CSU Job Hazard Analysis Essay

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Columbia Southern University


Unit II Journal


Job hazard analyses (JHAs) are an important aspect of an effective safety and health program. Reflecting on your own personal experiences, who do you think should be included on a team to perform a JHA at an industrial facility? Why did you choose that particular team configuration?

Your journal entry must be at least 200 words in length. No references or citations are necessary.

Unit II Project


You have been asked to conduct an ergonomic job hazard analysis (JHA) in a manufacturing facility that manufactures metal parts for an automotive company. One area of concern is the manual materials handling (MMH) throughout the facility. Specifically, you have been tasked with conducting a JHA on the palletizing of shipping boxes once they are assembled. Given the following worksheet (see the link below to download the worksheet), calculate (1) the recommended weight limit (RWL) and (2) the lifting index using the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) lifting equation. Using the data and results, provide your written recommendations for corrective action against strenuous lifting tasks performed by employees in order to reduce risks and prevent injuries. You should search the internet for possible solutions, if applicable.

Click  here to download the JHA worksheet.

Respond to the details in each section, and format your report in APA style. Include at least each of the components below in your project.

  • Introduction: Briefly describe why the studies were performed (why you started the study), and explain how this job hazard analysis can improve the overall safety and health management program. In the introduction, compare the different techniques for performing a JHA and why the method chosen was appropriate for this scenario.
  • Report detail: Briefly discuss the details of the scenario (what you found from the study). 
  • Conclusions/Recommendations: Briefly describe your recommendations based on your findings (what you recommend to resolve any deficiencies).
  • Appendix: This will have your measurements and calculations (show your work). Include the JHA worksheet in this section.

The report should be at least three pages (double-spaced) in length (not counting the references page and appendices). Prepare your report in a word-processing application, such as Microsoft Word, using APA formatting.

See the chart and graphics below in order to complete your assignment.

