Person, Place, and Time-Response classmates'

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Below are two different classmates’ discussion answers and would like a response for each to have a minimum of 50 words and reference citation that's scholarly and peer-reviewed. Thank you.

The first classmates discussion answer:

Ranking causes of death is a popular method of presenting mortality statistics which is a major concept of epidemiology. Data in leading causes of death in the US are based on information from all death certificates filed in the 50 states and the District of Columbia in 2014. Causes of death are classified by the International Classification of Diseases which are ranked according to the number of deaths assigned to rankable causes. The cause of death I choose for my topic is Meningitis.

Meningitis is an inflammation of the protective membranes covering the brain and spinal cord. A bacterial or viral infection of the fluid surrounding the brain or spinal cord usually causes the swelling. Studies show that injuries, cancer, certain drugs and other types of infections can also cause meningitis. There are 6 major classification of Meningitis but there are two that are the most common types.Approximately 80 percent of all cases are acute bacterial meningitis. Approximately 600 – 1,000 people contract meningococcal disease in the U.S. each year. Of those who get meningococcal disease 10-15 percent will die. Bacterial meningitis is very serious and can be deadly if not treated in a timely manner. Most people recover from meningitis but may have permanent disabilities like brain damage, hearing loss and learning disabilities that can result from the infection. Babies aged one month and two years are at increased risk for bacterial meningitis compared to people in other age groups but people of any age can develop bacterial meningitis. CDC reports that at least 21 percent of all meningococcal disease cases occur in preteens, teens and young adults ages 11–24. Infectious diseases tend to spread where large groups of people gather together. College campuses have reported outbreaks of meningococcal disease caused by the bacteria N. meningitidis. There are certain medical conditions, medications and surgical procedures that put people at increased risk for meningitis. Travelers may be at increased risk for meningococcal disease if they travel to sub-Saharan Africa and Mecca.

In newborns and other ages the symptoms are fever, headache and neck stiffness that may be absent or difficult to notice. Other symptoms are irritability, vomiting, and low appetite or appear to be slow or inactive. In babies, doctors may also look for a bulging fontanelle or abnormal reflexes. Symptoms of bacterial meningitis can appear quickly or over several days. Typically they develop within 3 to 7 days after exposure of the bacteria. If a doctor thinks you have meningitis, they will collect samples of blood or cerebrospinal fluid to test of the bacteria. Doctors treat bacterial meningitis with a number of antibiotics and is important to start treatment as soon as possible. The most effective way to protect you and your child against certain types of bacterial meningitis is to get vaccinated. There are vaccines for three types of bacteria that can cause meningitis.

The second classmates discussion answer:

Diabetes is the seventh leading cause of death worldwide (WHO, n.d.). Once considered a rare disease, occurrences of diabetes have been increasing within the last several decades. In 2015, it has been estimated that there are over 415 million people with diabetes worldwide and that number is expected to increase by over 225 million by the year 2040 (Mayo, 2016). The percentage of growth is also higher in developing countries in contrast to developed countries, with a 69% increase anticipated in developing countries compared to a 20% projected increase in developed countries (Mayo, 2016). In the United States, diabetes is most prevalent in the southern portion of the United States also referred to as the "diabetic belt" by the CDC, (CDC, 2015). The is attributed to the ethnic makeup, educational background, and lifestyle habits of the region.

Diabetes is explained as the body not properly processing the food it absorbs for the purpose of energy (CDC, 2015.). The pancreas produces insulin to help get glucose or “sugar” into the cells of the body. In individuals with diabetes though, they cannot either produce enough insulin or use the insulin it does produce efficiently (CDC, 2015). There are two types of diabetes, Type 1 and Type 2.

Type 1 diabetes, or insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, accounts for 5% to 10% of all diabetes cases (Mayo, 2016). Also known as, juvenile diabetes, Type 1 diabetes commonly occurs in childhood or teen years but can happen at any age. Type 1 diabetes happens because of the immune destruction of pancreatic beta cells (Mayo, 2016). Risk factors for Type 1 diabetes include genetic predisposition, environmental causes, Vitamin D deficiency, and co-existing autoimmunity, including disorders such as thyroid and coeliac disease (Mayo, 2016).

Type 2 diabetes or insulin resistance diabetes is the most common form of diabetes. Type 2 diabetes most commonly attributed to obesity. Risk factors include genetic predisposition, lifestyle, including eating habits and physical activity levels, ethnicity, age, impaired glucose tolerance, history of gestational diabetes, and chemicals that disrupt the endocrine system (Mayo, 2016). African American, Hispanic Americans, American Indians, and Pacific Islanders are among those at the highest risk for Type 2 diabetes (CDC, 2015). Minority ethics groups, including African Americans, are six times more likely to develop type 2 diabetes than their Caucasian counterparts due to the way in which their bodies store fat (Mayo, 2016). Research has found that African Americans with diabetes have a 27 % higher death rate than Caucasians (CDC, 2015).

Age plays a large factor in diabetes. In 2004, the CDC estimated that 17% of the United States population between the ages 65-74 have diabetes and of that 95 % of them have Type 2 diabetes (Blaum, 2007). Wherein diabetes of a middle-aged individual is described as an impairment in glucose-induced insulin release and resistance to insulin; diabetes in the elderly is primarily associated with insulin deficiency (Meneilly & Tessier, 1995). The elderly also have the highest rate of complications because of diabetes. Diabetes can contribute to other serious and life-threatening health conditions including heart disease, stroke, blindness, kidney failure, vascular complications, and limb amputations (Blaum, 2007).

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Explanation & Answer

Attached.

Running Head: RESPONSE PAPER

1

Response paper
Name
Institutional Affiliation

RESPONSE PAPER

2

My first classmate talked about the prevalence of meningitis. It is true that meningitis is
slowly becoming a world scare. More and more people including infants are affected by this
disease. Approximately 10-15% of the people who suffer from this illness. The answer states
some of the symptoms and treatments that a person or a child should undergo while curing
meningitis. There are various tren...


Anonymous
Really helpful material, saved me a great deal of time.

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