Characteristic of leader by Plutarch

Apr 21st, 2017
KateS
Category:
History
Price: $40 USD

Question description

Of the many examples studied by Plutarch, which one did you find most helpful in understanding the challenges and tasks of leadership faced by leaders and the role character plays in it?

LAZARSKI UNIVERSITY ESSAY WRITING STANDARD A Guide for Students and Lecturers (Updated October 2014) TABLE OF CONTENTS 1. Introduction 2. Essay Format 2.1. Title Page 2.2. Font, Spacing, Margins, and Page Numbers 2.3. Essay Length 2.4. Referencing System 3. Essay Submission and Grading 3.1. Submission 3.2. Grading Appendix A – Sample Title Page Appendix B – Page Format 2 3 3 3 3 4 4 5 5 5 8 9 1: INTRODUCTION Essay writing assignments are an important element of course assessment. They not only allow lecturers and professors to check if students have understood the material in a given course, but they also allow them to assess the students’ critical thinking and analytical skills. More importantly, essays are a good way for students to learn about a given subject, and a good means for them to test their own investigative and diagnostic abilities. There is no one way that an essay should be structured, and no one way that an argument should be presented. Essays, like novels, can be as long and convoluted as a Dostoyevsky epic, or as short and straightforward as a Hemingway novella, and still retain the same literary or academic value. Nevertheless, in order to train strong writers and successful researchers, Lazarski University has developed this “Essay Writing Standard” to be used by all students in all courses in its English-language programs. The Standard is not intended to constrain the creativity of students, but rather to enforce basic habits such as proper citation, quotation, and paraphrasing, which are essential for good academic writing. Like in any trade, whether it be painting, carpentry, or architecture, once students master the basic rules and tools required to be good academics, they will be free to experiment and demonstrate their full creative abilities. But before they can do this, they must learn the fundamentals. 2: ESSAY FORMAT As stated earlier, there is no set style for writing an essay. However, in order to ease the grading process, as well as to help students focus on the content of their essay without worrying about its format, Lazarski University has adopted uniform rules concerning title pages, font and line spacing, page numbers, bibliography, and citation, which are to be used by all students for all essay-writing assignments. 2.1 Title Page All essays should have a precise title. For long essays, the title is to be typed in capital letters on the first page. Below this comes the student’s name, their student number, the course for which the essay is submitted, the name of the course coordinator, and the date of submission. There should be no page number on the title page. An example of a proper title page is given in Appendix A. For shorter essays (below 2500 words), students may forgo the title page and simply write the title above the text of their essay, along with their name, student number, and date of submission. However, it is up to the course coordinator to designate whether or not a proper title page is required. 2.2 Font, Spacing, Margins, and Page Numbers The essay text should be double spaced, and the font ought to be in Times New Roman, size 12. A larger size and different font style may be used for headings or section titles at the student’s discretion. 3 The margins of the essay should be 2.5 cm all around and all pages in the essay must have page numbers, except for the title page. Page numbers must be written at the bottom of each page and should be centred. The text of the essay should also be ‘justified’, and the first line of each new paragraph must begin with an indentation. However, the first line at the beginning of a new section and below a section heading should not be indented, see Appendix B. 2.3 Essay Length The length of the essay assignment is dependent on the amount of coursework in a given course, as well as the year in which the course is taught. The length is also determined by the course coordinator and shall be given in terms of word-count (e.g. 3000 words). Given that the Essay Standard requires that all papers be double-spaced, with 2.5 cm margins all around, one page should fit approximately 350 words. Bibliographies are not counted in the word/page count. 2.4 Referencing System Referencing is a standardized way of acknowledging the sources of information and ideas that are used while writing the essay. In that regard, students should do their best to cite all of their sources properly and avoid plagiarism. Proper referencing also helps readers to verify quotations, allows readers to follow up on what the authors have written, and lets them locate the cited works easily. There are many different citation styles, such as the American Psychological Association (APA) style, or the Chicago Manual of Style. For essays written at Lazarski University however, the preferred referencing system is the ‘Harvard Style’. Harvard style is often referred to as an “author-date”, or “parenthetical” system. It is widely accepted in academic publications, although there are several variations in the way that it is used. The Harvard style uses parentheses instead of footnotes as a way to cite sources. In their essays, students may also use footnotes but only as a way to clarify or expand on a given point and NOT as a way to reference. For good examples of how to use and apply the Harvard style, check the following links: http://www.lib.monash.edu.au/tutorials/citing/harvard.html http://libweb.anglia.ac.uk/referencing/harvard.htm http://www.library.uq.edu.au/training/citation/harvard_6.pdf Students may also refer to the BA Thesis Manual, as well as the MA/MSc Dissertation Manual, for more details. Moreover, they may refer to the Coventry University Harvard Reference Style Quick Guide. The Quick Guide and the Manuals are available on the student resource page (zasoby) under the codes “course1-Econ”, “course1-IR”, “course2-Econ” and “course2-IR”. 