to evaluation of theoretical assumptions, commenting on consistency of theorizing with methods of analysis, comparison and contrast of research findings, etc. Increase your skill in synthesizing findings, organizing findings with similar findings or approaches, and compiling succinct claims about gaps in research or theoretical inconsistencies. Conclude this section by summarizing what is known from the selected literature, what challenges remain, key arguments and findings as well as debates in this particular area of research. Limit use of textbook material and internet websites. As a rough guide and depending upon your topic, you should include a review of at least ten outside sources.

Include your own modified or other authors’ conceptualizations (definitions) of key concepts, with citations, such as culture and intercultural communication and other key concepts or processes included explicitly or inferentially in your topic (i.e., adaptation, individualism, ideology, etc.). Incorporate course material or outside literature. For those of you working toward publication in scholarly journals, limit or avoid textbook citations.

Theoretical Perspective(s) (2-3 pages).

You may select one or a combination of theoretical perspectives (an orientation to theory and research that is based on ontological, epistemological, axiological and practical assumptions about humans and conduct, how knowledge is constituted, the role of context, goals of inquiry, and methodological orientations). For instance you may select a Social Psychological, Neopositivist, Interpretive, Sociohistorical, Critical, Post-colonial, Feminist perspective, etc. For example, you may offer and test additional axioms that apply to anxiety and uncertainty management in a setting not addressed previously, using “objective,” testable predictions; you may select an interpretive orientation to build understanding of conflict management processes used by organizational teams of volunteers in international non-governmental organizations using open-ended questionnaires or interviews. You may also choose to conduct a feminist rhetorical critique of the public positions taken by a religious organization or local community leaders with regard to a political issue in the U.S. or international development, etc.

In this section, briefly but clearly explain the principles and assumptions that are foundational to your version of the selected theoretical perspectives as it/they apply to your research study. This section will also contain additional literature critique and review.

Outline why your theoretical perspective(s) is/are appropriate to the goals of your study. Defend your standpoint and perspectives to building knowledge about your selected intercultural issue/problem. Outline assumptions you are making about culture and humans as communicators that emerge from your perspectives. If you haven’t included this in the previous section, justify your approach to culture and communication as consistent with your theoretical perspective. What is the role of context affecting culture and communication? For instance, what are your assumptions about the role of context, agency and individual’s intentions? To what extent does the context constrain and enable individuals’ freedom to act? How do contextual factors, including histories, structures, ideologies, institutions, social norms, etc. relate to communication and culture in your study? What epistemological orientation do you take to conducting the research study and methodological moves you’ll make? Are cultures best understood from a macro-structural level, and/or from focusing on individuals’ social psychological orientations, and/or from examining a micro view of situated discourse patterns, etc.?

Explain any theoretical frame and methodological approach that is applicable to your study. A theoretical frame as we are using the term in our seminar, is a subcategory of theoretical perspective, and points readers in the direction of methodologies. Examples of theoretical frames/approaches are ethnography of communication, critical discourse analysis, thematic analysis, critical rhetoric, phenomenology, and postcolonial critique. This section should also include an overview of any specific theory with which you are working.

Method (1-3 pages).

This section of the paper should be modeled after a comparable study in our course reading packet or from a publication you like. First briefly review your goals and objectives, or research questions, or hypotheses. These should follow logically from the literature review and be consistent with your conceptualization of intercultural communication as well as your theoretical perspective(s) and assumptions (e.g., it is not appropriate to define culture as a system of shared symbols, meanings and norms and then offer a hypothesis in which you predict from nationality, a group affiliation, to friendship communication).

For critical studies make sure you provide the reader with adequate contextualization of the communicative texts selected; where the texts are from, who is the author/producer, who is the audience, and provide a rationale for the particular days/dates of telecasts or types of texts selected. Analysis of the texts should follow the procedures appropriate for your perspective and study goals.

At this stage in the project the student will have established their research, theoretical grounding and methodologies across disciplines to meet the following standards

I. Cross-disciplinary Reasoning

I.A. Connections between disciplines - Independently creates wholes out of multiple parts (synthesizes) or draws conclusions by combining examples, facts, or theories from more than one field of study or perspective.

I.B. Evaluate information and sources critically – Chooses, evaluates, and interprets a variety of credible information sources appropriate to the scope of the multidisciplinary question to develop a comprehensive analysis or synthesis.

I.C. Analysis – Organizes and synthesizes evidence to reveal insightful patterns. Conclusions are logical and reflect student’s informed evaluations

I.D. Influence of Context and Assumptions - Thoroughly (systematically and methodically) analyzes own and others' assumptions and carefully evaluates the relevance of contexts when presenting a position

Analysis & Interpretations (7-9 pages)

What did you find? What can you conclude? Were your results consistent with your predictions/guesses, if you are using a traditional model? How can readers make sense of your findings? What relationships or co-occurring patterns of discourse do you see? (e.g., How did context affect norms that emerged? How was conflict constituted and managed regarding different topics?) What theoretical assumptions did you confirm/disconfirm?

What concepts and principles that we have discussed in class are helpful in making sense of your data/texts? For instance, were intersections between cultural locations apparent (showing that homeless men of color are constructed to be “invisible” by overworked law enforcement personnel and business owners in the downtown area). With regard to contextual forces, what historical events, institutional policies, and/or social norms emerged as salient? In normative studies, what variables may have affected your results or contributed to within-group differences and multivocality? Examine relationships across key concepts.

Limitations, Implications, and Conclusion of Study (2-3 pages)

Describe, for instance, what was left out of your study? Are there theoretical issues from other perspectives that might be useful to consider? Whose voices were not heard from? What interfered with validity or reliability? If you were going to pursue this study as a dissertation or long-term funded study, what needs to be changed? What recommendations do you have for future research in this area? What are implications for intercultural communication research? Who could benefit from knowing about your study? Who can apply the findings? How are your conclusions applicable to enhance conditions of social justice?

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