Criminal Justice 5-7-17

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Using the information from the previous assignment please respond to the attached. APA format 250 words

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What other body fluids other than blood can be identified in the forensic lab? What are the preliminary and confirmatory tests for these fluids? Forensic investigations also involves the science of Serology. Serology is the study of serum and bodily fluids and is the preliminary investigation and genetic typing of biological evidence (Gaensslen, 2008). This type of investigations by identifying the genetic evidence can help assist in the apprehension of a potential suspect of a crime. These fluids range from suspected blood, semen, or saliva evidence, not excluding urine, and perspiration (possible skin transfer). There are two types of testing that occurs during an investigation in a forensic lab, preliminary and confirmatory (NCIDS, 2017). It is essential to know the difference when conducting a forensic investigation. Preliminary tests are also known as presumptive tests, screening tests or field tests. These tests establish the possibility that a specific bodily fluid is present. Initially it does not conclusively prove the presence of a specific substance but it narrows possibilities that can be used on larger areas, and can locate possible evidence not visible to naked eye. Unfortunately, they run the risk of false positives and may be overly sensitive. Preliminary tests provide initial information to determine what test to perform next, used in combination with confirmatory tests. Confirmatory tests conclusively identify the identity of a biological material, it may be one or a combination. Confirmatory tests conclusively identifies a substance, and runs a smaller risk of false positives. This type of test may be more expensive, and require additional equipment, and the procedures take longer. The nature of the study of bodily fluids being recovered at crime scenes are among the most important types of evidence to forensic investigators. They contain valuable DNA evidence which can identify a suspect or victim as well as exonerate an innocent individual. Keep in mind as well as bodily fluids the forensic scientist and investigators look for trace evidence such as skin particles, hairs, fingernails and anything else that might have been part of the crime scene. References Claridge, J. (2016). Bodily Fluids in Forensic Science. Retrieved from http://www.exploreforensics.com. on 05-0417. Gaensslen, R. E., Harris, H. A., & Lee, H. C. (2008). Introduction to forensic science & criminalistics. New York: McGraw-Hill. NCIDS. (2017). Serology - blood and other bodily fluids. Forensic Resources. Retrieved from http://www.ncids.com. on 05/04/17. Discuss the role of NIBIN in the investigation of cases involving firearms. When a gun is created by the manufacturer, the manufacturer etches microscopic markings onto the gun's metal parts. These markings are tool marks, and act almost like a fingerprint for a gun. When a gun is fired, these markings are then transferred to a bullet or a cartridge case. Since these markings are distinctive, these are important to law enforcement to catalog through ballistic imaging, hoping to connect a gun or bullet to a crime (“National Integrated Ballistic Information System,” 2016). This has led to NIBIN. NIBIN stands for National Integrated Ballistic Information Network. NIBIN is a national database of digital images of spent bullets and cartridges cases that have been found at crime scenes or bullets and cartridges fired from confiscated weapons. NIBIN system is managed by the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives, or ATF. The ATF manages the system and provide this equipment to crime labs around the country, to be used by both federal and local law enforcement agencies (“National Integrated Ballistic Information System,” 2016). Ballistic imaging is used by firearms examiners to convert the bullets and cartridges that have been fired into two or three dimensional digital images that are then uploaded into NIBIN. Once these images are uploaded, these can be searched for possible matches. Other rounds that have been fired and have a similar tool mark, may possibly mean that these rounds have also been fired from the same gun and can be connected through the NIBIN. Once this possible match, or "hit" is identified, the crime lab will secure the actual spent rounds and compare them under a microscope to confirm this match. If the lab is able to make this determination, then the lab will send this information on the match, a hit report, to investigators. These NIBIN hit reports have many potential tactical and strategic uses for law enforcement investigators. These law enforcement investigators can use these reports to link crimes. By linking these weapons to crimes, this potentially can help to identify suspects. If this weapon has been used multiple times, these investigators can use this information to help better understand patterns of gun crime. These patterns could include, trafficking, multiple homicides, and gun sharing (“Law enforcement use of the national integrated ballistic information network (NIBIN),” 2013). Currently, NIBIN reports help investigators to match firearms to suspects, but NIBIN are not always properly used by all law enforcement departments. Some departments use NIBIN very little, while other departments have many gun crimes use the NIBIN in a greater number. Also, information about where the cartridge and how it was found is not always provided to NIBIN, which could help with its reports. Another problem is with the labs themselves and when they are running their tests. At times, some of these labs can take up to a hundred days to process the evidence. By the time a match is made, it may be too late to help law enforcement departments or prosecutors (“Law enforcement use of the national integrated ballistic information network (NIBIN),” 2013). National Integrated Ballistic Information System. (2016, September 22). Retrieved https://www.atf.gov/firearms/national-integrated-ballistic-information-network-nibin Law enforcement use of the national integrated ballistic information network (NIBIN). (2013, December 9). Retrieved from http://nij.gov/topics/law-enforcement/investigations/Pages/nibin.aspx
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Running head: NIBIN ROLES

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NIBIN Roles: Christopher’s Work

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NIBIN ROLES

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I fully agree with Christopher’s explanation about the roles of NIBIN as far as firearms
and forensic is concerned. It is important to note that the main role of NIBIN is to ensure that
they link the information from the bullets and cartridge casing to a particul...


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