4 3: ESSAY SUBMISSION AND GRADING 3.1 Submission All essays are to be submitted before or on the day specified by the course coordinator. Late submissions may result in penalties and lower grades. Each student MUST submit a paper copy of their essay AND an electronic copy either on disc or via email. The electronic copy will be used by the course coordinator to verify that the work has not been plagiarized by using the antiplagiarism programs Turn-it-in-UK, as well as www.plagiat.pl. 3.2 Grading Essay grades will be given in percents ranging from 0 to 100, although students should not expect to be given perfect scores because, after all, it is impossible to define what exactly constitutes a “perfect” essay. To receive an “A” on their essays, students should aim to achieve 70 percent or above. Scores below 40 percent constitute a failing grade. The table below details the different grade scales in terms of percents, British-letter grades, and Polish grades. Percent 76-100%* 70-75% 63-69% 54-62% 49-53% 40-48% 0-39% British letter scale A+ A B C D E F Polish scale 5,5* 5,0 4,5 4,0 3,5 3,0 2 * a grade of A+ or in Polish “celujący”, is to be given only for truly exceptional work The following table specifies the characteristics of excellent, mediocre, and poor essays. BA level Class Mark range 90 – 100% Class I 80 – 89% 70 – 79% Guidelines In addition to that for 70 – 79% below, an outstanding answer that could hardly be bettered. High degree of understanding, critical/analytic skills and original research, where specified. Outstanding in all respects. In addition to that for 70 – 79% below, the answer will demonstrate an excellent level of understanding, presence of clear description, critical/analytical skills or research, as appropriate. Answer entirely relevant to the assignment set. Answer will demonstrate clear understanding of theories, concepts, issues and methodology, as appropriate. There will be evidence of wide-ranging reading and/or research, as appropriate, beyond the minimum recommended. Answers will be written/presented in a clear, well-structured way with clarity of expression. At level 3, evidence of independent, critical thought would normally be expected. 5 65 – 69% Class II : I 60 – 64% 55 – 59% Class II : II 50 – 54% Marginal fail 35 – 39% Answer demonstrating a very good understanding of the requirements of the assignment. Answer will demonstrate very good understanding of theories, concepts, issues and methodology, as appropriate. Answer will be mostly accurate/appropriate, with few errors. Little, if any, irrelevant material may be present. Reading beyond the recommended minimum will be present where appropriate. Well organised and clearly written/presented. A good understanding, with few errors. Some irrelevant material may be present. Well organised and clearly written/presented. Some reading/research beyond recommended in evidence. Answer demonstrating a good understanding of relevant theories, concepts, issues and methodology. Some reading/research beyond that recommended may be present. Some errors may be present and inclusion of irrelevant material. May not be particularly well-structured, and/or clearly presented. Answer demonstrating a reasonable understanding of theories, concepts, issues and methodology. Answer likely to show some errors of understanding. May be significant amount of irrelevant material. May not be well-structured and expression/presentation may be unclear at times. Some relevant material will be present. Understanding will be poor with little evidence of reading/research on the topic. Fundamental errors and misunderstanding likely to be present. Poor structure and poor expression/presentation. Much material may not be relevant to the assignment. Inadequate answer with little relevant material and poor understanding of theories, concepts, issues and methodology, as appropriate. Fundamental errors and misunderstandings will be present. Material may be largely irrelevant. Poorly structured and poorly expressed/presented. 30 – 34% Fail 20 – 29% 0 – 19% Clear failure to provide answer to the assignment. Little understanding and only a vague knowledge of the area. Serious and fundamental errors and lack of understanding. Virtually no evidence of relevant reading/research. Poorly structured and inadequately expressed/presented. Complete failure, virtually no understanding of requirements of the assignment. Material may be entirely irrelevant. Answer may be extremely short, and in note form only. Answer may be fundamentally wrong, or trivial. Not a serious attempt. MA/MSc level INDICATIVE GRADE A UK % MARKS 70% and above CHARACTERISTICS Very high standard of critical analysis using appropriate conceptual frameworks. Excellent understanding and exposition of relevant issues. Clearly structured and logically developed arguments. Good awareness of nuances and complexities. Substantial evidence of well-executed independent research. Excellent evaluation and synthesis of source material. Relevant data and examples, all properly referenced. Distinction 70% and above B C D 69-60% High standard of critical analysis using appropriate conceptual frameworks. Clear awareness and exposition of relevant issues. Clearly structured and logically developed arguments. Awareness of nuances and complexities. Evidence of independent research. Good evaluation and synthesis of source material. Relevant data and examples, all properly referenced. 59-50% Uses appropriate conceptual frameworks. Attempts analysis but includes some errors and/or omissions. Shows awareness of issues but no more than to be expected from attendance at classes. Arguments reasonably clear but underdeveloped. Insufficient evidence of independent research. Insufficient evaluation of source material. Some good use of relevant data and examples, but incompletely referenced. 49-40% Adequate understanding of appropriate conceptual frameworks. Answer too descriptive and/or any attempt at analysis is superficial, containing errors and/or omissions. Shows limited awareness of issues but also some confusion. Arguments not particularly clear. Limited evidence of independent research and reliance on a superficial repeat of class notes. Relatively superficial use of relevant data, sources and examples and poorly referenced. Pass Mark = 40% E 39-30% F 29% and below Weak understanding of appropriate conceptual frameworks. Weak analysis and several errors and omissions. Establishes a few relevant points but superficial and confused exposition of issues. No evidence of independent research and reliance on a superficial repeat of class notes. Relatively superficial use of relevant data, sources and examples and poorly referenced. Very weak or no understanding of appropriate conceptual frameworks. Very weak or no grasp of analysis and may errors and omissions. Very little or no understanding of the issues raised by the question. No appropriate references to data, sources, examples or even class notes. 7 APPENDIX A – SAMPLE TITLE PAGE The Role of Intellectuals in Contemporary Politics By: John F. Awesome Student Number: 100 500 Course: Advanced Political Theory Course Coordinator: Prof. Knows-A-Lot Date of Submission: February 31, 2052 8 APPENDIX B – PAGE FORMAT 9