Unformatted Attachment Preview

UNIT II STUDY GUIDE Hazard Analysis Techniques Course Learning Outcomes for Unit II Upon completion of this unit, students should be able to: 3. Apply appropriate calculations to the hazard analysis process. 3.1 Explain how an effective job hazard analysis improves the effectiveness of a safety and health management program. 3.2 Compare different techniques for performing a job hazard analysis. 3.3 Apply the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) lifting equation to prepare a job hazard analysis and provide recommendations to reduce the overall risk of the task. Course/Unit Learning Outcomes 3.1 3.2 3.3 Learning Activity Unit Lesson Chapter 9, pp. 87–99 Chapter 15, pp. 194–217 Unit II Project Unit Lesson Chapter 9, pp. 87–99 Chapter 15, pp. 194–217 Unit II Project Unit Lesson Chapter 9, pp. 87–99 Chapter 15, pp. 194–217 Unit II Project Reading Assignment Chapter 9: General Principles of Hazard Control, pp. 87–99 Chapter 15: Materials Handling, pp. 194–217 Unit Lesson A job hazard analysis (JHA) is a very important component in developing and maintaining an effective safety program. In fact, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) has pinpointed that the lack of proper identification of hazards in the workplace is one of the root causes of injuries and illnesses (OSHA, 2002). What do you think OSHA is saying? Injuries and illnesses are caused by worker exposures to hazards. If a hazard is present in a work environment and has not been identified, no controls can be identified and implemented, so the risk associated with that hazard cannot be controlled. This means that by simply identifying and addressing all hazards in a workplace, an employer should be able to reduce OSHArecordable injuries and illnesses. One major difference between an effective safety and health management program and an ineffective safety and health management program is whether the employer takes a proactive or reactive approach to JHA and control. In a proactive approach, the employer will identify hazards, assess risk, and implement controls before any injuries or illnesses occur. In a reactive approach, the employer will wait until either injuries or illnesses occur, or the employer will wait until OSHA forces them to identify the hazards, assess the risk, and implement controls. It should be obvious that the proactive approach provides the most protection to workers. MOS 5201, Safety Engineering 1 Developing an effective safety and health management program should always include completing JHAs as a UNIT x STUDY GUIDE base component. Conducting a JHA is not always as simple as it might appear. Many employers believe that Title a JHA can be performed simply by walking through the workplace and writing down hazards as they appear. The most effective JHAs require proper training and experience for the individuals chosen to perform the assessment(s). If a JHA is not performed properly, it can lead to some hazards being missed. Unidentified hazards can be a major source of injuries and illnesses in a workplace. We briefly discussed the difference between the terms hazard and risk in Unit I. In many cases, ineffective JHAs can be related to a misunderstanding of these two terms, which commonly leads to unidentified hazards. This occurs because the individual performing the hazard analysis only lists those hazards that have a high risk. This mistake is sometimes made because the individual considers the terms hazardous and hazard to be the same. Identification of a hazard should not include an evaluation of the risk associated with the hazard. Evaluation of the risk is performed using a risk assessment, which we will study in Unit III. The term hazardous implies that some unacceptable level of risk is present in a hazard. If an inspector deems a hazard as having an acceptable level of risk present, he or she may not consider it to be hazardous and may not list the hazard on whatever form he or she is using. We should also consider that there are different types of hazards. The two most commonly used categories of hazards are physical hazards and health hazards. Physical hazards have the potential to cause some type of physical injury. Physical hazards would include items such as fire hazards, explosive hazards, and electrical hazards. Health hazards have the potential to cause some health effect such as acute or chronic health symptoms. In today’s work environment, the safety professional undoubtedly encounters problems related to muscular strains, such as lower back pain, overreaching injuries, and cumulative trauma disorder. Each of these strains can occur by not properly preparing workers and their work environments with knowledge and equipment, which, if implemented properly, can reduce the likelihood of strenuous activity. One area of study that directly addresses strenuous activity and how to prevent it is ergonomics. The International Ergonomics Association (2018) defines ergonomics, which is also known as human factors engineering, as “the scientific discipline concerned with the understanding of interactions among humans and other elements of a system, and the profession that applies theory, principles, data, and methods to design in order to optimize human well-being and overall system performance” (para. 1). This unit asks you to expand your vocabulary in the realm of ergonomics as well as to analyze the details of a lifting task. From your analysis, you should be able to determine if any actions are necessary to improve the conditions of the task, thus providing employees with the least strenuous working conditions. In short, ergonomics is all about keeping employees happy, healthy, and productive by encouraging them to maneuver their bodies safely while performing potentially strenuous tasks. Ergonomics is not limited to lifting tasks, yet we are focusing on them because lifting tasks can arguably cause the most serious injuries. Infinite quantities of lifting tasks exist in various industries, and a few common examples include lifting a box, lifting a garbage can (or bag), lifting books, and lifting any type of supply or tool while performing the responsibilities of an occupation. The previously mentioned examples may not be a significant portion of your job if you only perform these tasks once per day or once per week. However, each example could be the significant portion of another person’s job, and he or she may perform these tasks very frequently throughout each day of the week. The point here is that even a simple task can be strenuous on the human body, especially if it is performed frequently or even if the task requires a worker to bend or lean frequently. As a safety professional, it is your job to ensure that a person is performing those tasks safely and in a stress-free manner (or as much as possible). Frequency is only one of the factors included in an equation for safety professionals to use toward ergonomic behavior. The National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) established a lifting equation, which allows a safety professional to consider several factors as they relate to a work task. The lifting equation is a tool for assessing the physical stress of two-handed manual lifting tasks. The NIOSH lifting equation is shown below. RWL = LC x HM x VM x DM x AM x FM x CM MOS 5201, Safety Engineering 2 The following list contains the equation’s abbreviations (or symbols) and the factor each abbreviation UNITthat x STUDY GUIDE represents. Title RWL = Recommended Weight Limit LC = Load Constant HM = Horizontal Multiplier VM = Vertical Multiplier DM = Distance Multiplier AM = Asymmetric Multiplier FM = Frequency Multiplier CM = Coupling Multiplier The lifting equation can solve for metric units as well as the units in the U.S. system of measurement. For the purpose of this lesson, the following material utilizes the U.S. system of measurement, and it is represented below. 𝑅𝑊𝐿 (𝑙𝑏) = (51) (10/ 𝐻) [1 − (0.0075|𝑉 − 30|)][0.82 + (1.8/𝐷)](1 − 0.0032𝐴)(𝐹𝑀)(𝐶𝑀) At first glance, the lifting equation may appear to be complex. However, once the lifting equation is broken down into its seven individual factors (or variables), it becomes easier to grasp. The seven factors are multiplied together, and the result is a product (multiplication). Before listing and describing the individual components of the lifting equation, take a few minutes to review a couple of images representing several of the components (NIOSH, 1994). Top View Midpoint Between Inner Ankle Bones Frontal H Point of Projection A Figure 2.1: Top view of sagittal line (Waters, Putz-Anderson, & Garg, 1994) The first image (Figure 2.1) clearly represents two values: the H-value and the asymmetry angle denoted with A. The H-value is part of the horizontal multiplier (HM). See the description below for more details about the horizontal multiplier and the asymmetry multiplier (AM). MOS 5201, Safety Engineering 3 UNIT x STUDY GUIDE Title Figure 22.3 Loading punch press stock. (as cited in Yates, 2015, p. 492) The second image (Figure 2.2) is another good representation that shows several points and measurements within the lifting equation. As you read the details of the lifting equation below, refer back to Figure 2.1 and Figure 2.2 for a visual representation of several points and the measurements between the points. Recommended Weight Limit (RWL) The product of the equation is the recommended weight limit (RWL), RWL= which is always represented in pounds while using the U.S. system of measurement. Load Constant (LC) The first factor in the equation is the load constant. There is not much you need to know about the load constant other than it is always 51 in the equation using the U.S. system of measurement. (51) Horizontal Multiplier (HM) 𝟏𝟎 ( ) 𝑯 The second factor in the equation is the horizontal multiplier, which includes 10 divided by the horizontal value. The horizontal value is the distance between the lifter’s hands (while on the object) and the point between the lifter’s ankles. In Figure 2.2, the horizontal value is 23 inches. Vertical Multiplier (VM) [𝟏− (𝟎. 𝟎𝟎𝟕𝟓|𝑽− 𝟑𝟎|)] MOS 5201, Safety Engineering The third factor in the equation is the vertical multiplier, which is the distance from the lifter’s hands (holding the object) to the floor. In Figure 2.2, the V-value to insert into the vertical multiplier is 15 inches. 4 Distance Multiplier (DM) UNIT x STUDY GUIDE The fourth factor in the equation is the distance multiplier, which includes Title the vertical distance between (1) the original position of the lifter’s hands holding the object and (2) the destination position of the lifter’s hands holding the object. The two measurements in Figure 2.2 that help determine the vertical distance (or difference) is (1) the distance between the original point of the lifter’s hands and the floor (i.e., 15 inches) and (2) the distance between the destination point of the lifter’s hands and the floor (i.e., 63 inches). 63 minus 15 is 48, so the D-value to insert into the distance multiplier is 48. Asymmetric Multiplier (AM) The fifth factor in the equation is the asymmetric multiplier, which is how much a lifter needs to rotate his or her body to reach the destination of a lift. In Figure 2.2, the A-value to insert into the asymmetric multiplier is 0, because the lifter does not rotate as he or she maneuvers toward the destination point. A better visual representation for the A-value exists in Figure 2.2. The A-value is always represented in degrees (i.e., 45 degrees of rotation). If you determined a worker rotates 45 degrees while lifting an object, you would insert 45 as the A-value in the asymmetric multiplier. In Figure 2.2, there is no twisting involved in the lift; therefore, the A-value for this would be 0. (𝟏 −𝟎. 𝟎𝟎𝟑𝟐𝑨) Frequency Multiplier (FM) The sixth factor in the equation is the frequency multiplier, which includes three variables: (1) the quantity of lifts per minute, (2) the duration of the lift, and (3) the distance to the destination from the point of origin. To obtain the correct frequency multiplier, refer to the table below. (FM) Frequency Lifts/Min (F)* ≤0.2 0.5 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 >15 Work Duration ≤1 Hour V1 hour but ≤ 2 Hours V2 hours but
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Job Hazard Analysis (JHAs)
Student Name:
Institutional Affiliation:

