DeVry University Law Enforcement Diversity Discussion Post

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This is a 2 part assignment. The 1st part is to read the material and then write the initial discussion post. The 2nd part is to write a short reply to 2 classmates posts. Once the initial post is completed I will post here 2 other classmates posts for you to write a short reply to.

The reading material is 2 chapters. Chapter 7 is a total of 28 pages. Chapter 8 is a total of 29 pages. I can only upload 5 images at a time because the image file is bigger than what is supported here and I am unfortunately unable to convert them into PDF. So once the tutor accepts the assignment I will upload the rest of the pages/images. There is also a video. You only need to watch segment 19 of it. Here is the link:


Diversity in policing continues to face challenges. Discuss some different ways of recruiting and retaining minorities into the field and why it is important. What are best practices in this area?

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YOU ARE THERE The Path to Equality: Court Caves Griggs Duke Power company 1971 1973 Vulcan Society. Cvil Service Commission Mieth v. Dothand Section 1. All persons born or naturalized in Vanguard Justice Society v. Hughes 1976 1979 1979 1980 United States v. State of New York Guardians Association of New York Commission of New York City Police Department Cil Service 198 PART 2 THE PERSONAL SIDE OF POLICING As all equality, in U.S. society is the Fourteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution. This amend. ment, passed in 1868, guarantees "equal protection of the law to all citizens of the United States the United States, and subject to the jurisdic- tion thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the State wherein they reside No State shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States; nor shall any State deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, with out due process of law; nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the law More than the Fourteenth Amendment was needed, however, to end job discrimination in polic ing (and other governmental agencies). In addition to the Fourteenth Amendment, the path to equal ity had as milestones the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Omnibus Crime Control and Safe Streets Act of 1968, the Equal Employment Opportunity Act of 1972 (EEOA), the Civil Rights Act of 1991, fed eral court cases on discrimination, and government- mandated affirmative action programs. ON The Civil Rights Act of 1964 Despite the existence of the Fourteenth Amendment, discrimination by U.S. government agencies contin ued. In an effort to ensure equality, the Civil Rights Act of 1964 was passed by Congress and signed into law by President Lyndon B. Johnson Title VII of this law was designed to prohibit all job discrimina- tion based on race, color, religion, sex, or national origin. It covered hiring, promotion, compensa- tion, dismissal, and all other terms or conditions of employment The Omnibus Crime Control and Safe Streets Act of 1968 The Omnibus Crime Control and Safe Streets Act of 1968 was enacted with the goal of assin ing local governments in reducing the incidence of crime by increasing the effectiveness, fairness, and coordination of law enforcement and the crimi nal justice system. Legislators felt that to pre vent crime and ensure greater safety for people, law enforcement efforts would be better coordi- nated and intensified at the local level, as crime is a local problem. Legislators wanted the federal government to give assistance through grants but not interfere in the efforts. The Law Enforcement Assistance Administration (LEAA) was cre ated to assist with this process. Grants would be awarded in many areas, including the recruitment of law enforcement personnel and the training of these personnel. Money was also allocated to the area of public education relating to crime prevede tion and encouraging respect for law and order including school programs to improve the under standing of and cooperation with law enforcement Fourteenth Amendment Amendment to the U.S. Constitution passed in 1868 that guarantees equal protection of the law to all citizens of the United States, frequently used to govern employment equality in the United States. Civil Rights Act of 1964 Prohibits job discrimination based on race, color, religion, sex, or national origin Omnibus Crime Control and Safe Streets Act of 1968 Enacted to aid communities in reducing the crime problem, it created the Law Enforcement Assistance Administration (LEAAL which provided grants for recruitment, training, and education agencies. A major goal of this act (after the trials and the involvement of the community in crim of the 1960s) was improved community relations prevention and public safety. This act encour aged the recruitment of minority personnel to be ter represent and improve relations with minority communities. CHAPTER 7 MINORITIES IN POLICING 195 female pole women were normally used in only ke their male peers than their predecessore cated than male officers, these women were more Though generally still of a higher class and more to today's female police officer, 71ey were a bridge generation from the early po In 1968, the Indianapolis Police Department gned Betty Blankenship and Elizabeth Coffal w patrolThey