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Characteristic of a leader by Plutarch: A reflection on Alexander the Great - outline
Thesis: Although Alexander the Great took his father’s throne at quite a tender edge, he
shown great leadership traits during his reign, which confirm that he is one of the greatest
leaders of all times.

Characteristics of leadership from Alexander the Great
❖ Having a compelling vision.
❖ Commitment to his vision and mission.
❖ Courageousness is another major trait of great leaders.
❖ Another trait is walking the talk, taking action rather than only giving directions.
❖ Apart from that, he encouraged and rewarded innovation among his followers.
❖ Another trait is building a strong and committed team.
❖ Caring and supporting his people and followers is another major trait.


Characteristic of a leader by Plutarch: A reflection on Alexander the Great

By: Student’s name:
Student Number:

Course:

Course Coordinator:

Date of Submission:

CHARACTERISTIC OF A LEADER BY PLUTARCH: A REFLECTION ON
ALEXANDER THE GREAT
1. Introduction
Leadership is a subjective term that can be defined in various ways. According to
Dwight D. Eisenhower, leadership is defined as the art of making someone do something you
want done because he also wants to do it. In this regard, a good leader should not force his
subjects to do things that they do not want to do (Hamilton & Stadter, 1999). Leadership can
therefore bring out a variety of images like a political leader whose aim is to pursue a
passion. It can also bring out an explorer whose aim is lead the other members of his group or
even an executive whose aim is to come up with the company’s strategy therefore beating the
competition. Many scholars as well as researchers have studied the aspect of leadership and
several theories have come up. In addition, different authors have written about leaders and
their achievements (Plutarchus, Dryden & Clough, 2004). One of these authors is Lucius
Mestrius Plutarch who was a Greek essayist and biographer. Plutarch wrote about several
leaders like Theseus, Timoleon, Pyrrhus, Caesar, Marcus Brutus and many others
(Plutarchus, Dryden & Clough, 2004). In addition, Plutarch gives his readers the
characteristics of these leaders as well as their virtues and personal attributes (Plutarchus,
Dryden & Clough, 2004). Alexander the great is one of the great leaders that have ever lived
and Plutarch wrote about him. His various achievements, characteristics as well as failures
will be analyzed in this essay.
Alexander the Great was born in Pella region on July 20, 356 B.C. at the Ancient
Greek kingdom of Macedonia. His parents were King Philip II and Queen Olympia who was
King Neoptolemus daughter (Plutarchus, Dryden & Clough, 2004). Alexander the great had a
sister and they were raised together in the Pella’s royal court. However, he did not have
much contact with his father since his father spent most of his time engaged in both military

