PSY-830 Literature Review Resources, psychology homework help

May 19th, 2017
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Biology
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Question description

Details:

Successful completion of a doctoral dissertation requires significant amounts of independent reading on the research topic. This allows the doctoral learner/researcher to become familiar with the scope of the topic and to identify gaps or tensions within the existing literature on the topic. These gaps and tensions become the source of the dissertation research. In this assignment, you will read and annotate potential sources in your dissertation field of interest. Those demonstrating the most merit to the best of your understanding of the topic at this time should be added to your RefWorks list for potential inclusion in the literature review section of your dissertation.

General Requirements:

Use the following information to ensure successful completion of the assignment:

  • Locate the assignment submission for "Literature Review Resources" from RES-825. You will be adding to this document to continue building a running literature review.
  • It is strongly recommended that you engage in this activity throughout the duration of your program.
  • Instructors will be scoring your submission based on the number of unique sources identified in the list submitted.
  • Download the resource Literature Review Resources Tool and use it to complete the assignment.
  • Doctoral learners are required to use APA style for their writing assignments. The APA Style Guide is located in the Student Success Center.
  • Refer to the resource, "Preparing Annotated Bibliographies," located in the Student Success Center, for additional guidance on completing this assignment in the appropriate style.

Directions:

Read at least 10 peer-reviewed articles in your general dissertation field that you have not read previously.

In the "Literature Review Resources" document that you submitted in RES-825, provide the following for each source that you are adding to the document:

  1. The APA-formatted citation.
  2. A brief annotation of the key points of the source.
  3. An indication of whether the source has been added to (Y) or excluded from (N) your RefWorks list.

Please complete the assignment by using the attached document. Please just go to the end of the assignment and jut add additional lines to add the information. Please ensure that the 10 articles or peer reviewed articles or journals and please ensure they are not duplicates of ones already used.