were the first females to wear a uni form and a gun belt and to drive a marked patrol with min Blankenship and Coffal broke the moth can responding to calls for service on an equal basis cring" link for police officers, and though they eventually went back to more traditional women's roles in policing, the stage had been set for the modern women-on patrol era. Today, female offi- cers are much like their male colleagues, entering cum fighters to enforce the law, keep the peace and and guarding female prisoners. Even O. W Wilson writing in his Police Administration text, considered by many to be the bible of law enforcement managers proposed that women were an asset in certain police positions, but not all. Through all four editions of his text, from 1950 to 1977, he conceded that women had value as juvenile officers and in other limited areas but contended that they did not have what it took to likely to become irritable and overcritical under emo tional stress than women 11 In the late 1960s and early 1970s, the role of women in US police departments began to change. To some degree, this change was facilitated by the including salary, benefits, and opportunities as 1964 Civil Rights Act, which barred discrimination on the basis of sex. The change also can be attrib- provide public safety functions. uted to the women's rights movement and efforts by Women have faced an enormous uphill struggle for the right to wear the uniform and perform the same basic police duties that men performed for years. Why were women excluded from performing regular police work? Until the 1970s, it was presumed that women, because of their gender and typical size, were not capable of performing the same type of patrol duty as men. Social forces also contributed to the discrimination against women. If women could be police officers, that challenged the macho image of the job. Men did not want to have their behavior inhibited in any way by the presence of women on the job. They did not want to be overshadowed by take orders from women, and they did not want to be supported by women in the performance of poten- tially dangerous work. The issue of jealousy from police officers' wives was also brought up at times. The most commonly heard comment by male police officers during the 1970s as women entered the patrolarena had to do with the fear of female officers being beaten up and their guns taken. This would endanger the female officers, citizens, and the male Officers who would be backing up the women. The men feared that law enforcement would be forever changed and the world as they knew it would come to an end. From World War II until the 1970s, women con- tituted only a very small percentage of U.S. police Officers. The early female officers were restricted to ing parking tickets or performing routine cleri- cal tasks. As mentioned earlier, in the early days of Alice Stebbins Wells, who became one of the first policewomen in the United States when she joined the Los Angeles, California, Police Department in 1910. ters into their own hands. Though not de addressed by their administrations and took as such at the time, an early form of doubt ginality (discussed shortly) led the black dice to successfully deal with the discrimination socialize with each other and teach each others to increased camaraderie and organization with dual system of law enforcement. This site their groups. Black officers formed the Texas Peace Officers Association in 1935. This first om police association organized by black offices in the United States was followed by others in the 194 and 1950s. In 1943, the Guardians Association ognize the views and ideals of black policemen organized by black New York City officers to the In his classic study of African American police officers in the New York City Police Department (NYPD) in 1969, Black in Blue: A Study of the New York City, 95 196 PART 2 THE PERSONAL SIDE OF POLICING female officers themselves to perform patrol duty and to achieve equality with male officers. Even as late as the mid-1970, however, female officers in some jurisdictions experienced different sets of rules than their male counterparts as their adminis trators and coworkers fluctuated between endorsing their full equality and wanting to protect them Discrimination Against African Americans In 1867, after receiving numerous complaints from the New Orleans Tribune, Governor Wells appointed Charles Courcelle, a "newly enfranchised" citi zen, to the board of police commissioners in New Orleans. Three days later the paper reported that Dusseau Picot and Emile Farrar, both African Americans, had been appointed to the police depart- ment. These two pioneers seem to be the first documented African American police officers in the nation. Within 10 years, numerous other cit- ies began appointing blacks to police departments, and just after the turn of the 20th century, signifi- cant appointments began taking place in St. Louis, Dayton, Berkeley, and Atlanta 15 In 1910, the U.S. Census Bureau reported 576 blacks serving as police officers in the United States, most in northern cities. African Americans had all but disappeared from southern police forces. Though Houston, Austin, Galveston, San Antonio, and Knoxville continued to employ African American police officers, these officers often had no uniforms, could not arrest whites, and worked exclusively in black neighborhoods. Until the 1940s, not a single black police officer worked in the Deep South- including South Carolina, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, and Alabama and yet, in the 1930s and 1940s, these states had most of the black population in the United States. Most blacks were eliminated from the hiring process because they posed a threat to white supremacy Even in the North, African Americans faced discrimination in assignments and promotions. Black police officers felt their issues were not Negro Policeman, Nicholas Alex discovered the African Americans were excluded from the depart. ment's detective division. Alex also found that African American officers were usually accepted by white officers as fellow police officers but were socially excluded from the white officers' off duty activities. 