Kindly see attached the requested lab report :)
Cellular respiration is the aerobic process through which all the cells are able of transforming
the energy contained in sugar molecules into chemical energy, which is stored in the form of
ATP. Cellular respiration consists of three important steps: glycolysis (through which glucose is
decomposed into pyruvate), the Krebs cycle (through which the pyruvate is decomposed in
carbon dioxide) and the electron transport chain (through which the NADH and FADH2 are
recycled by the reduction of oxygen to water). The overall yield of the process is of 38
molecules of ATP for each molecule of glucose.
Fermentation is an alternative oxidation pathway. It is the anaerobic respiration process
through which the pyruvate formed in the glycolysis is transformed into either lactate (in lactic
fermentation) or ethanol (in alcoholic fermentation). This process is significantly less efficient
for energy production than the whole process of cellular respiration, but it is important since it
enables cells (e.g. muscle cells, lactobacillus, yeast…) to regenerate NAD+ and FAD+ and
continue the glycolysis process when the cell does not have enough oxygen available.
a) Glycolysis: Glucose (6 carbon molecule) is degraded into two molecules of pyruvate (3
carbon molecule) releasing 2 molecules of ATP. It takes place in the cytoplasm of all living cells.
b) Krebs cycle: Pyruvate is degraded into carbon dioxide releasing 2 molecules of ATP. It takes
place in the mitochondrion of aerobic cells.
c) Oxidative phosphorylation: The molecules of NADH and FADH2 created in the above
processes are restored by reducing oxygen to water in aerobic conditions. It takes place in the
mitochondrion. A total of 34 molecules of ATP are produced during this p...
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