Running head: Dyslexic student
Comparative analysis of different teaching tools on speed and memorability among
Special education is an intricate process that demands the application of articulated
instructional techniques to achieve optimal learner outcomes. This research focuses on
students with dyslexia where educational techniques and tools are applied to enhance their
ability to read, learn, and interpret words. Though it does not affect their general intelligence,
this research is meant to examine different techniques to learning, their outcomes, and future
applications in improving contextual memorability among students.
The purpose of this study is to use mobile technologies and traditional educational
approaches to influence student learning especially ones suffering from dyslexia. Each
student will be evaluated in terms of speed of learning and memory of curriculum contents
depending on the applied technique: mobile apps or school books. Results from these
techniques will then be used to make special education strategies adaptable throughout the
Many countries including America are experiencing a rise in students with special
needs demanding the application of evidence-based practice to address the situation. As of
1975, Individuals with Disabilities Act has been used to ensure that children with special
needs including dyslexia receive eligible and free education as per the professional evaluation
(Cook & Odom, 2013). As explained by Bussing, Zima, & Perwien (2010), 91% of people
are aware of dyslexia but they do not know its implications on student learning abilities.
Some people believe that children learn in different ways though they are suffering
from dyslexia (Wang, Chen, Solheim, Schulz, & Ayesh, 2017; Chen, Wang, & Lin, 2015). In
fact, it is estimated that one out of ten people in America are dyslexics although it does not
interfere with personal intelligence. The reality is that almost two million students are
struggling with reading because of dyslexia impacting their fluency, accuracy, and
comprehension (Smith & Stahl, 2016; Junior Achievement, 2014; Américo, Carniel, &
Number of people who have Dyslixia
Therefore, dyslexia is presenting significant obstacles to students founding the basis
for advanced educational research on this topic. Studies from Cook & Cook (2013 ), Feng &
Sass (2013 ), and Wood, Moxley, Tighe, & Wagner (2017) advise teachers to identify and
work with specific areas of strengths while avoiding student weaknesses from an early age. In
other words, different strategies that leverage on oral, spatial awareness, and visual abilities
can be used to improve learning outcomes for dyslexic students (Florian, 2013; Kumar &
This research will use a quantitative methodology where variables related to
memorability and speed of learning will be used in subsequent analysis. Numerical variables
like a number of words remembered, the speed at which reading mastery was achieved, and
how they correlate to overall learning among participants will be used in the computational
analysis, as well as statistical models to further comprehend implications of dyslexia among
Since the sample space is small, statistical information from education institutions,
state agencies, and researchers will be used to complement findings derived from the three
students. Just as in the research by Atabaki, Keshtiaray, & Yarmohammadian (2015) and
Bacon (2005), these students will be subjected to different learning tools and teaching
strategies using phone apps and school books. The intention is to measure, quantify, and
analyze their memorability and levels of satisfaction as it correlates to their dyslexic
Dyslexia has taken center stage in educational institutions because of its challenging
nature to students in terms of reading, comprehension, fluency, and accuracy of learning.
Over the years, Collier, Keefe, & Hirrel (2015) have highlighted that difficulties from
dyslexia have created alarming statistics where only 67% of
students graduate with a regular diploma.
This is what has reinforced the need to conduct this research to further comprehend the
neurobiology of learning as it relates to dyslexia and other related disabilities.
Américo, B. L., Carniel, F., & Takahashi, A. R. (2012). Special Education Management and
Formalism in Inclusive Public Policies: The Case of Brazil. Public Administration
Atabaki, A. M., Keshtiaray, N., & Yarmohammadian, M. H. (2015). Scrutiny of Critical
Thinking Concept. International Education Studies, 93-101.
Bacon, D. R. (2005). The effect of group projects on content-related learning. Journal of
Management Education, 248-267.
Bussing, R., Zima, B. T., & Perwien, A. R. (2010). Children in special education programs:
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, use of services, and unmet needs. American
Journal of Education, 880-6.
Chen, C.-H., Wang, K.-C., & Lin, Y.-H. (2015). The comparison of solitary and collaborative
modes of game-based learning on students' science learning and motivation. Journal
of Educational Technology & Society, 237-248.
Collier, M., Keefe, E. B., & Hirrel, L. A. (2015). Preparing Special Education Teachers to
Collaborate With Families. School Community Journal, 117-137.
Cook, B. G., & Odom, S. L. (2013). Evidence-based practices and implementation science in
special education. Exceptional Children, 135-144.
Cook, B., & Cook, S. C. (2013 ). Unraveling Evidence-Based Practices in Special Education.
The Journal of Special Education, 71-82.
Feng, L., & Sass, T. (2013 ). What makes special-education teachers special? Teacher
training and achievement of students with disabilities. Economics of Education
Florian, L. (2013). Special education in the era of inclusion: The end of special education or a
new beginning? Journal of Special education, 27-36.