16 Alex's major finding was that African American police officers suffered double marginality--the simultaneous expectation by white officers that African American officers would give members of their own race better treat- ment and hostility from members of the African American community who considered black offi cers to be traitors to their race. African American officers also were subjected to racist behavior from white cops. Alex found that, to deal with this pres- sure, African American officers adapted behaviors ranging from denying that African American sus pects should be treated differently from whites to treating African American offenders more harshly to prove their lack of bias. Thus, Alex found. African American cops suffered from the racism of their fellow officers and were seen to be roughes on African Americans to appease whites. Tot repeat of his study in 1976, New York Cops Talk double marginality The simultaneous expectation by white officers that African American officers will give members of their own race better treatment and hostility from members of the African American community who consider black officers to be traitors to their race. department." Back, Alex stated that he found more aggressive self-assured African American police officers, and that the officers he studied were less willing to accept any discriminatory practices by the police Stephen Leinen, in his book Black Police White Society, found significant institutionaline mination in the NYPD until the 1960s. African Homerican police officers were assigned only to ed to specialized, high-profile units. Leinen inican American neighborhoods and were not noted that disciplinary actions against African with those against white officers. He found, how Scan officers were inequitable when compared er that institutional discrimination largely dis- to the legal, social, and political events of the civil pored in subsequent years. He attributed this ghts along with the efforts of African American police officer organizations, such as the NYPD's Guardian NATIONAL COMMISSIONS TO STUDY DISCRIMINATION In the 1960s and early 1970s. cused by the lack of minorities in policing. Various the US government recognized the problems anal commissions were established to study and muake recommendations toward improving the crim- CHAPTER 7 MINORITIES IN POLICING 197 justice system, issued standards to which police tion based on race and gender. On the employment of women, the commission stated that every police policy discouraged qualified women from seeking employment as sworn or civilian personnel or pre. vented them from realizing their full employment." Minority recruiting also was discussed: Every police agency immediately should Jensure that it presents no artificial or arbitrary barriers (cultural or institutional) to discourage qualified individuals from seeking employment or from being employed as police officers. All departments should engage in positive efforts to employ ethnic minority group members. When a substantial ethnic minority population resides within the jurisdiction, the police agency inal justice system should take affirmative action to achieve a ratio of The National Advisory Commission on Civil minority group employees in approximate propor- Disorders stated that discriminatory police employ tion to the makeup of the population. ment practices contributed to the riots of the middle The National Advisory Commission on Civil Disorders, also known as the Kerner Commission, und late 1960s. It found that in every city affected by recommended, among other things, that police riots, the percentage of minority group officers was departments "intensify their efforts to recruit more substantially lower than the percentage of minorities Negroes," examine their promotional policies, and in the community. The commission noted that in increase the use and visibility of integrated patrol Cleveland, minorities represented 34 percent of the in minority neighborhoods. This report together population but only 7 percent of the sworn officers, with increased pressure from the public led to more and, in Detroit, minorities represented 39 percent of aggressive recruiting efforts in police agencies dur- the population but only 5 percent of the sworn offi ing the 1970s and 1980s. cers. Although African Americans made up at least 12 percent of the U.S. population, they represented less than 5 percent of police officers nationwide. How Did Women and The commission also reported that minorities were seriously underrepresented in supervisory ranks in Minorities Strive for at this