Emotion and Motivation Health & Medical Question

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Module 10: Assignment - Lifespan Development

Purpose

After completing this assignment students will be able to describe the physical, mental, emotional and social changes people experience throughout the lifespan - from conception until death.

Directions

For this assignment you will be "creating" a person. You will choose a gender and name your person. You will then discuss, in essay format, changes that your person will experience throughout the lifespan - from conception until death. For example, if the person you create is Jane, you might explain teratogens and discuss how specific teratogens were a danger to Jane while in the womb. You might move on to explain object permanence and discuss how Jane would experience it.

Choose at least 2 concepts from each stage of development (prenatal/infancy, childhood, adolescence and adulthood).

Examples of concepts include (but aren't limited to):

  • Prenatal Stages
  • Teratogens
  • Motor Development
  • Object Permanence
  • Piaget’s Stages of Cognitive Development
  • Attachment
  • Kohlberg’s Stages of Moral Development
  • Egocentrism
  • Cognitive Decline
  • Marital Satisfaction

For each of the concepts you choose, you will need to:

  • Write a 1-3 sentence summary that explains the concept (9 points).
  • Write a 1-3 sentence summary that explains how your person would experience the concept (9 points)

You will need to write in essay format for this assignment. The following format should be used for this assignment and is worth 2 points:

  • Introduction paragraph (at least 3 sentences): Includes an introduction of lifespan development.
  • Paragraph 1 (4-12 sentences total for 2 concepts): Summary explaining the concepts of prenatal/infancy.
  • Paragraph 2 ( 4-12 sentences total for 2 concepts): Summary explaining the concepts of childhood.
  • Paragraph 3 ( 4-12 sentences total for 2 concepts): Summary explaining the concepts of adolescence.
  • Paragraph 4 ( 4-12 sentences total for 2 concepts): Summary explaining the concepts of adulthood.
  • Conclusion paragraph (at least 3 sentences): A summary of the concepts that you covered in your paper.
  • Reference page listing full APA citations for all sources used (including textbook).

