Cause and effect essay

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Organizing an Essay Cause and Effect Often student writers are taught short-term solutions to the problem of organizing an essay. The most common short-term essay is the "five-paragraph essay" format. The five-paragraph essay uses the following organization: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Introduction--Background and thesis First Body Paragraph--The first reason why the thesis is true Second Body Paragraph--The second reason why the thesis is true Third Body Paragraph--The third reason why the thesis is true Conclusion--Recap of essay It is important to understand that the five-paragraph essay is not necessarily bad. However, most student writers are led to believe or falsely believe that all essays must follow the five-paragraph essay format. Just a little thought makes clear that format is very limiting and limited and does not provide an adequate organization for many types of writing assignments. That is why I have crossed-out the description of the five-paragraph essay, so that you won't make the mistake of thinking that it is the best way to organize your essays. Instead, student writers should see that the form of an essay (its organization) needs to match the purpose of the essay. To begin with, we should look at one of the most common tasks student writers are asked to perform and the one of the organizational strategies effective for this task. Explaining Cause and Effect Often writers are asked to explain how certain conditions or events are related to the occurrence of other conditions or events. When a writer argues that "one thing leads to another," he or she is making a cause-and-effect argument. For example, in an Economics class, students might be asked to explain the impact of increasing oil prices on the nation’s economy. Inherent in the question is the assumption that increasing oil prices is a cause, which produces specific effects in the rest of the economy. So, higher oil prices produce higher gasoline prices raising the cost of shipping goods. Higher oil prices produce higher jet fuel costs raising the cost of travel, and so on. "Higher oil prices" is the cause, and increased shipping costs and travel expenses are among the effects. Writing tasks involving cause and effect analysis usually take one of two forms: explaining how a known cause produces specific effects; explaining how specific effects are produced by a previously unknown cause (which the writer has discovered). The second type of analysis is commonly referred to as root-cause analysis. The first type of analysis is what the technology and privacy topic requires. To argue that certain conditions will lead to other conditions (that the loss of privacy will lead to something else), first the writer needs to define clearly what those conditions are, and then the writer needs to make clear how those conditions lead to other conditions. Finally, the writer needs to explain what this cause-and-effect relationship means. This type of essay then has five parts (not paragraphs!), with each part corresponding to a specific task the writer needs to perform, and each part consisting of one or more paragraphs. Essay Part Scope Purpose (not all necessary for every essay) Introduction General • • • Background for the topic Setting out the issues Focusing the argument—the purpose of the essay Description of the "Cause" Begins general; becomes increasingly specific • • • What the specific conditions are Specific illustrations of these conditions How these specific illustrations are representative of (can stand in for) other situations In this first part of the analysis, the writer needs to provide enough detail for the reader so the reader can understand the present situation. In addition, the writer needs to focus the description of the situation in such a way as to prepare for the "effect" that the writer is arguing for. For example, if the writer wants to argue that the loss of privacy has led to (or will lead to) a loss of individual freedom, then the description of how technology affects our privacy should focus on technologies that affect an individual’s freedom to act. Description of the "Effect" Begins general; becomes increasingly specific • • • • What the specific effect is (or effects are) How we get from the specific conditions to the specific effects Specific illustrations of these effects How these specific illustrations are representative of (can stand in for) others In this second part of the analysis, the writer needs to walk the reader through the logical steps the writer has used to move from cause to effect. For example, if the writer argues that loss of privacy leads to loss of individual freedom, the writer needs to explain carefully how privacy and freedom are linked. So perhaps the writer might claim that privacy allows an individual to be free from the observation of others. With our privacy becoming increasingly limited by surveillance, we are no longer free from the observation of others. If we believe that we are always being watched, we will probably change our behavior and be less willing to take chances or act independently. If we feel we cannot act independently then we are no longer free. Explanation of the meaning of the causeand-effect relationship More General Conclusion General • • Why this analysis is important How we might act upon the ideas the writer has presented In this third part of the analysis, the writer argues for the importance of the argument’s findings, often by putting in perspective the short-term or long-term consequences of the "effect." In addition, in this part the writer usually makes some sort of recommendation (what we should do). So if the writer is arguing that loss of privacy leads to loss of freedom, in this part the writer might speculate one what might happen if this trend towards further loss of privacy continues. In addition, the writer might describe some of the specific actions we can take to safeguard our existing privacy, or how legislation might provide such safeguards. • • • Summing up How our understanding of the larger issue might be changed by the writer's analysis Appeal to the reader—how this situation affects us • • Cause and Effect Essay What is a cause and effect essay? Cause and effect essays are concerned with why things happen (causes) and what happens as a result (effects). Cause and effect is a common method of organizing and discussing ideas. Follow these steps when writing a cause and effect essay 1. Distinguish between cause and effect. To determine causes, ask, "Why did this happen?" To identify effects, ask, "What happened because of this?" The following is an example of one cause producing one effect: Cause You are out of gas. Effect Your car won't start. Sometimes, many causes contribute to a single effect or many effects may result from a single cause. (Your instructor will specify which cause/effect method to use.) The following are examples: Causes liked business in high school salaries in the field are high have an aunt who is an accountant am good with numbers Effect choose to major in accounting Cause reduce work hours Effects less income employer is irritated more time to study more time for family and friends However, most situations are more complicated. The following is an example of a chain reaction: Thinking about friend…forgot to buy gas…car wouldn't start…missed math exam…failed math course. 2. Develop your thesis statement. State clearly whether you are discussing causes, effects, or both. Introduce your main idea, using the terms "cause" and/or "effect." 3. Find and organize supporting details. Back up your thesis with relevant and sufficient details that are organized. You can organize details in the following ways: o Chronological. Details are arranged in the order in which the events occurred. o Order of importance. Details are arranged from least to most important or vice versa. o Categorical. Details are arranged by dividing the topic into parts or categories. 