Evolution is a process or a gradual development of living organism from a simple form to
a more complex form. The change could be in political, social and economic sphere of the living
organisms. Evolution can also be defined as the change which is cumulatively inherited in a given
inhabitants of organism over a period of time leading to manifestation of new forms. Evolution for
so long has been explained using four main theories which include: Lamarckism, which is also
known as the inheritance theory of assimilated characters, is centered on the contrast between the
modern species of Lamarck’s time and fossil accounts; Darwinism, also known as the theory of
Natural Selection; the third theory is Mutation theory of De Vries and the last one is the NeoDarwinism, which is also known as the Modern Concept or the Synthetic theory of evolution.
Questions have been raised for a long time, for example the existence of different species
in different continents, the existence of organism in the fossils records that no longer exist, why
species appear at different time in the fossil record and much more (Zimmer, & Emlen, 2013).
This paper, therefore, will proceed to explain the philosophical reflection, scientific reflection,
sociological reflection and the theological reflection. Scientific reflection explains biologically the
changes that organism undergo through their genetic mutation, sociological reflection points on
the change in society over a long period of time from a small society to a more complex one.
Theological reflection points on the creationism and evolution discussion comes with an
understanding that they have some difference and concurrence in some areas.
Philosophical reflection of evolution narrates how humanity’s singularity has been a
problem to human species progression. Human beings are very intelligent creatures only second
to dolphins hence considering ourselves the most superior creature. Human beings unlike the other
less intelligent creatures are able to co-exist, develop a natural balance with the environment and
have the ability to survive (Hall, Griffiths, & McKenna, 2013). Our primitiveness is that we
consume resources to the position of collapse, eradicating other species with concerning efficiency
and still fail to distinguish our major reason of depravity.
According to Karl Popper’s view, Darwinism was a metaphysical research course but not
a scientific tested theory. The theory suggests mechanisms for adaptation and that is the key reason
why it was acknowledged across the world. This reflection also helps us to understand historical
occurrence that has shaped the evolution processes for example the dominion of the Roman church
in Europe which paid allegiance to the biblical creationism. Aristotle the great Greek philosopher
had a belief that flies and maggots came from rotting slime and flesh.
Theological reflection on evolution has always rejected the theories that try to justify that
living things come from a simple form to a more complex form of creature. Theistic evolution
advocates that evolution is one way that God uses to create and that evolution theory should be
reconciled with the earlier chapters of the book of Genesis. The liberal theology is in agreement
with most parts of the theory of evolution except for the part of natural selection (McGrath, 2016).
It is agreed in some instances that evolution conforms to Christian theology and that from the
fundamental Christian point of view evolution explains God’s creation more than the creationism
theory. According to the theological reflection of evolution, God is in constant process of creation
which in some ways relates to other theories of evolution explaining that evolution is a continuous
process. Although evolution has been accepted by theologians, it should not therefore mean that
they are totally in agreement in the anthropology, creation, redemption or any other evolutioncreation debate. However, it is good to note that Christianity and evolution are profoundly
compatible and therefore time should never be wasted on discussing non-problem issues.
Sociological reflections suggest that society do change from a simple to a more complex
one. In the line of development, human beings are evolving in a unilinear way and this change is
believed to be towards something better. Through evolution, societies are believed to undergo
changes that take it to the higher level of civilization. There are three major stages in the evolution
process of a society. These stages include; savagery, barbarism and civilization.
The major explanation of the societal change was candidly explained in the Charles Darwin
theory of organic evolution and a perfect example is the western civilization that occurred over
centuries (Hall, Griffiths, & McKenna, 2013). In the views of sociologists, society is observed as
an organism and by applying the Darwin’s principal of survival for the fittest, it progresses
gradually to a better state. In the 19th century, Social Darwinism fever spread in the western
affecting races, classes and society which went through to become better and survived through the
beginning of the 20th century...