time, the President's Commission on Law Equality? Enforcement and Administration of Justice, also Despite pronouncements by national commissions, commented on the low percentage of minorities in minorities were forced to take their cases to the police departments: "If police departments, through U.S. courts in an attempt to achieve equality with their hiring or promotion policies, indicate they have white men in U.S. police departments. The primary instrument governing employment equality, as well nority community is not likely to be sympathetic to the police. "19 Another group, the National Advisory National Advisory Commission on Criminal Justice Standards and Goals Presidential commission formed to study the criminal justice system and recommend standards for police agencies to adhere to in order to reduce discrimination. little interest in hiring minority group officers, the Commission on Criminal Justice Standards and Goals, recognized the need to recruit more minori- thes into U.S. police departments. This presidential commission, which was formed to study the criminal 194 PART 2 THE PERSONAL SIDE OF POUCING police officer was not appointed until 1910 Wien Stebbins Wells was hired by the Los Angels Department (LAPD) AS more women were by police departments, they were given only de duties or duties dealing with juveniles or female ers. Women were not permitted to perform the patrol duties as men until the late 1960s. INTRODUCTION Female police officers on uniformed patrol duty are common today, as are officers who are African American or members of other minority groups. In fact, all races and ethnic groups are represented in US. police departments. However, this was not always the case. Until quite recently, white males dominated the ranks, and both women and African Americans were traditionally excluded from U.S. police departments This underrepresentation of minorities in police depart- ments was not limited to southern cities, northern juris- dictions also have a history of discriminating against African Americans and limiting their job responsibilities in law enforcement Although the United States has had organized, paid police departments since the 1840s, the first female This chapter will focus on the roles on mino ity groups in U.S. police departments. We will review their experience and the methods they used to the same job opportunities as white men. The ter will also show the extent to which minorities have influenced today's police departments and will explore the capabilities of women in performing what has tra- ditionally been viewed as a male occupation. Finally, we will examine the status of minorities in US. law enforcement today. Discrimination in Policing The United States has a long history of job discrimination against women and minorities. Discrimination is the unequal treatment of persons in personnel decisions (hiring promotion, and firing) based on their race, religion, national origin, gender, or sexual orientation. Only in the past several decades have women and minorities been able to share the American dream of equal employment. Their treat- ment in police departments was not much different from their treatment in other jobs and in society in general. The federal government admitted this fact in 1974 in an affirmative action guidebook for employ. ers: "American law guarantees all persons equal opportunity in employment. However, employment discrimination has existed in police departments for a long time. The main areas of discrimination are race/ethnic background and gender." LAPD website, Wells was assigned to work with the department's first juvenile officer, Officer Leo W. Marden. Subsequent to her appointment the following order was issued: "No young girl can be questioned by a male officer. Such work is delegated solely to policewomen, who, by their womanly sym. pathy and intuition, are able to gain the confidence of their younger sisters." Wells and other women who followed her embodied the concept of police woman-as-social worker and tended to be educated and upper-middle-class, as opposed to male offi- cers who were largely working class immigrants Policewomen were often called "city mothers" and were employed to bring order and assistance to the lives of women and children who needed help and correction. These women separated themselves from male police officers and did not view the males as their equals in class, education, or professionalism. They avoided the trappings of the male officers and did not wear a uniform or carry a gun. The police establishment did not seek to hire them, but, rather, their entrée was usually the result of outside forces, which added to their isolation from their male peers After World War II, there was the emerge...
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Diversity in Policing
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Diversity in Policing

The world today functions with input from different ethnic groups, which contribute to
diversity. Diversity in law enforcement is of great importance because it earns public trust, better
communication between diverse groups, and the most important is changing public perception
towards policing. In law enforcement, training and retaining the minority can be practiced by
finding the most suitable candidate from the minority group ( Bury et al.,2...

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