4. Use appropriate transitions. To blend details smoothly in cause and effect essays, use the transitional words and phrases listed below. For causes because, due to, on cause is, another is, since, for, first, second For Effects consequently, as a result, thus, resulted in, one result is, another is, therefore When writing your essay, keep the following suggestions in mind: o Remember your purpose. Decide if your are writing to inform or persuade. o Focus on immediate and direct causes (or effects.) Limit yourself to causes that are close in time and related, as opposed to remote and indirect causes, which occur later and are related indirectly. o Strengthen your essay by using supporting evidence. Define terms, offer facts and statistics, or provide examples, anecdotes, or personal observations that support your ideas. o Qualify or limit your statements about cause and effect. Unless there is clear evidence that one event is related to another, qualify your statements with phrases such as "It appears that the cause was" or "It seems likely" or "The evidence may indicate" or "Available evidence suggests." To evaluate the effectiveness of a cause and effect essay, ask the following questions: What are the causes? What are the effects? Which should be emphasized? Are there single or multiple causes? Single or multiple effects? Is a chain reaction involved? Choosing the essay topic for cause and effect essay type is not difficult, here are some sample essay topics: • Effects of Pollution • The Changes in the Ocean • The Civil Rights Movement and the Effects • ... Please, make sure you choose the essay topic that is really important for you. Choosing the correct essay topic makes your cause and effect essay more interesting and successful. • • • USEFUL LINKS o 5-paragraph Essay o Admission Essay o Argumentative Essay o Cause and Effect Essay o Classification Essay • o Comparison Essay o Critical Essay o Deductive Essay o Definition Essay o Exploratory Essay o Expository Essay o Informal Essay • o Literature Essay o Narrative Essay o Personal Essay o Persuasive Essay o Research Essay o Response Essay o Scholarship Essay © 2004-2015 ESSAYINFO.COM - ESSAY WRITING GUIDES AND TIPS. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. PRIVACY POLICY LINKS How Do I Write a Cause-Effect Essay? Your mission, should you choose to accept it (and since your composition grade hangs in the balance, the ARC’s advice is to accept it enthusiastically), is to write a cause-effect essay. You’ll need a thesis, of course, but before you can develop one, you’ll need to establish a few cause-effect parameters. 1. What effect or effects will you be analyzing in the essay? 2. What causal chain leads to the effect? 3. What primary cause (also known as the main cause, or necessary cause, or first cause) is the basis for the causal chain, and thus, the basis for the effect? (It’s imperative to establish a causal chain, but it’s not enough. There can be more than one chain; there can be more than one effect; but there should only be one primary cause.) 4. What relationship will you be trying to establish between cause and effect (your topic), and why (your thesis)? Causes First, of course, there is the primary cause. This is the necessary cause without which the effect could not occur; it’s the first link in any causal chains that follows. Then there are the sufficient causes, which by themselves might produce the effect you’ve chosen to discuss in your paper, yet still find their root farther back along the chain in the primary cause. Example: Say that your topic is the causes for the effect of roommate feuds. • Contributing causes might be sloppiness, bad music, and staying up all night. • Trace that back a bit further in the chain and you may find a sufficient cause like the differences between two roommates (one’s sloppy, one’s neat; one likes Mozart, the other likes Snoop Dogg, one’s a morning person, the other’s a night owl). • Many people stop here, and sometimes this is as far as you can go. But often a sufficient cause isn’t the primary cause. Isn’t it possible, in other words, for two people who are substantially different to co-exist? If you don’t think so, your sufficient cause may in fact be your primary cause (and you may have identified the point of your cause-effect analysis: People who are substantially different should not be expected to co-exist). If, on the other hand, you’re not such a pessimist and you believe that people who are substantially different can in fact co-exist, you’ll want to trace the cause of roommate enmity back a bit further than how different the two people are— perhaps to their unwillingness to cooperate, to compromise, to adjust (and again, you’ll have discovered not only a primary cause but also the point of your essay: People who are substantially different can co-exist, as long as they are willing to work at it). Effects Not every cause-effect paper is about causes. Some may in fact center on the effects of a single cause. Example: Consider the topic of acid rain: there may be several effects worth discussing, all leading to the point of the essay: that acid rain is causing enough damaging effects in our world that it’s worth taking the steps necessary to eliminate the problem. Eliminating that problem, of course, would be another paper—one that examines the causes of acid rain (thus making acid rain the effect of the paper). In the case of acid rain as cause, you might still want to briefly review what makes acid rain—in other words, you’d be acknowledging that acid rain doesn’t exist in a vacuum. Acid rain thus temporarily becomes the effect caused by all sorts of environmental hazards, foremost among them air pollution. Your conclusion, then, could move back to that original cause, our insensitivity to our own environment, which is the primary cause in the chain leading to acid rain, and point to that cause as the culprit that needs to be addressed if we’re to see an end not only to acid rain but to the environmental effects you’ve discussed in your essay. Things to Watch for How do you know when you’ve gone far enough? Let’s go back to the acid rain example. Suppose that we take as the primary cause industrialization in the second half of the 20th century. Already we’re probably at the outskirts of what is feasible for an English 105 composition. And is this the primary cause, or does human greed fit into the picture somewhere even farther back along the causal chain? Sometimes too much of a good thing is just that: Don’t lose control of an essay by trying to cover something too broad. Focus your analysis. Narrow your topic. Talk to the ARC, or best of all, talk to your professor. A few other traps to avoid: Don’t end up writing a process paper (getting caught up in the causal chain for its own sake—what’s the significance of your argument?). Don’t end up writing a comparisoncontrast or classification-division paper (easy to do with something like the first example of the feuding roommates). Make sure you’ve got all those questions listed at the beginning of this handout covered, and you should be pretty safe. Finally, watch out for that famous missing link in the causal chain. A causal chain without one of its links is like evolution without those innovative amphibians: how would we ever have made it out of the water without them? Structuring the Cause Essay II. Introduction • Provide thesis, basis for causal chain, and identify effect or effects; the key question is, What caused this? II. Body • Discuss various links in the causal chain, either tracing it backwards from effect to first cause, or beginning with the first cause. • Use transitions to ANALYZE the process rather than simply providing what amounts to a glorified play-by play narration (also know as process) • Present the causes chronologically and without missing links. III. Conclusion • Return to thesis, then speculate on possible first causes to right a bad effect or possible other causes that might have destroyed or otherwise altered the good effect. Structuring the Effects Essay I. Introduction • Provide thesis and basis for effects, describe primary cause; may use more than one paragraph. The key question is, What effects result from this cause? II. Body • Discuss each effect, tracing its path back to the causal chain and the root cause. III. Conclusion • Return to thesis; speculate on possible first cause to right each bad effect CAUSE AND EFFECT ESSAY 1. Write a 650-word essay explaining one of the following topics: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Too much sunshine causes skin cancer. Stress is responsible for many illnesses. Social media destroys relationships. Cell phone use has taken over teenagers' lives. Online shopping causes people to spend more money. Remember that you are to use at least two outside sources that you will document within the text of your paper. This is not an opinion paper so do not use personal pronouns. Click the "Essay #4: Cause and Effect" assignment link above to submit the document. Read the posted documents for assistance.. ...
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Robert__F
School: Carnegie Mellon University

