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Assignment 4, Part 1: Research Project Draft Submission

In Week 2, you submitted your Topic Selection and Proposal. Throughout the length of the course, you have read about your topic, increased your knowledge about your topic, and gathered credible information while conducting research on your topic. Now, you get to consolidate all of your research and assignments into one deliverable final Research Project.

The Basics of APA Style Tutorial is helpful in writing your paper.

Write a four to six (4-6) page paper in which you:

  1. Give a brief explanation of your chosen topical area.
  2. Based on your chosen topic, define the problems and challenges that exist in crime and criminology. Explain the historical issues that have contributed to the problems and challenges.
  3. Address the internal and external stakeholders and how they contribute to both the problems and the solutions in crime and criminology.
  4. Discuss the data and information that you have collected while conducting research on your topic. Discuss how the data relates to the problems and challenges in crime and criminology.
  5. Develop a solution that addresses the problems and challenges in crime and criminology, based on your research.
  6. Use at least eight (6) scholarly sources in this assignment. Note: Wikipedia, Ask.com, Answers.com and general websites do not qualify as scholarly.


Your assignment must follow these formatting requirements:

  • Be typed, double spaced, using Times New Roman font (size 12), with one-inch margins on all sides; citations and references must follow APA or school-specific format. Check with your professor for any additional instructions.
  • Include a cover page containing the title of the assignment, the student’s name, the professor’s name, the course title, and the date. The cover page and the reference page are not included in the required assignment page length.


The specific course learning outcomes associated with this assignment are:

  • Discuss evolutions in criminal theory to explain current and technological evolutions in crime.
  • Evaluate and explain ethical issues inherent in criminology.
  • Use technology and information resources to research issues in crime and criminal behavior.
  • Write clearly and concisely about criminal justice topics using proper writing mechanics and APA conventions.