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Copyright © 2020 by Macmillan Learning. All rights reserved Emotion and Motivation Chapter 8 Introducing PSYCHOLOGY Schacter | Gilbert | Nock | Wegner | Fifth Edition Chapter Outline Introducing PSYCHOLOGY Copyright © 2020 by Macmillan Learning. All rights reserved ▪ The Nature of Emotion ▪ Emotional Communication ▪ The Nature of Motivation ▪ The Motivated Body ▪ The Motivated Mind Schacter | Gilbert | Nock | Wegner | Fifth Edition Emotion ▪ Involves a temporary state that includes unique subjective experiences and physiological activity, and that prepares people for action ▪ Does not reside in any location in brain; no single way to measure it ▪ Has mental and physical features ▪ Is response to appraisals Introducing PSYCHOLOGY Schacter | Gilbert | Nock | Wegner | Fifth Edition Copyright © 2020 by Macmillan Learning. All rights reserved ▪ Emotion The Emotional Mind (part 1) ▪ Feelings ▪ Studied scientifically through measurement of reported closeness of one feeling to another ▪ Map of emotions (feeling-scape) ▪ Valence ▪ Arousal ▪ Worldwide, people can well describe each feeling’s unique location on this simple twodimensional map Introducing PSYCHOLOGY Schacter | Gilbert | Nock | Wegner | Fifth Edition Copyright © 2020 by Macmillan Learning. All rights reserved ▪ Estimates location and distance between emotions ▪ Indicates variation on two dimensions Copyright © 2020 by Macmillan Learning. All rights reserved Map of Emotional Experience Introducing PSYCHOLOGY Schacter | Gilbert | Nock | Wegner | Fifth Edition The Emotional Mind (part 2) ▪ Appraisals ▪ Conscious or unconscious evaluations and interpretations of the emotion-relevant aspects of a stimulus or event ▪ Readiness to engage in a specific set of emotion-relevant behaviors ▪ Anger → approach ▪ Disgust → avoidance Introducing PSYCHOLOGY Schacter | Gilbert | Nock | Wegner | Fifth Edition Copyright © 2020 by Macmillan Learning. All rights reserved ▪ Action tendencies The Emotional Body (part 1) ▪ James–Lange theory: Stimuli trigger activity in the ANS, which in turn produces an emotional experience in the brain. ▪ Cannon–Bard theory: Stimuli simultaneously trigger activity in the ANS and emotional experience in the brain. Introducing PSYCHOLOGY Schacter | Gilbert | Nock | Wegner | Fifth Edition Copyright © 2020 by Macmillan Learning. All rights reserved ▪ Early theories The Emotional Body (part 2) ▪ People have just one bodily reaction to all emotionally relevant stimuli. ▪ Interpretations differ due to occasion (fear vs. excitement). ▪ Criticism suggests a single bodily response does not underlie all emotions. Introducing PSYCHOLOGY Schacter | Gilbert | Nock | Wegner | Fifth Edition Copyright © 2020 by Macmillan Learning. All rights reserved ▪ Two-factor theory: Stimuli trigger a general state of physiological arousal, which is then interpreted as a specific emotion. Copyright © 2020 by Macmillan Learning. All rights reserved Classic Theories of Emotion Introducing PSYCHOLOGY Schacter | Gilbert | Nock | Wegner | Fifth Edition The Emotional Brain ▪ Appraisal made by amygdala: evaluation of the emotion-relevant aspects of a stimulus ▪ “Fast” (thalamus → amygdala) and “slow” (thalamus → cortex → amygdala) pathways of fear in the brain Introducing PSYCHOLOGY Schacter | Gilbert | Nock | Wegner | Fifth Edition Copyright © 2020 by Macmillan Learning. All rights reserved ▪ Amygdala plays important role in emotion; is threat detector Copyright © 2020 by Macmillan Learning. All rights reserved The “Fast” and “Slow” Pathways of Fear Introducing PSYCHOLOGY Schacter | Gilbert | Nock | Wegner | Fifth Edition Emotional Communication (part 1) ▪ Emotional expression ▪ Observable sign of an emotional state ▪ Universality hypothesis ▪ People (even those who have never seen a human face) are generally good at judging and creating the same facial expressions. Introducing PSYCHOLOGY Schacter | Gilbert | Nock | Wegner | Fifth Edition Copyright © 2020 by Macmillan Learning. All rights reserved ▪ Emotional expressions have the same meaning for everyone; originally proposed by Darwin Copyright © 2020 by Macmillan Learning. All rights reserved Emotional Communication (part 2) Introducing PSYCHOLOGY Schacter | Gilbert | Nock | Wegner | Fifth Edition ▪ The majority of psychologists believe that the facial displays of at least five emotions— anger, disgust, fear, happiness, and sadness—are clearly universal. ▪ People from the Himba tribe match faces to emotion words just as Americans do, but they produce unlike face-to-face matches that are “feeling the same way.” ▪ What does this tell us? Introducing PSYCHOLOGY Schacter | Gilbert | Nock | Wegner | Fifth Edition Copyright © 2020 by Macmillan Learning. All rights reserved Communicative Expression The Cause and Effect of Expression ▪ Words = symbols and facial expressions = signs ▪ Facial feedback hypothesis ▪ Emotional expressions can cause the emotional experiences they typically signify. ▪ People use their own emotions to identify emotions of others. Introducing PSYCHOLOGY Schacter | Gilbert | Nock | Wegner | Fifth Edition Copyright © 2020 by Macmillan Learning. All rights reserved ▪ Symbols arbitrary designation, not causal relationships ▪ Facial expressions not arbitrary, but signs of emotions caused by things they signify Deceptive Expression (part 1) ▪ We can control (at least to some degree) our expression of emotion. ▪ Intensification: exaggerating emotional expression ▪ Deintensification: muting emotional expression ▪ Masking: expressing one emotion while feeling another ▪ Neutralizing: no expression of the emotion one is feeling; keeping a “poker face” ▪ Different cultures have different display rules. Introducing PSYCHOLOGY Schacter | Gilbert | Nock | Wegner | Fifth Edition Copyright © 2020 by Macmillan Learning. All rights reserved ▪ Display rules: norms for the control of appropriate emotional expression Copyright © 2020 by Macmillan Learning. All rights reserved Can You Tell What This Man Is Feeling? Introducing PSYCHOLOGY Schacter | Gilbert | Nock | Wegner | Fifth Edition Deceptive Expression (part 2) ▪ Morphology: the use of reliable muscles ▪ Symmetry: expressions tend to be more symmetrical ▪ Duration: last between 0.5 second and 5 seconds ▪ Temporal patterning: appear and disappear smoothly Introducing PSYCHOLOGY Schacter | Gilbert | Nock | Wegner | Fifth Edition Copyright © 2020 by Macmillan Learning. All rights reserved ▪ Sincere expressions may “leak out.” ▪ Four more readily observable features seem to distinguish between sincere and insincere facial expressions. ▪ Sincere emotions involve: How Reliable Are the Reliable Muscles? Introducing PSYCHOLOGY Copyright © 2020 by Macmillan Learning. All rights reserved ▪ Real smiles (left) are often accompanied by a crinkling of the eye corners, and fake smiles (right) are not. ▪ Eye crinkles are reliable signs—but not perfectly reliable signs—of happiness. ▪ Happy people don’t always crinkle their eyes and although most people can’t fake the crinkle, some can. Schacter | Gilbert | Nock | Wegner | Fifth Edition A World of Difference: Say Cheese ▪ Nations with little cultural diversity follow the same display rules and communicate with subtle expressions. ▪ In diverse nations, more and varied rules are used, so expressions need to be clear. Introducing PSYCHOLOGY Schacter | Gilbert | Nock | Wegner | Fifth Edition Copyright © 2020 by Macmillan Learning. All rights reserved ▪ Wood and colleagues found the more diverse a culture is, the more easily the facial expressions of its members can be understood by members of other cultures. Lying ▪ Telling lies affects both verbal and nonverbal behavior. ▪ Liars: ▪ Slower speech, longer response time, fewer details, less fluent, less engaging, more uncertain, tenser, less pleasant, a bit too good ▪ Tend to believe people tell the truth ▪ Do not know signs of lying ▪ The accuracy of polygraphis has been questioned. Introducing PSYCHOLOGY Schacter | Gilbert | Nock | Wegner | Fifth Edition Copyright © 2020 by Macmillan Learning. All rights reserved ▪ People are poor lie detectors. ▪ Motivation: internal causes of purposeful behavior ▪ William James called the natural tendency (innate) to seek a particular goal an instinct. ▪ Drive: internal state generated by departures from physiological optimality ▪ Homeostasis: tendency for a system to take action to keep itself in a particular state Introducing PSYCHOLOGY Schacter | Gilbert | Nock | Wegner | Fifth Edition Copyright © 2020 by Macmillan Learning. All rights reserved The Nature of Motivation Instincts and Drives (part 1) ▪ Instincts: the faculty of acting in such a way as to produce certain ends Copyright © 2020 by Macmillan Learning. All rights reserved ▪ No foresight of the ends ▪ No previous education in the performance ▪ Hard-wired by nature Introducing PSYCHOLOGY Schacter | Gilbert | Nock | Wegner | Fifth Edition Instincts and Drives (part 2) ▪ Homeostasis: tendency for a system to take action to keep itself in a particular state ▪ Drive-reduction theory: a theory suggesting that organisms are motivated to reduce their drives Introducing PSYCHOLOGY Schacter | Gilbert | Nock | Wegner | Fifth Edition Copyright © 2020 by Macmillan Learning. All rights reserved ▪ Drives: internal state generated by physiological needs Emotions Are Goals ▪ Emotional experience can be thought of as a gauge that ranges from bad to good. ▪ Primary motivation—perhaps even sole motivation—is to keep the needle on the gauge as close to good as possible. Introducing PSYCHOLOGY Schacter | Gilbert | Nock | Wegner | Fifth Edition Copyright © 2020 by Macmillan