Job Hazard Analysis (JHAs)
Job hazard analysis (JHAs) is associated with evaluating risks and hazards and putting
emphasis on identifying and controlling them. From my experiences, I think for a team to
perform a job hazard analysis at an industrial facility, there should be set administrative
controls such as ensuring that employees or recruits are trained to increase efficiency and
reduce the severity of exposure to any hazards such as chemicals. Strict adherence to rules
and regulation is also important and ensuring that the workers are under supervision.
Supervising how workers conduct themselves makes them take precautionary measures
because any attempt to do an activity that could expose them is stopped immediately.
Wearing personal protective equipment appropriately would protect workers from illnesses
that could be a result of inhaling smoke and workplace injuries that can be avoided. PPEs
can be gloves, gumboots, masks, and glasses. I chose this particular team configuration
because safety is mandatory for every individual; therefore, it is easy to reduce the extent of
the exposure by ensuring the conditions are favorable for the work done. It is also easy to
identify the relationship between the task, worker, tools and equipment, and the environment
to eliminate or reduce any possible hazard.

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Job Hazard Analysis

Student’s Name
Course Name and Number
Instructor’s Name

Job Hazard Analysis
Lower back pain and injuries resulting from lifting or lowering objects at work are major
safety and health hazards for workers and present a challenge for employers and preventative
medicine. While there have been a variety of efforts geared towards reducing injuries related to
lifting activities at work, lower back pain and injuries remain a leading cause of suffering amon...

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