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Running head: CRIME AND CRIMINAL BEHAVIOR Abuse & Violence Outline Erica Finney April 16, 2017 CRJ105 Crime and Criminal Professor Renee Berry 1 CRIME AND CRIMINAL BEHAVIOR 2 Formal Research Outline Introduction I. Increased substance abuse among the youths in the present generation leads to increased cases of intimate substance abuse. Substance abuse is the continuous use of psychoactive substances like alcohol and other drugs that cause dependence to the user after a repeated use over a long period of time. Intimate partner violence refers to the domestic violence such as physical violence, sexual violence, and stalking among others by a current or former person with whom you had a close relationship with. II. The study will provide a formal research outline on the relationship between substance abuse or use and intimate partner violence. Body I. Intimate partner violence has been on the increase in different countries. Studies have been done to determine the causes of this violence in the society. According to studies done by Whitaker et al (2007), the majority of the people in a sexual relationship have experienced cases of intimate violence from their partners. Substance abuse has been ranked as one of the major causes of intimate partner violence (Moore, Easton & McMahon, 2011). In the present environment, men and women are both at risk of being victims of intimate partner violence though women have a high risk of being violated than men. Children who are raised by parents who are addicted to substance abuse are prone to experience domestic violence that affects their future social relationship. Such children may develop antisocial CRIME AND CRIMINAL BEHAVIOR 3 behaviors and a negative relationship towards their parents or any other person they relate to. There is increased substance abuse among the youth in the current generation. II. Alcohol abuse has been one of the major factors that contribute to intimate partner violence more so in a situation where both the partners are alcohol addicts. This does not only lead to physical violence but also psychological trauma (Stuart et al, 2006). Moreover, continuous use of illicit drugs such as cocaine, marijuana, and opiate contributes to IPV (Moore & Stuart, 2004). This leads addiction which may cause social problems and other related health care complications. The limitation of the study is that some of the respondents may be unwilling to share and give accurate information. A. Pregnant women have a higher risk of exposure to IPV incase their partner is a drug or illicit drug addict. This is because the partner may cause both physical and psychological violence to both the mother and the baby. Domestic violence to pregnant women not only affects the woman but also the fetus. This may cause serious health problems and complications during child deliver (Zilberman & Blume, 2005). Studies show that IPV causes a positive relationship between the prenatal abuse of pregnant women and postnatal trauma symptoms in a child. In addition, substance abuse by women also has a negative impact on the child that can even lead to mental disorders to the child. This may lead to early substance abuse by the child hence addiction. B. The study is significant because there is increased use of drugs among the youths in the society. Substance abuse alters the cognitive functioning of the user hence can cause intimate violence to people they relate. The study will, therefore, provide an analysis of CRIME AND CRIMINAL BEHAVIOR 4 how the substance abuse leads to the intimate partner violence so as to understand the protective measures that could be taken. The research will use qualitative research approach in the analysis of the data. People who are addicted to drug abuse are likely to witness more IPV as compared to those that are not. C. There are increased cases of childhood abuse by parents due to substance abuse. Women with substance abuse are likely to cause both physical and sexual abuse to the children. Children that are raised by both parents who are drug addicts may suffer from intimate partner violence more than those that only one parent is a drug addict. This leads to poor parenting hence the neglecting of the child which may cause him to engage in substance abuse at an early stage. Furthermore, studies show that women with childhood abuse history have increased rate of substance use (Jordan, 2004). III. Children who are raised by parents who are addicted to substance abuse are prone to experience domestic violence that affects their future social relationship. Such children may develop antisocial behaviors and a negative relationship towards their parents or any other person they relate to. There is increased substance abuse among the youth in the current generation. Alcohol abuse has been one of the major factors that contribute to intimate partner violence more so in a situation where both the partners are alcohol addicts. This does not only lead to physical violence but also psychological trauma (Stuart et al, 2006). Moreover, continuous use of illicit drugs such as cocaine, marijuana, and opiate contributes to IPV (Moore & Stuart, 2004). This leads addiction which may cause social problems and other related health care complications. The limitation of the study is that some of the respondents may be unwilling to share and give accurate information. CRIME AND CRIMINAL BEHAVIOR 5 Conclusion The study concludes that substance abuse has an impact on intimate partner violence. This has led to increasing health concern to address the issue. The effects do not only affect the users but also their families, relatives, and friends. The study recommends that the public should be educated on the effects that substance abuse and its relationship with intimate partner violence. Moreover, screening is necessary to identify any problems that may arise as a result of substance abuse. After identification of the problem, it is necessary that both substance abuse and intimate partner violence be addressed. 6 CRIME AND CRIMINAL BEHAVIOR References Jordan, C. E. (2004). Intimate Partner Violence: A Clinical Training Guide for Mental Health Professionals (Springer series on family violence). New York, NY: Springer Publishing Company. Moore, B. C., Easton, C. J., & McMahon, T. J. (2011). Drug Abuse and Intimate Partner Violence: A Comparative Study of Opioid‐Dependent Fathers. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 81(2), 218-227. Moore, T. M., & Stuart, G. L. (2004). Illicit substance use and intimate partner violence among men in batterers' intervention. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 18(4), 385. Stuart, G. L., Meehan, J. C., Moore, T. M., Morean, M., Hellmuth, J., & Follansbee, K. (2006). Examining a conceptual framework of intimate partner violence in men and women arrested for domestic violence. Journal of studies on alcohol, 67(1), 102-112. Zilberman, M. L., & Blume, S. B. (2005). Domestic violence, alcohol and substance abuse. Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria, 27, s51-s55. Running head: CRIME AND CRIMINAL BEHAVIOR Abuse & Violence Erica Finney April 16, 2017 CRJ105 Crime and Criminal Professor Renee Berry 1 CRIME AND CRIMINAL BEHAVIOR 2 Formal Research Outline Introduction I. The study will provide a formal research outline on the relationship between substance abuse or use and intimate partner violence. Increased substance abuse among the youths in the present generation leads to increased cases of intimate substance abuse. Substance abuse is the continuous use of psychoactive substances like alcohol and other drugs that cause dependence to the user after a repeated use over a long period of time. Intimate partner violence refers to the domestic violence such as physical violence, sexual violence, and stalking among others by a current or former person with whom you had a close relationship with. The study is significant because there is increased use of drugs among the youths in the society. Substance abuse alters the cognitive functioning of the user hence can cause intimate violence to people they relate. The study will, therefore, provide an analysis of how the substance abuse leads to the intimate partner violence so as to understand the protective measures that could be taken. The research will use qualitative research approach in the analysis of the data. People who are addicted to drug abuse are likely to witness more IPV as compared to those that are not. Background of the Study Intimate partner violence has been on the increase in different countries. Studies have been done to determine the causes of this violence in the society. According to studies done by Whitaker et al (2007), the majority of the people in a sexual relationship have experienced cases of intimate violence from their partners. Substance abuse has been ranked as one of the major CRIME AND CRIMINAL BEHAVIOR 3 causes of intimate partner violence (Moore, Easton & McMahon, 2011). In the present environment, men and women are both at risk of being victims of intimate partner violence though women have a high risk of being violated than men. Children who are raised by parents who are addicted to substance abuse are prone to experience domestic violence that affects their future social relationship. Such children may develop antisocial behaviors and a negative relationship towards their parents or any other person they relate to. There is increased substance abuse among the youth in the current generation. Alcohol abuse has been one of the major factors that contribute to intimate partner violence more so in a situation where both the partners are alcohol addicts. This does not only lead to physical violence but also psychological trauma (Stuart et al, 2006). Moreover, continuous use of illicit drugs such as cocaine, marijuana, and opiate contributes to IPV (Moore & Stuart, 2004). This leads addiction which may cause social problems and other related health care complications. The limitation of the study is that some of the respondents may be unwilling to share and give accurate information. Domestic Violence, Substance Abuse, and Pregnancy among Women Pregnant women have a higher risk of exposure to IPV incase their partner is a drug or illicit drug addict. This is because the partner may cause both physical and psychological violence to both the mother and the baby. Domestic violence to pregnant women not only affects the woman but also the fetus. This may cause serious health problems and complications during child deliver (Zilberman & Blume, 2005). Studies show that IPV causes a positive relationship between the prenatal abuse of pregnant women and postnatal trauma symptoms in a child. In addition, substance abuse by women also has a negative impact on the child that can even lead to mental disorders to the child. This may lead to early substance abuse by the child hence addiction. CRIME AND CRIMINAL BEHAVIOR 4 Childhood Abuse and Substance Abuse There are increased cases of childhood abuse by parents due to substance abuse. Women with substance abuse are likely to cause both physical and sexual abuse to the children. Children that are raised by both parents who are drug addicts may suffer from intimate partner violence more than those that only one parent is a drug addict. This leads to poor parenting hence the neglecting of the child which may cause him to engage in substance abuse at an early stage. Furthermore, studies show that women with childhood abuse history have increased rate of substance use (Jordan, 2004). Conclusion and Recommendations The study concludes that substance abuse has an impact on intimate partner violence. This has led to increasing health concern to address the issue. The effects do not only affect the users but also their families, relatives, and friends. The study recommends that the public should be educated on the effects that substance abuse and its relationship with intimate partner violence. Moreover, screening is necessary to identify any problems that may arise as a result of substance abuse. After identification of the problem, it is necessary that both substance abuse and intimate partner violence be addressed. Introduction I. Brief overview of topic II. Thesis statement Body I. First Main Point II. Second Main Point (not less important, that the heading above, but equally relevant to support the overall paper) A. Supporting point (Any supporting point may be broken as in supporting point B) 5 CRIME AND CRIMINAL BEHAVIOR B. Another supporting Point 1. Category 2. Category a. specific b. another specific (1) detail of specific (2) another detail of specific C Another Supporting Point (Any supporting point may be broken as in supporting point B) III. Third Main Point Conclusion References Jordan, C. E. (2004). Intimate Partner Violence: A Clinical Training Guide for Mental Health Professionals (Springer series on family violence). New York, NY: Springer Publishing Company. Moore, B. C., Easton, C. J., & McMahon, T. J. (2011). Drug Abuse and Intimate Partner Violence: A Comparative Study of Opioid‐Dependent Fathers. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 81(2), 218-227. Moore, T. M., & Stuart, G. L. (2004). Illicit substance use and intimate partner violence among men in batterers' intervention. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 18(4), 385. CRIME AND CRIMINAL BEHAVIOR Stuart, G. L., Meehan, J. C., Moore, T. M., Morean, M., Hellmuth, J., & Follansbee, K. (2006). Examining a conceptual framework of intimate partner violence in men and women arrested for domestic violence. Journal of studies on alcohol, 67(1), 102-112. Whitaker, D. J., Haileyesus, T., Swahn, M., & Saltzman, L. S. (2007). Differences in frequency of violence and reported injury between relationships with reciprocal and nonreciprocal intimate partner violence. American Journal of Public Health, 97(5), 941-947. Zilberman, M. L., & Blume, S. B. (2005). Domestic violence, alcohol and substance abuse. Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria, 27, s51-s55. 6 Running Head: ABUSE & VIOLENCE 1 Abuse & Violence Annotated Bibliography Erica Finney May 10, 2017 Criminal Behavior CRJ105 Professor Renee Berry 2 ABUSE & VIOLENCE Abuse & Violence Annotated Bibliography Behnke, M., Smith, V. C., & Committee on Substance Abuse. (2013). Prenatal substance abuse: short-and long-term effects on the exposed fetus. Pediatrics, 131(3), e1009e1024. This article examines the impact substance usage has among women and how they affect children both in the short-run and in the long-run. The long term effects related to prenatal drug exposure include poor behavioral outcomes. The outcomes of this study confirmed that children who were exposed to substances registered high rates of externalizing disorders. The externalizing disorders consequentially registered high delinquency and juvenile crimes courtesy of the negative vices associated with externalizing disorders. The findings of this research corroborate with those of my project, in that they confirm that exposure to drugs plays a critical role in increased criminal behavior as it affected the behaviors of children in future. This article will apply to my area of focus as it is relevant in explaining the relationship of exposure to substance abuse and criminal behaviour. This source takes on a unique dimension of explain how substance abuse affects children and their subsequent outcomes especially in criminal behaviour. Bennett, T., & Edwards, J. (2015). What Has Been Learned from Research on the Drugs– Crime Connection?. The Handbook of Drugs and Society, 285. Trevor Bennett and Jason Edwards wrote this book in a bid to explain what various researches have concluded on the relationship between drugs and crime. The book confirms that most incarcerated individuals have at one time used alcohol and drugs in their lives. This study confirms the statistics that indicate that a huge prison populace is in prison largely because they reported using a drug at one point in their lives. The two authors offer 3 ABUSE & VIOLENCE alarming statistics on the number of violent crimes reported after using alcohol. It also confirmed that a high rate of offenders who abused drugs attacked intimate individuals. This research brought in a new perspective of the types of crimes related to drugs. The crimes include user related crime, economic related crime and system related crime. User related crime involves crime committees as a result of the effect the drug has on their behavior. Economic related crimes are crimes committed in order to fund the drug habit while system related crimes are crimes that involve the production and sale of the drug. Bennett, T., Holloway, K., & Farrington, D. (2008). The statistical association between drug misuse and crime: A meta-analysis. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 13(2), 107-118. This article by Trevor Bennet, Katy Holloway and David Farrington is a study that combined data from multiple sources so as to find out the connection between drug misuse and crime. This research paper investigates the relationship strength between offences and the use of the drugs. The findings of the study confirmed that the prevalence rate of substance abusers to engage in crime was three to four times higher compared to those who did not use drugs. This source is relevant to my research as it will inform the basis of my research. The study will make me to apply the findings of the research to my area of focus particularly in the field of crime and substance abuse. The authors found a connection between drug misuse and criminal behavior and encouraged violence. This study will inform my future research as it quantifies the strength of the relationship between drug misuse and criminal behaviour. Inciardi, J. A. (2008). The war on drugs IV: The continuing saga of the mysteries and miseries of intoxication, addiction, crime, and public policy. Pearson/Allyn and Bacon. 4 ABUSE & VIOLENCE James Inciardi, a leading researcher in the field of drug and alcohol abuse wrote this book so as to offer a basis of discussion on the drug menace. It examines how the various drugs works in the human body, how they alter normal thinking and how they increase the likelihood of being aggressive and subsequent engagement of various criminal activities. This research will inform my project as it will confirm that substance abuse has an impact on violence especially after intoxication. It will offer insights to substance addiction and intoxication and how they impair human brain functioning. This will inform the basis of my research as it will aid in critically evaluating the mind of an offender from the point of intoxication to the time they engage in the crime. It will offer insights to my projects as to how crime, drugs, alcohol and violence are correlated. The book is universally acknowledged as offering the best insights to Stuart, G. L., Temple, J. R., Follansbee, K. W., Bucossi, M. M., Hellmuth, J. C., & Moore, T. M. (2008). The role of drug use in a conceptual model of intimate partner violence in men and women arrested for domestic violence. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 22(1), 12. This research paper seeks to explain how substance abuse including alcohol contributes to intimate partner violence. The study sampled 271 men and 135 women who had been arrested for intimate partner violence. The findings of the results confirmed that those who used drugs reported high cases intimate partner violence. The findings of this study confirm that drug issues played a critical role in the evolution of violence amongst partners. Illicit substance use forms a high frequency of physical aggressive behaviour to their intimate counterparts. It confirms that an increase in the level of intoxication makes aggression to increase. This paper will inform my project as it will give evidence of how various illicit substances predict the severity of intimate partner violence. The study will aid 5 ABUSE & VIOLENCE me to apply this method to my area of focus by ensuring that it enlightens on the role of illicit drug abuse on violence related crimes. White, H. R., & Gorman, D. M. (2000). Dynamics of the drug-crime relationship. Criminal justice, 1(15), 1-218. This article by Helene Raskin White and D.M Gorman explores how drugs and crime are related. White, a distinguished Professor of Sociology, argues that drug use varies from one scale to another depending on how one defines crime. She states that even though drugrelated crime varies from one jurisdiction to another, drugs still plays a critical role in the evolution of crime. The study also takes into consideration of offenders who may use bias to justify their behaviour so that they may evade longer terms. This research will form the basis of limitations for my project. It will also be the basis of the argument against drugs being the core source of violent and criminal behaviour. This study will critique various literatures that acknowledge that drugs are the source of delinquent actions. The research is justified as it samples subjects from extensive demographics in comparison to other researches that pick its subjects from captives in prisons. Running head: CRIME AND CRIMINAL BEHAVIOR 1 Abuse & Violence Erica Finney April 16, 2017 CRJ105 Crime and Criminal Professor Renee Berry CRIME AND CRIMINAL BEHAVIOR 2 The study will provide a formal research outline on the relationship between substance abuse or use and intimate partner violence. Increased substance abuse among the youths in the present generation leads to increased cases of intimate substance abuse. Substance abuse is the continuous use of psychoactive substances like alcohol and other drugs that cause dependence to the user after a repeated use over a long period of time. Intimate partner violence refers to the domestic violence such as physical violence, sexual violence, and stalking among others by a current or former person with whom you had a close relationship with. Intimate partner violence has been on the increase in different countries. Studies have been done to determine the causes of this violence in the society. According to studies done by Whitaker et al (2007), the majority of the people in a sexual relationship have experienced cases of intimate violence from their partners. Substance abuse has been ranked as one of the major causes of intimate partner violence (Moore, Easton & McMahon, 2011). In the present environment, men and women are both at risk of being victims of intimate partner violence though women have a high risk of being violated than men. Children who are raised by parents who are addicted to substance abuse are prone to experience domestic violence that affects their future social relationship. Such children may develop antisocial behaviors and a negative relationship towards their parents or any other person they relate to. This leads addiction which may cause social problems and other related health care complications. The limitation of the study is that some of the respondents may be unwilling to share and give accurate information. Pregnant women have a higher risk of exposure to IPV incase their partner is a drug or illicit drug addict. This is because the partner may cause both physical and psychological violence to both the mother and the baby. Domestic violence to pregnant women not only affects the woman but also the fetus. This may cause serious health problems and complications during CRIME AND CRIMINAL BEHAVIOR 3 child deliver (Zilberman & Blume, 2005). Studies show that IPV causes a positive relationship between the prenatal abuse of pregnant women and postnatal trauma symptoms in a child. In addition, substance abuse by women also has a negative impact on the child that can even lead to mental disorders to the child. This may lead to early substance abuse by the child hence addiction. There are increased cases of childhood abuse by parents due to substance abuse. Women with substance abuse are likely to cause both physical and sexual abuse to the children. Children that are raised by both parents who are drug addicts may suffer from intimate partner violence more than those that only one parent is a drug addict. This leads to poor parenting hence the neglecting of the child which may cause him to engage in substance abuse at an early stage. Furthermore, studies show that women with childhood abuse history have increased rate of substance use (Jordan, 2004). The study concludes that substance abuse has an impact on intimate partner violence. This has led to increasing health concern to address the issue. The effects do not only affect the users but also their families, relatives, and friends. The study recommends that the public should be educated on the effects that substance abuse and its relationship with intimate partner violence. Moreover, screening is necessary to identify any problems that may arise as a result of substance abuse. After identification of the problem, it is necessary that both substance abuse and intimate partner violence be addressed. 4 CRIME AND CRIMINAL BEHAVIOR References Jordan, C. E. (2004). Intimate Partner Violence: A Clinical Training Guide for Mental Health Professionals (Springer series on family violence). New York, NY: Springer Publishing Company. Moore, B. C., Easton, C. J., & McMahon, T. J. (2011). Drug Abuse and Intimate Partner Violence: A Comparative Study of Opioid‐Dependent Fathers. American Journal of Zilberman, M. L., & Blume, S. B. (2005). Domestic violence, alcohol and substance abuse. Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria, 27, s51-s55.
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Running head: CRIME AND CRIMINOLOGY