Learning. All rights reserved ▪ Hedonic principle: notion that all people are motivated to experience pleasure and avoid pain; first argued by Plato and Aristotle The Regulation of Emotion Introducing PSYCHOLOGY Copyright © 2020 by Macmillan Learning. All rights reserved ▪ Emotion regulation: use of cognitive and behavioral strategies to influence one’s emotional experience ▪ Reappraisal: changing one’s emotional experience by changing the meaning of the emotion-eliciting stimulus Schacter | Gilbert | Nock | Wegner | Fifth Edition The Motivated Body ▪ Abraham Maslow (1908–1970) Introducing PSYCHOLOGY Copyright © 2020 by Macmillan Learning. All rights reserved ▪ People are motivated to fulfill a hierarchy of needs. ▪ Some needs are more pressing than others. ▪ These must be satisfied before satisfying less pressing needs (e.g., need to have friends). Schacter | Gilbert | Nock | Wegner | Fifth Edition Hunger ▪ Humans are motivated to eat to convert food to energy. ▪ Hunger signals are sent to and from the brain. ▪ Orexigenic switches on the experience of hunger. ▪ Anorexigenic switches off the experience of hunger. ▪ Hormone leptin in fat cells ▪ Ventromedial hypothalamus Introducing PSYCHOLOGY Schacter | Gilbert | Nock | Wegner | Fifth Edition Copyright © 2020 by Macmillan Learning. All rights reserved ▪ Hormone ghrelin in stomach ▪ Lateral hypothalamus Copyright © 2020 by Macmillan Learning. All rights reserved Hunger, Satiety, and the Hypothalamus Introducing PSYCHOLOGY Schacter | Gilbert | Nock | Wegner | Fifth Edition Eating Disorders ▪ Binge eating disorder (BED): eating disorder characterized by recurrent and uncontrolled episodes of eating a large number of calories in a short time ▪ Bulimia nervosa: eating disorder characterized by binge eating followed by purging ▪ Anorexia nervosa: eating disorder characterized by an intense fear of being fat, resulting in severe restriction of food intake ▪ Causes ▪ Culture ▪ Biology ▪ Genetics Introducing PSYCHOLOGY Schacter | Gilbert | Nock | Wegner | Fifth Edition Copyright © 2020 by Macmillan Learning. All rights reserved ▪ Disorders The Real and the Ideal Introducing PSYCHOLOGY Copyright © 2020 by Macmillan Learning. All rights reserved ▪ These body simulations were made using the BMI Visualizer, and, as you can see, the average American woman (left) and the average fashion model (right) don’t look very much alike. Schacter | Gilbert | Nock | Wegner | Fifth Edition ▪ Obesity (BMI of ≥30) is the most pervasive eatingrelated problem in United States. ▪ The proportion of overweight children has doubled; the proportion of overweight teens has tripled. ▪ By 2017, no state had an obesity rate lower than 20%; the majority of today’s U.S. children will be obese by age 35. ▪ Obesity-related illnesses take around 300,000 lives yearly. ▪ People who are obese have lower psychological wellbeing, lower self-esteem, and lower quality of life. They are also viewed more negatively by others. Introducing PSYCHOLOGY Schacter | Gilbert | Nock | Wegner | Fifth Edition Copyright © 2020 by Macmillan Learning. All rights reserved Obesity Obesity Causes ▪ Proposed causes High heritability/personality traits Environmental toxins Excess “good bacteria” in gut Daily wear-and-tear on hippocampus Leptin resistance Lack of exercise and overeating ▪ Evolutionary mismatch ▪ Traits that adaptive in ancestral environment may be maladaptive in modern environment ▪ Strong attraction to energy-dense food ▪ Ability to store excess fat Introducing PSYCHOLOGY Schacter | Gilbert | Nock | Wegner | Fifth Edition Copyright © 2020 by Macmillan Learning. All rights reserved ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Copyright © 2020 by Macmillan Learning. All rights reserved The Geography of Obesity Introducing PSYCHOLOGY Schacter | Gilbert | Nock | Wegner | Fifth Edition Hot Science: This Is Your Brain on Goldfish ▪ Tang and colleagues showed participants photos of 50 foods and measured three things: ▪ Estimates of calories in each food ▪ Amount willing to be paid for each food item ▪ fMRI measurement of brain activity while staring at food item ▪ Inability to differentiate between calorie-rich and caloriepoor food ▪ Willingness to pay more for opportunity to eat calorie-rich food ▪ Positive brain response to calorie-rich food, even if it was not identified as such Introducing PSYCHOLOGY Schacter | Gilbert | Nock | Wegner | Fifth Edition Copyright © 2020 by Macmillan Learning. All rights reserved ▪ What did the researchers find? Conquering Obesity ▪ The human body resists weight loss. ▪ Avoiding obesity is easier than overcoming it. ▪ Nudges. Introducing PSYCHOLOGY Schacter | Gilbert | Nock | Wegner | Fifth Edition Copyright © 2020 by Macmillan Learning. All rights reserved ▪ Fat cells are added with weight gain. ▪ Added fat cells do not decrease in number, only in size. ▪ Dieting decreases metabolism. Sexual Desire ▪ Dihydroepiandostero (DHEA) ▪ Testosterone ▪ Estrogen Introducing PSYCHOLOGY Schacter | Gilbert | Nock | Wegner | Fifth Edition Copyright © 2020 by Macmillan Learning. All rights reserved ▪ Desire for sex is necessary for survival of DNA. ▪ Three hormones play key roles. Women Men 1 I was attracted to the person. I was attracted to the person. 