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as well as extra –marital affairs (Hamilton & Stadter, 1999). As a result, Alexander grew up
philandering and resenting his father’s absence despite Olympia trying as much as she could
to be a good role model to him. Alexander got his education under tutelage of Leonidas of
Epirus who was his relative. He taught him archery, math and horsemanship. His next tutor
was Lysimachus (Plutarchus, Dryden & Clough, 2004). At around 343 B.C., Aristotle was
hired to teach Alexander drama, philosophy, politics, science as well as poetry. He later
completed his education in 340 B.C in Meiza. In 336 B.C., Alexander’s father was murdered
during the festival that followed after the wedding of Alexander’s sister. By this time,
Alexander was only nineteen years and he had a big determination of seizing the throne.
Consequently, he garnered the army of Macedonia which proclaimed Alexander as the king.
In addition, the army helped him murder other potential heirs (Adams, 2005). As a result,
Alexander the Great became the feudal king of Macedonia. During his reign, Alexander the
Great ruled well and some of his character traits are still evident even to date. This essay
outlines leadership traits as exhibited by Alexander the Great during his reign, and arguments
to show that he is one of the greatest leaders of all times.
2. Characteristics of a leader from the life of Alexander the Great
One of the characters of a great leader as outlined by Plutarch in consideration of
Alexander the Great is having a compelling vision. According to Plutarch, Alexander was
very strategic in crafting his vision and missions (Plutarchus, Dryden & Clough, 2004). After
their formulation, he would become very obsessed with the mission something that drove his
followers to follow suit. He had clear communication to his followers of what he wanted in
life and through his rhetoric and dramatic gesture he was able to win all his followers to
support his ambitions and plans (Hamilton & Stadter, 1999). This way, he was able to win all
of his battles, starting from the one he represented his father at the age of sixteen years. He
had strong belief in his visions, which made him suffer walking lengthy distances without

2

water and food in search of conquests. Although his father was also an excellent leader and
executor of plans and strategies, Alexander thought of his father as being selfish,
accomplishing great things and leaving little for him to execute (Plutarchus, Dryden &
Clough, 2004). This steered him upon getting the throne to extend his territory Far East and
South in search of new conquests and to extend his territory. This was his major vision, to
have a big and extensive territory across Asia and North Africa (Plutarchus, Dryden &
Clough, 2004). By having a strong vision, he was able to convince his followers and citizens
to buy his plans and strategies, hence moving together in one accord. This together with a
strong army enabled him to win all of his battles.
Another great character of Alexander is commitment. According to Plutarch,
Alexander the Great was so committed to achieving his set goals. As a boy, Alexander was
taught so many lessons like poetry, drama and archery. He learnt this under the supervision of
great tutors like Aristotle who was a scientist and a philosopher (Adams, 2005). This enabled
him become a better thinker as well as a better commander and soldier. He lay out his
strategies well which ked to him winning several battles. In addition to this, Alexander the
Great built a dedicated team of soldiers whose main aim and agenda was winning the battles
(Plutarchus, Dryden & Clough, 2004). As a good leader, one should not be insecure and
afraid that his juniors might overpower him (Hamilton & Stadter, 1999). In this regard,
Alexander the great allowed his generals to build on their strengths just like a good leader
should do.
According to Plutarch, Alexander the great was also courageous. As a good leader,
being courageous ids one of the important traits that one must possess. Alexander the Great’s
courage was displayed from his childhood (Plutarchus, Dryden & Clough, 2004). By the age
of twelve, this great king tamed a horse that had been considered too wild to tame by the
skilled horsemen. He named that particular horse Bucephalus and it accompanied him all his

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entire life. In addition, Alexander as a king inspired his soldiers at a close and side by side
(Adams, 2005). He was leading them into battles and even took the front lines. He constantly
won most of the battles despite being injured several times. His courage enabled him to
overcome the discouragements he received from his enemies as well as adversities. His
courage was shown through his quotes like “I am not afraid of an army of lions led by a
sheep; I am afraid of an army of sheep led by a Lion (Plutarchus, Dryden & Clough, 2004).”
This mean that this great king did not fear going to battle because he considered his ...

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