1

Abuse and Violence
Instructor name
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Date

CRIME AND CRIMINOLOGY

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Brief explanation
Substance abuse alludes to the hurtful or risky utilization of psychoactive substances, with liquor
and prohibited drugs. Psychoactive substance utilize can prompt dependence syndrome - a
behavioral, psychological, and physiological wonders that create after repeated substance
utilization and that normally include a powerful push to take the drug, challenges in controlling
its consumption, continuing in its utilization regardless of unsafe results, a high need given to
drug use than to diverse commitments, extended resistance, and now and again a physical
abandonment state. Intimate partner violence refers to the domestic violence such as physical
violence, sexual violence, and stalking among others by a current or former person with whom
you had a close relationship with.
Problems, challenges and historical issues
There are numerous problems that exist in crime and criminology especially in relation to
substance abuse and intimate partner violence. The effect of substance abuse and reliance can be
broad, having impact on every organ in the human body. Drug utilization can debilitate the safe
framework, expanding vulnerability to contaminations. Cause cardiovascular conditions
broadening from strange heart rate to heart diseases. Infused drugs can likewise result in fallen
veins and contaminations of the heart valves and veins. Cause stroke, seizures, and far-reaching
cerebrum harm that can influence all parts of the body by bringing on issues with remembrance,
consideration and decision making, including managed mental disarray and lasting mind harm.
("Effects of Drug Abuse and Addiction", n.d.) Apart from deaths and wounds, physical violence
by an intimate partner is related with various antagonistic wellbeing results. A few health
conditions related with intimate partner violence might be an instant effect of the physical

CRIME AND CRIMINOLOGY

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violence...


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