2 I wanted to experience the physical pleasure. It feels good. 3 It feels good. I wanted to experience the physical pleasure. 4 I wanted to show my affection to the person. It’s fun. 5 I wanted to express my love for the person. I wanted to show my affection to the person. 6 I was sexually aroused and wanted the release. I was sexually aroused and wanted the release. 7 I was “horny.” I was “horny.” 8 It’s fun. I wanted to express my love for the person. 9 I realized I was in love. I wanted to achieve an orgasm. 10 I was “in the heat of the moment.” I wanted to please my partner. Introducing PSYCHOLOGY Schacter | Gilbert | Nock | Wegner | Fifth Edition Copyright © 2020 by Macmillan Learning. All rights reserved Why Do People Have Sex? The Motivated Mind ▪ Psychological and biological motivations can be equally powerful, but differ in two ways. ▪ Examples: food, sex, oxygen, sleep ▪ Psychological motivations are unique. ▪ Limitless Introducing PSYCHOLOGY Schacter | Gilbert | Nock | Wegner | Fifth Edition Copyright © 2020 by Macmillan Learning. All rights reserved ▪ Biological motivations are shared with other animals. Kinds of Motivation ▪ Intrinsic motivation: motivation to take actions that are themselves rewarding ▪ Tends to be more satisfying ▪ May undermine intrinsic rewards ▪ Delaying gratification = something our species does well ▪ Threats or punishments can make prohibited behavior more appealing Introducing PSYCHOLOGY Schacter | Gilbert | Nock | Wegner | Fifth Edition Copyright © 2020 by Macmillan Learning. All rights reserved ▪ Extrinsic motivation: motivation to take actions that are not themselves rewarding but that lead to a reward Copyright © 2020 by Macmillan Learning. All rights reserved When Threats Backfire Introducing PSYCHOLOGY Schacter | Gilbert | Nock | Wegner | Fifth Edition Conscious Versus Unconscious ▪ Conscious motivation: motivation of which one is aware ▪ Unconscious motivation: motivation of which one is not aware ▪ Need for achievement: motivation to solve worthwhile problems Introducing PSYCHOLOGY Schacter | Gilbert | Nock | Wegner | Fifth Edition Copyright © 2020 by Macmillan Learning. All rights reserved ▪ We are aware of our general motivations. Approach Versus Avoidance (part 1) ▪ Approach motivation: motivation to experience positive outcomes ▪ Promotion focus ▪ Tends to be more powerful ▪ People take more risks to avoid loss ▪ Has prevention focus ▪ Loss aversion: tendency to care more about avoiding losses than about achieving equalsize gains Introducing PSYCHOLOGY Schacter | Gilbert | Nock | Wegner | Fifth Edition Copyright © 2020 by Macmillan Learning. All rights reserved ▪ Avoidance motivation: motivation to not experience negative outcomes The Power of Loss Introducing PSYCHOLOGY Copyright © 2020 by Macmillan Learning. All rights reserved ▪ Avoidance motivation is typically more powerful than approach motivation. ▪ Shoppers in the Washington, DC, area were highly motivated to reuse their bags to avoid a 5-cent tax, but they were entirely unmotivated to reuse their bags to get a 5-cent bonus. (Homonoff, 2013 ). Schacter | Gilbert | Nock | Wegner | Fifth Edition Approach Versus Avoidance (part 2) ▪ Terror management theory claims that we cope with our existential terror by developing a cultural worldview (meaningful immortality through our legacies). Introducing PSYCHOLOGY Schacter | Gilbert | Nock | Wegner | Fifth Edition Copyright © 2020 by Macmillan Learning. All rights reserved ▪ Humans alone can conceptualize death and are motivated to avoid death-related anxiety. CHAPTER REVIEW Encoding: Transforming Perceptions Into Memories Encoding is the process of transforming the information received through our senses into a lasting memory. Semantic encoding is characterized by relating new information to previous knowledge in a meaningful way. • Visual imagery encoding also relates new information to previous knowledge, but features both a visual and a verbal placeholder. Organizational encoding is a process of finding relationships between items to make them easier to retrieve. Encoding information with respect to its survival value is a particularly effective method for increasing subsequent recall, perhaps because our memory systems have evolved in a way that allows us to remember especially well information Purpose This assig...
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LIFESPAN DEVELOPMENT

