Research Methods Literature Review, psychology homework help

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Question Description

I have included my week one paper that has my topic on it.

Ashford 4: - Week 3 - Assignment

Prior to beginning work on this assignment, review the qualitative and quantitative research designs encountered so far in this course.

For your literature review, you will select one design from each of the following categories.



Quantitative experimental


Mixed methods


Survey research

Pretest-posttest control group
Posttest-only control group
Solomon four-group

Grounded theory
Participatory action research (PAR)


Visit the Research Methods research guide in the Ashford University Library and search the databases for a minimum of one peer-reviewed journal article published within the last 10 years about each of the research designs you selected. The articles must not be research studies using the designs. Instead, they must be about how to conduct a study using the design. Examples of acceptable articles for this assignment are listed at the Suggested Articles tab in the Research Methods research guide.

In your paper, briefly outline the topic you selected for your Final Research Proposal in Week One and apply the scientific method by suggesting both a specific research question and a hypothesis for the topic. Evaluate your chosen peer-reviewed articles summarizing each and explaining how the research design described could be useful for designing original research on your topic. Compare and contrast the paradigms or worldviews inherent in the methodology associated with each research design. Apply professional standards and situate yourself as a researcher by identifying which of these approaches best fits with your worldview.

The Research Methods Literature Review

  • Must be four to six double-spaced pages in length (not including title and reference pages) and formatted according to APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center.
  • Must include a separate title page with the following:
    • Title of paper
    • Student’s name
    • Course name and number
    • Instructor’s name
    • Date submitted
  • Must use at least four peer-reviewed sources published within the last 10 years.
  • Must document all sources in APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center.
  • Must include a separate reference page that is formatted according to APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center.