JWplease find attached

Running head: ONLINE SHOPPING CAUSES CONSUMERS TO SPEND MORE

Online Shopping Causes People to Spend More
Name:
Date:
Institutional Affiliation:

1

ONLINE SHOPPING CAUSES CONSUMERS TO SPEND MORE

Introduction
E-commerce has been labeled as the future of retail (Lee & Lin, 2005). Currently, most
consumers are opting for online shopping as opposed to traditional shopping. This is due to some
reasons such as convenience and the perception that commodities bought online are actually
cheaper (Lee & Lin, 2005). In essence, online shopping has been providing better solutions to
shopping hence making consumers spend more as will be looked into in the following section.
Discussion – Effect
According to consumers, online shopping is more convenient as one is able to shop at the
comfort of his or her home (Lee & Lin, 2005). More so, in some cases a consumer is delivered
the goods and hence will likely spend more money. In addition, consumers may be busy with
other tasks such as job requirements and hence may lack time to visit the stores and make a
purchase. Due to this factor, consumers will buy nearly all products they need online as that does
not require their physical input (Lee & Lin, 2005). Essentially, the convenience of online buying
has been making consumers spend more money.
Causes
Online shopping has been making consumers spend more due to technological
applications (Wu, 2003). For instance, when shopping online one is reminded of the things he or
she may have forgotten (Wu, 2003). In this regard, consumers will tend to add some more
products to their carts which will literary never be full. In addition, there are numerous products
that are normally recommended to the consumers where that is normally not the case when

2

ONLINE SHOPPING CAUSES CONSUMERS TO SPEND MORE

shopping in the stores. When these commodities are recommended, it is likely for a consumer to
purchase those products especially when the description is fully given (Wu, 2003).
Products sold online have more description which also influences consumers’ buying
decisions (Wu, 2003). In most cases, consumers...

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Anonymous
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