Protein chemistry and functionality , chemistry homework help


Question Description

1-Soy protein isolate (SPI) is prepared from soybeans by an alkaline extraction procedure. For food functionality applications, in practice, protein hydrolysates prepared from SPI using alcalase enzyme is used. Critically discuss the use of SPI and SPI hydrolysates (SPI hydrolyzed by alcalase) in emulsified and meat products with one example for each.

2-Edible films can be produced with soy proteins. Using protein chemistry of soybean, discuss how you would prevent the migrations of tomato sauce into the crust of pizza. How will you make drug capsules from SPI that can help in the immediate and delayed release of drugs in the GI environment (Chemistry required)?

3-A piece of fresh meat (red color) turned brown on keeping. Explain this observation with the chemistry and structure of the pigment involved.

4-Contractile proteins myosin and actin are involved in the contraction of muscles. Explain how this process takes place in living tissue, and the role of calcium divalent cations in this process.

5-Iron deficiency anemia is a problem in developing countries. Leafy greens are rich in iron. Though these people consume leafy greens, the iron deficiency anemia persists. Can you use peptides as a vehicle to deliver iron? Would this be a better source of iron than leafy greens? Discuss and, justify.

6-What is the significance of the age of meat on the product quality and product cost on boneless meat and bone in marinated meat products?

7-One of the steps for protein engineering is molecular modeling. How would this help in the enhancement of functional properties?

8-What do your for-see as the hurdles in genetic engineering to cure chronic diseases like cancer for the 21st century? Discuss.

9-As a protein Chemist you have been challenged to overproduce a bioactive peptide (isolated from an unconventional source of protein) for commercial pharmaceutical application. Describe in detail with sub-tiltles the approach you would take to produce this peptide. What are the challenges, and how will you overcome these challenges while you develop this technology?

10-What approach would you take to release bioactive peptides from a food source? What are the advantages of pre-treating a protein with alcalase prior to digestion by pepsin and trypsin?

11-How has the learning in this class helped you to understand and learn protein chemistry, functionality, mechanisms, and modeling at an advanced level to solve problems with a practical approach? State an existing protein-related problem of your choice and creatively outline the approaches that you will take to solve with a practical approach?

Tutor Answer

School: Carnegie Mellon University



Student’s Name
Course Number
Protein chemistry and functionality
1. Soybean proteins “are widely used as nutritional and functional food ingredients and are also
employed to modulate the physicochemical and sensory properties of foods. Those SPI need cell
reinforcement activity, furthermore frothing and emulsifying competencies that vary with
variables similar to pH, temperature and (E/S) proportion throughout those generations. They are
critical for those solvent peptides substance about SPI hydrolysates with ideal states to acquiring
solvent peptides were around 30–35 °C, pH 6.5–9.5, and E/S ratios of 1,650–6,300 U g−1. SPI
hydrolysates produced at 30–45 °C, pH 8.0–9.5, and E/S ratios of 4,000–8,000 U g−1 showed
higher capacity to scavenge the 2,2′-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline)-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS)
radical. Models for soluble peptides and ABTS activity of hydrolysates were obtained. In the
range studied, the variables had not significant influence on the ability of hydrolysates to
scavenge the 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical. SPI hydrolysates additionally
introduced lessening force and capacity with chelate iron. Hydrolysis temperature was significant
for the Fe2+-chelating ability of hydrolysates. Temperature about hydrolysis might have been
huge for those frothing limit from claiming hydrolysates, with higher qualities observed at 45 °C
and 8,000 U g−1. For emulsifying capacity, only E/S ratio presented a significant
effect.”“Temperature and E/S ratio appeared to be more significant variables influencing the


properties of the SPI hydrolysates. The proceed of this ponder show that discriminating
hydrolysis arrangement should be selected to keep SPI hydrolysates with preferred
characteristics.” (de Oliveira, C. F., Corrêa, A. P. F., Coletto, D., Daroit, D. J., Cladera-Olivera,
F., & Brandelli, A. 52(5): 2668–2678, 2015)
1. SPI is widely used as a food ingredient, especially in meat products. “The application of
SPI for a pickling solution (brine for injection) requires gel forming ability with a low
viscosity.” "Therefore, reduced-β- conglycinin (RCH) would be useful for offer meat
products along of its low viscosity and prevent gel-forming aptitude when united with
meat protein.” (Tsumura, K. 15 (4), 381 – 388, 2009)
1. “It is well known that an elegant food dish can be obtained by baking various foods inside a
pastry encapsulating crust. “A pizza crust has a surface for receiving food ingredients such as
sauce, cheese and the like. Edible films can be used for the preventing the migrations of tomato
sauce into the crust of the food material. The barrier minimizes migration of sauce into the crust
thereby preserving taste and texture of the pizza product. The mechanism behind the action is as
follows. An watery gelling disintegration is address to the algin-coated pizza crust for a age of
time sufficient to form a essentially unceasing edible algin-containing film along the aliment
constituent hold exterior. The film is sufficient to effective...

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Tutor went the extra mile to help me with this essay. Citations were a bit shaky but I appreciated how well he handled APA styles and how ok he was to change them even though I didnt specify. Got a B+ which is believable and acceptable.

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