Lab 5 Cellular Respiration

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  1. Define the following terms:
    1. Cellular respiration (aerobic respiration) (2 points)
    2. Fermentation (anaerobic respiration) (2 points)
  2. Summarize what occurs during the three steps of cellular respiration and indicate where each process takes place in the cell. (6 points)
    1. Glycolysis
    2. Krebs cycle
    3. Oxidative phosphorylation
  3. What is the primary energy molecule in cells? (5 points)
  4. List the equation in word and chemical form for each of the following processes: (6 points)
    1. Cellular respiration
    2. Alcoholic fermentation
    3. Lactic acid fermentation
  5. Does glycolysis require the presence of oxygen? Please explain your answer. (5 points)
  6. Review the results from the Rate of Cellular Respiration and Exercise procedure of the lab (Part I) to answer the following questions.

  7. Why was phenol red used as an indicator of cellular respiration? (5 points)
  8. How did exercise affect the rate of cellular respiration? (Hint: Review the time it took for the solution to change with and without exercise). (5 points)
  9. Review the results from the Cellular Respiration in Peas procedure of the lab (Part II) to answer the following questions.

  10. What color was the phenol red solution for each tube after 4 hours elapsed? (8 points)
    1. Control
    2. Dried peas
    3. Germinating peas
    4. Boiled peas
  11. Compare cellular respiration in the dried, germinating, and boiled peas. Explain why some peas in the experiment produced carbon dioxide (CO2) while other peas did not. (5 points)
  12. What is the advantage of cellular respiration? (5 points)
  13. Review the results from the Fermentation procedure of the lab (Part III) to answer the following questions.

    1. The balloons were sealed in this procedure. What is the name for the energy conversion process that occurs in the absence of oxygen? (2 points)
    2. What is the advantage of this process? (2 points)
    3. What type of gas is produced by yeast under anaerobic conditions? (2 points)
  14. What was the final volume of each balloon after 120 minutes? (6 points)
  15. Based on the results, what was the best source of energy (e.g., food) for the yeast? (3 points)
  16. Based on the results, what was the worst source of energy (e.g., food) for the yeast? (3 points)
  17. What factors (ingredients) negatively affected the growth of yeast? (3 points)
  18. What is the name for the type of fermentation that yeast use? (3 points)
  19. List two commercial uses of fermentation. (2 points)
  20. (Application) How might the information gained from this lab pertaining to cellular respiration and fermentation be useful to you in your everyday life or to a healthcare professional? (20 points)
  21. Key components of critical thinking and application include the following:

    1. Demonstrates application and comprehension of the scientific principles.
    2. Displays competence in applying scientific knowledge to your personal or professional life.
    3. Relevant content is supported by facts, data, and detailed examples.
    4. The application paragraph is organized and structured.

Tutor Answer

School: University of Maryland

Kindly see attached the requested lab report :)

Cellular respiration is the aerobic process through which all the cells are able of transforming
the energy contained in sugar molecules into chemical energy, which is stored in the form of
ATP. Cellular respiration consists of three important steps: glycolysis (through which glucose is
decomposed into pyruvate), the Krebs cycle (through which the pyruvate is decomposed in
carbon dioxide) and the electron transport chain (through which the NADH and FADH2 are
recycled by the reduction of oxygen to water). The overall yield of the process is of 38
molecules of ATP for each molecule of glucose.
Fermentation is an alternative oxidation pathway. It is the anaerobic respiration process
through which the pyruvate formed in the glycolysis is transformed into either lactate (in lactic
fermentation) or ethanol (in alcoholic fermentation). This process is significantly less efficient
for energy production than the whole process of cellular respiration, but it is important since it
enables cells (e.g. muscle cells, lactobacillus, yeast…) to regenerate NAD+ and FAD+ and
continue the glycolysis process when the cell does not have enough oxygen available.

a) Glycolysis: Glucose (6 carbon molecule) is degraded into two molecules of pyruvate (3
carbon molecule) releasing 2 molecules of ATP. It takes place in the cytoplasm of all living cells.
b) Krebs cycle: Pyruvate is degraded into carbon dioxide releasing 2 molecules of ATP. It takes
place in the mitochondrion of aerobic cells.
c) Oxidative phosphorylation: The molecules of NADH and FADH2 created in the above
processes are restored by reducing oxygen to water in aerobic conditions. It takes place in the
mitochondrion. A total of 34 molecules of ATP are produced during this p...

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Thanks, good work

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