Unformatted Attachment Preview

RUNNINGHEAD: NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL Is Attention Deficit Disorder a Neuropsychological Problem? Brandi Gregory Miller PSY635: Research Design and Methods Pamela Murphy April 17, 2017 1 NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL 2 Article: Neuropsychological correlates of childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: Explainable by comorbid disruptive behavior or reading problems? By Joel, Hinshaw, Estol, & Treuting. This study is an experimental one and uses the quantitative method which emphasizes on objective measurement as well as the mathematical, statistical, or numerical analysis of collected data. Research question: whether neuropsychological processing deficits associated with child attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are accounted for by co-occurring disorders (ODD, CD, OR RD), especially in clinical samples. Summary According to the author, they conducted this study because childhood ADHD is a key reason why individuals get referred to mental health services as well a high antisocial behavior risk as well as other unfavorable outcomes associated with the problem. They looked at ADHD as well as comorbid oppositional conduct, defiant and reading disorders. The often occurrence of comorbid antisocial a well a reading problem increases challenges with regard to neuropsychological specificity findings to ADHD on itself despite the fact that possible neuropsychological foundations are being accepted. The researchers used both secondary and primary data. Boys with ADHD showed hypothesized shortages of effortful neuropsychological tasks irrespective of dimensional or categorical comorbid antisocial behavioral issues control. A similar outcome was evident with controlled reading problems. However, boys with both reading disorder and ADHD showed particular damage on linguistic results. The study concluded that subtle neuropsychological deficit happens to a hallmark of clinical samples for kids with ADHD and they are not a comorbid problems artifact in RD or antisocial behavior. NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL 3 Introduction The researchers have in their introduction stated the significance of the topic and why is worth researching. The have used plenty of evidence from past research to justify the need to research the topic and explain other things of significance to be encountered in the current research. This increases the validity of the study (Brink, l993). In addition, they cite the strengths and weaknesses of past studies, which is one of the reasons they are conducting this study, which cites both clinical sample and population-based samples to address the matter. Apart from ADHD, they have introduced other problems that are related to it and explain the significance of using them in comparison with ADHD, for instance, Reading problem, antisocial behavior, which are simultaneously tested with ADHD in the study. Method The research used the quantitative approach in collection and analysis of data. Data were gathered from previously researched programs ranging between seven to three years earlier. This weakens the credibility of the study in the sense that a lot of things might have changed since the earlier studies were conducted (Brink, l993). Again, the data from earlier studies could have been collected for a different study that does not address that the current study is looking for. For instance, the 1991 and 1993 data did not examine both antisocial and reading measures (Joel, Hinshaw, Estol, & Treuting, 1998). Again, the researcher's telephone interviews to conduct the research. Though less costly and less time consuming, it must have been difficult get respondents to elaborate their responses resulting impartially completed interviews. Again bias could have arisen because of respondent’s characteristics or responses. Respondents can make things worse or better. They can as well decide to embrace a researcher through responding just NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL 4 like he/she wants or expects. The fear to give negative responses or unwillingness to share important information is not uncommon in interviews (Brink, l993). The respondents were accompanied by the parents during the interviews and it is known that social contexts interfere with information provided. For instance, they could offer different information while alone than while with their mothers. The sample size comprised of 42 participants aged between 6 and 12 (Joel, Hinshaw, Estol, & Treuting, 1998). The sample I too small to represent the number of children in public schools and those aged 6-12 in total. Again, sample size excludes girls hence not representative. Data Analysis The research used CBCL to have parents rate their children. The CBCL is commonly used for the purpose hence tried and tested. Some data a missing and the researchers applied regression model to handle missing data. The model is important and widely used, however, it uses mean to determine data while it is important to look to the dependent variable's extremes at times. The study also used ANOVA which increases statistical power. It has an advantage since cohort did not differ. Results The researchers presented their results in a very clear way using tables for easier understanding. They have a well explained the results and the tables well such that the reader can easily understand them. NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL 5 Conclusion According to the researchers, the study was the first one of its kind meaning that they tried their level best to come up with their findings. They also did a good job in use of evidence to support their argument and show why they were taking the steps they did. Plenty of commonly used statistical approaches were used to analyze data adding validity to the information. On the other hand, data collection containing bias regarding a mall sample size, which in addition, comprised of one gender. The use of data from other past studies also limited the validity of the study. The interview approach is known a context where limited information is acquired. The telephone interview approaches, as well as the social context, could have affected it further. It can be concluded that the researchers did not address the threats of validity well and the information on the study is bias. NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL 6 References Brink, H. (l993). VALIDITY AND RELIABILITY IN. 37- 41. Joel, N. T., Hinshaw, S. P., Estol, C. T., & Treuting, J. J. (1998). Neuropsychological correlates of childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: Explainable by comorbid disruptive behavior or reading problems? Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 468-480. RUNNINGHEAD: PROBLEM 1 Is Attention Deficit Disorder a Neuropsychological Problem? Brandi Gregory Miller PSY635: Research Design and Methods Instructor: Pamela Murphy April 10,2017 PROBMEM 2 Is Attention Deficit Disorder a Neuropsychological Problem? In the article, I reviewed addressing the issues; it discusses how ADHD relates with neuropsychologically heterogeneous. There have been several studies done on this topic, that has shown deficiencies in aspects of executive function, that includes effortful attention, working memory, inhibitory control, planning or set shifting and delay aversion. These symptoms of this disorder are chronic in nature and associated with impairment in multiple areas of functioning. These symptoms can occur in academic learning, psychological, social and occupational functioning. “Comparison of Neuropsychological Performances and Behavioral Patterns of Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Severe Mood Dysregulation,” The article provides different results discussing the topic. Children that have ADHD suffer from emotional problems that can be seen early on in life. Studies have shown that different diagnosis of early-onset mania, serve ADHD and conduct disorder. The various methods used in this study were from the community and clinical longitude. The comparison of Severe mood dysregulation(SMD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD-C) combined because of the similar features. The study included 91 children, and adolescents 67 have ADHD -C, and 24 with SMD between the age of 7-18. Children that had impulsivity, hyperactivity, outburst, and of the task, were chosen for the study (Ran, P. -., & KA[+ or -]lA[+ or -]c, B. G. (2015).Parents received information about the study. There were informed consents from all the children and families that were a part of the survey. There was the individual test conducted in this review that applied to the neuropsychological. The Wisconsin card sorting test was the test used. This test is given to evaluate the frontal lobe functions, strategic planning, organized searching, environmental feedback, also detecting behavior toward PROBMEM 3 achieving a goal, were a few skills that they would be looking over. A diagnosis of SMD requires three symptoms that overlap ADHD and the criteria B systems for mania. The study is investigating the similarities and differences in neuropsychological test performance, behavioral patterns and the demographic features of children. Severe mood dysregulation is also chronic outburst with a negatively feeling of anger or sadness during the eruption (ran, P. -., & KA[+ or ]lA[+ or -]c, B. G. (2015).Results concluded that children that suffered from SMD had more severe impairments in the behavioral side even though their neuropsychological was not reported as little as of children with ADHD-C who suffer more from attention issues. The test may not have evaluated the neuropsychological functions of the children tested in an in-depth way. . PROBMEM Reference ran, P. -., & KA[+ or -]lA[+ or -]c, B. G. (2015). Comparison of neuropsychological performances and behavioral patterns of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and severe mood dysregulation. European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, (1), 21. doi:10.1007/s00787-014-0529-8 4 ...
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School: University of Maryland



Title of paper
Student’s name
Course name and number
Instructor’s name
Date submitted


Design Research Techniques
Article: Do higher dispositions for empathy predispose males towards careers in nursing? A
descriptive correlational design by Barbara Oakley, Reuben Ternes, and Dana Driscll.The study
is a correlational one, and it uses quantitative methods that emphasize on object measurement
and relies on data that is collected mathematically. Research question: Whether males have a
higher disposition for nursing careers.
According to the author, the nursing career has for long been associated with caring for other
people. There is the ability in individuals to understand the experiences as well as the concerns
and perspectives of patients. Furthermore, empathy is often associated with women nurses more
than male nurses. Furthermore, it is noted that little research has been conducted on empathy
levels in nursing students as compared to those who study other causes. The main area of
concern is that of male students who choose the nursing career. Furthermore, it is claimed that
certain interventions may focus on teaching specific students the value of empathy. The author
introduces the Empathizing and Systemizing Questionnaires that have been used in researching
the levels of empathy in nursing students. It assesses the essential dimensions as well as
perspectives that people employ in interacting with the world. It has furthermore assessed that
women often show higher levels of empathy as compared to male students who do the similar
courses.The research uses quantitative methods as wel...

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