1

Lifespan Development
Student’s Name
Institutional Affiliation

LIFESPAN DEVELOPMENT

2
Lifespan Development

Lifespan development refers to the full process of human development from conception
to death. It involves all physiological, cognitive, emotional, and social changes that people
undergo in life. The essay provides some insights into some changes that are involved within a
lady’s life. The character to be used in the essay is Jessica.
Prenatal/infancy
At this age, Jessica could be affected by teratogens. Teratogens could lead to child
abnormality, thus affecting how a child is born. Teratogens could also increase the risk of birth
defects. Tobacco and drugs use are some of the common teratogens. The other concept is
neurological diseases. They could affect a child’s ability to develop into a fully-grown child. She
also develops attachment at this stage. She gets to feel secure when close to her parents.
Childhood
During childhood, Jessica could be affected by the environment and nutrition. If brought
up in an environment that denies him a chance to mingle with others ad learn languages, Jessica
may have poor communication skills. If she does not get the right nutrition, she could also lose
weight and have low immunity. Her childhood stage is when she requires a lot of attention.
Therefore, if she is neglected or abused, her development would be affected.
Adolescence
Adolescence could involve physical changes as the body transforms to adulthood. One of
the factors that could affect Jessica is

LIFESPAN DEVELOPMENT

3


HUMAN MEMORY

1

Impacts of Encoding, Storage and Retrieval Processes on Human Memory
Student’s Name
Institutional Affiliation

HUMAN MEMORY

2

Impacts of Encoding, Storage and Retrieval Processes on Human Memory
1(a). Encoding is the “process of transforming the information received through our senses into a
lasting memory” (Schacter et al., 2020, p.5).
1(b). One needs an encoding process in class to convert the knowledge they get through listening
...


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