Junior Achievement. (2014). The Role of Common Core Standards in College and CareerReadiness Education. Junior Achievement USA, 1-10.
Kumar, S., & Phrommathed, P. (2005). Research methodology. Springer US, 43-50.
Smith, S. J., & Stahl, W. (2016). Determining the Accessibility of K-12 Digital Materials:
Tools for Educators. Journal of Special Education Leadership, 89-100.
Wang, R., Chen, L., Solheim, I., Schulz, T., & Ayesh, A. (2017). Conceptual Motivation
Modeling for Students with Dyslexia for Enhanced Assistive Learning. 2017 ACM
Workshop on Intelligent Interfaces for Ubiquitous and Smart Learning, 11-18.
Wood, S. G., Moxley, J. H., Tighe, E. L., & Wagner, R. K. (2017). Does Use of Text-toSpeech and Related Read-Aloud Tools Improve Reading Comprehension for Students
With Reading Disabilities? Journal of Learning Disabilities, 168-170.
How “social” should social media be?
The effects of companies’ social-media responsiveness on consumers’ attitudes and purchase intentions
Holly Ott, Sushma Kumble, & Michail Vafeiadis
Advisor: Dr. Shyam Sundar
College of Communications, The Pennsylvania State University (University Park)
Practical and Theoretical Implications
Social media increasingly allows consumers to interact with
businesses, although the effects of this novel technology in
the context of public relations has been under-examined.
Although public relations (PR) professionals have become
increasingly enthusiastic about engaging customers via online
communications campaigns and product launches:
• 2x3 (six-condition) between subjects online experiment
• Screenshots of Facebook conversations between a
fictitious company representative of a fictitious electronics
company and consumers as the stimulus.
• 131 participants, including 66 males (50.4%), with the
average age of 34.9 (SD = 12.08, N = 131).
• Recruited from Amazon Mechanical Turk
• Indicated implied consent (IRB #43586)
• Social media strategy is often weak.
• Companies struggle to maintain a strong social presence
that will positively impact consumers and publics
• Data suggest that the central route of the ELM is more
powerful than the peripheral route in this study.
• Message quality affects user attitudes toward product,
company, and purchase intentions.
• Internet-based advertising is on the rise
(Ha, 2003; Hwang, MacMillan, & Lee, 2003),
but there is limited research
on the effectiveness of
SNS as advertising tools.
Manipulation check for authority
Manipulation check for interactivity (perceived contingency)
Perceived dialogue (company responsiveness)
Need for cognition (control variable)
• Quality/quantity of information shared in SNS is important
for message strategy.
• Thorough, accurate, and timeliness of product information
can attract online consumers.
Interactivity Manipulation Check
Authority Manipulation Check
For consumers using social media, controlling for levels of
need for cognition, what is the relationship between levels of
message interactivity (high, medium, none), levels of authority
(CEO vs. entry-level employee) and levels of positive attitudes
toward the product, levels of positive attitudes toward the
brand, and degree of purchasing intentions?
as Product Trainee
as Brand Manager
The Elaboration Likelihood Model
• The ELM is a dual-route theoretical framework for
understanding how people form, process, and change
attitudes when confronted with persuasive messages.
• Interactivity → Central Route
• Authority → Peripheral Route
High= -.57*, Medium= - .45*
** p<.01, * p<.05
POSTER TEMPLATE BY:
The hypotheses predict that increased levels of interactivity
and authority will lead to greater levels of users’ product
likeability, brand likeability, and purchase intentions.
Hypotheses also predict that perceived informativeness and
perceived dialogue will mediate these outcomes.
Summary of Means and Standard Deviations
for Dependent and Mediating Variables
• Perceived informativeness can affect attitudes and
purchase intentions. Thus, there is a need to incorporate
interactive features that facilitate two-way communication
Mean Perceived Contingency
F(2,128) = 61.34, p = <.001.
131)= 23.35, p < .01.
• Key role of perceived informativeness in online advertising
can motivate people to process information more centrally.
Summary of Results
• The path analysis found that there was a
positive indirect path from interactivity to the
three DVs (attitude toward product, brand and
purchase intentions) via perceived
• There was a significant direct negative
relationship between message interactivity and
• Serial mediation analysis indicated that there
was a significant indirect path from interactivity
(high and medium) via perceived
dialogue/company responsiveness, and
perceived informativeness on product likeability,
brand likeability and purchase intentions.
• Higher number of responses from a company
representative leads to higher perceptions of
informativeness and ultimately to the formation of positive
• Companies should establish a suited promotion strategy
for social media that includes rich information, frequent
updates, and timely product information release.
• Without the appropriate balance, too much interactivity
may actually be detrimental to the company’s goal if not
• A future study could explore the effects of interactivity and
authority through user-to-user interaction (human/human
• Future research might explore additional social
• Additional investigations should
measure consumers’ motivation
factors (e.g., product involvement).
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