Running head: LITERATURE REVIEW RESOURCES Literature Review Resources Karlatta Coyle Grand Canyon University: PSY-803 November 23, 2016 1 LITERATURE REVIEW RESOURCES 2 RES-811 Literature Review Resources Number Article Information Added to RefWorks? (Y or N) 1. Bibliographic Information Manzoor, Q. A. (2012). Impact of employees motivation on organizational effectiveness. Business management and strategy, 3(1), 1. Link http://www.macrothink.org/journal/index.php/bms/article/view/904 Annotation Manzoor (2012) conducted a qualitative research by examining various secondary materials from distinct areas of study. The hypothesis of the study aimed at establishing the various factors that affect employee motivation as well as examining the association between organization effectiveness and employee motivation. Manzoor (2012) asserted that both employee empowerment and recognition have a positive association with employee motivation. Additionally, Manzoor (2012) noted that there exists a positive association between employee motivation and organizational effectiveness. The study was appropriately organized into an N LITERATURE REVIEW RESOURCES 3 introduction, body, and conclusion which made the work easy to follow. The study drew from various scholarly materials which provided profound insights into the topic. However, the study was subject to various shortcomings. The research included prior research which could be outdated currently. From the above shortcomings, the validity and reliability of the information is questionable. 2. Bibliographic Information Cristini, A. (2011). Employees’ motivation and high performance workplace practices. Mimeo, University of Bergamo. Link http://www.sole-jole.org/12477.pdf Annotation Cristini (2011) quantitive research aimed at investigating organization factors that influence employee innovation and commitment to the organization. The hypothesis in the study aimed at investigating the effect of intrinsic rewards and extrinsic rewards to employee innovation and commitment. Cristini (2011) suggested that although extrinsic rewards increase employee efforts, they have N LITERATURE REVIEW RESOURCES a marginal effect on employee commitment and innovation. Additionally, extrinsic rewards may crowd intrinsic rewards which have a significant impact on employee loyalty and commitment. Overall, cristini (2011) suggested that firms should invest in empowerment practices to enhance employee commitment to the organization. The research is scholarly and provides critical insights into the subject matter especially with the fact that it derives from various studies, both primary and secondary. A major strength of the research is that it includes a large sample size which makes the results significant and generalizable across various fields. However, the major shortcoming of the study is that it uses relatively older secondary literature which may be outdated. 3. Bibliographic Information Baker, & John. (1996). 50 Sure Fire Ideas for Boosting Morale and Creating a Can-Do Culture Link http://eric.ed.gov/?id=ED395636 Annotation Baker and John (1996) article examined the various ways of 4 LITERATURE REVIEW RESOURCES enhancing the morale and performance of the employees. In the article, Baker and John (1996) suggested that employee could be motivated by both intrinsic and extrinsic rewards. Analytically, the various intrinsic rewards mentioned in the article aimed at giving recognition to employees and acknowledging their achievements which led to employee satisfaction hence enhance performance. On the other hand, the extrinsic rewards mentioned in the article include giving gifts and other monetary rewards to the employees to enhance their morale and performance. Although the article provides valuable insights to employee motivation, it has several limitations. First, the article does not draw from primary and secondary research, therefore, lacks in-depth knowledge about the subject. The article lacks the fundamental elements of scholarly work since it lacks an introduction, conclusion and referencing. Finally, the article does not use scientific methods in investigating the matter making the findings less credible and unreliable. 4. Bibliographic Information Elqadri, Z. M., Suci, R. P., & Chandra, T. (2015). Effect of Leadership Style, Motivation, and Giving Incentives on the Performance of Employees-PT. Kurnia Wijaya Various Industries. International Education Studies, 8(10), 183. 5 N LITERATURE REVIEW RESOURCES 6 Link http://www.ccsenet.org/journal/index.php/ies/article/view/53552 Annotation Elqadri, Priyono, Suci and Chandra (2015) conducted a quantitative study on employees from the sales department across various industries. The study hypothesis aimed at examining the role of leadership style, motivation and incentive (independent variables) in enhancing the performance of the employees (dependent variables). Elqadri et al (2015) found out that the three independent variables have a significant effect on the dependent variable. Analytically, the study is arranged well into introduction, body, and conclusion which helps brings out the study’s propositions clearly. Also, the study utilizes various scholarly materials which add various insights to employee performance. The secondary scholarly resources used in the research are current and therefore reliable. The study incorporated scientific methods during sampling, data collection, and data analysis which make the results valid and dependable for academic use. However, the main limitation of the study is the use of a small sample population which makes the findings less generalizable across various related fields. N LITERATURE REVIEW RESOURCES 5. 7 Bibliographic Information Diefendorff, J. M., & Mehta, K. (2007). The relations of motivational traits with workplace deviance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 92(4), 967 Link http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17638458 Annotation Diefendorff and Mehta (2007) conducted a quantitative research on employed undergraduate students drawn from different organizations and occupations. The various set hypothesis in their study aimed at examining the relationship between the approach and avoidance motivational traits with deviant behaviors at work. For the approach motivation, Diefendorff and Mehta (2007) noted that personal mastery was negatively related to both organizational and interpersonal deviance; Behavioral activation system approach was positively related to organizational and interpersonal deviance while competitive excellence had no association with both deviances. The avoidance motivation, on the other hand, had a positive association with organization deviance but interacted with significant constraints within the organization to influence interpersonal N LITERATURE REVIEW RESOURCES 8 deviance. The fact that the study thoroughly utilized both primary and secondary research enabled the study to cover the topic in question comprehensively. The work was also neatly organized to subsections enabling the reader to grasp the main concepts of the study. The primary shortcoming which renders the findings unsuitable for use as the primary study of note is the use of students to be representative of the working population. Also, the sample population was unevenly distributed as far as gender is concerned which might have resulted in bias. Overall, the research was scholarly. 6. Bibliographic Information Ashman, I., & Winstanley, D. (2006). The ethics of organizational commitment. Business Ethics: A European Review, 15(2), 142-153. Link doi:10.1111/j.1467-8608.2006.00438.x Annotation Ashman and Winstanley (2009) conducted qualitative research to examine the concept of organization commitment critically. Ashman and Winstanley (2009) work serves as a critic to Y LITERATURE REVIEW RESOURCES 9 the orthodox perception of organization commitment. The latter demonstrates the above perspective through conducting in-depth interviews. In their research, Ashman and Winstanley (2009) recognized that although proper human resource practices play a significant role in enhancing employee loyalty and dedication which enhanced organization commitment, the latter pointed out useful organization commitment results from an individual’s set of morals and values. Analytically, their article is scholarly and is organized in an introduction, body, and conclusion. Also, the article derives from various scholarly primary and secondary sources which help provide critical insights to the subject matter. However, the primary limitation of the work is that the research utilized a small sample population of 45 respondents. As such, the study is not generalizable to come to practical conclusions regarding the subject matter. 7. Bibliographic Information Klann, G. (2004). How Leaders Can Build Positive Energy Link http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/lia.1076/abstract Annotation Klann (2004) article examined how effective leaders can Y LITERATURE REVIEW RESOURCES create positive energy within the organization. The article aimed at explaining how morale, pride, and spirit could be created within an organization to enhance organizations productivity. Klann (2004) claimed that proper communication and shared experiences need to be encouraged within the organization to enhance team’s morale, pride, and spirit within the organization. Also, social needs and emotional connections of the employees need to be addressed. The study is organized into subsection which enhances the readability of the text to grasp the main ideas. However, the article has several shortcomings. The article does not reference from other materials to support the main arguments and provide profound knowledge into the matter. The article lacks the introduction and the conclusion sections. Also, the article does not use scientific methods to support it main claims; therefore, the credibility of the information in the article is questionable. Overall, the article is not scholarly. 8. Bibliographic Information Rabinowitz, W., Falkenbach, K., Travers, J. R., Valentine, C. G., & Weener, P. (1983). Worker Motivation: Unsolved Problem or Untapped Resource?.California Management Review, 25(2), 45-56. Link 10 LITERATURE REVIEW RESOURCES 11 http://eds.b.ebscohost.com.lopes.idm.oclc.org/ehost/detail/detail?sid =a65d4 8ab-e646-42db-9b0b588fd4b50855%40sessionmgr120&vid=0&hid=127&bdata= JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZSZzY29wZT1zaXRl#AN=4759880&d b=bah Y Annotation Rabinowitz, Falkebach, Travers, Valentin and Winner (1983) conducted a quantitative study in thirty-seven countries in the United States. Their central hypothesis aimed at examining the factors that influence worker satisfaction and pride. Rabinowitz et al. (1983) claimed that the principal source of employee dissatisfaction within an organization included the perceived inequities in pay rates, inequities in work requirements, improper communication within the organization and finally poor corporate practices and policies. Overall, Rabinowitz et al. (1983) claimed that inadequate communication is the leading factor of worker dissatisfaction and pride. The study included a large sample from diverse working fields which rendered the findings reliable and generalizable to across various fields. The research was properly organized which enhanced how the main ideas were delivered. The primary limitation of the research is that it only utilized a sample from the American population; therefore, the findings from the LITERATURE REVIEW RESOURCES 12 study may not be generalized to other countries. 9. Bibliographic Information Fowler, S. (2015). Motivation Done Right. Link https://www.td.org/TD/TD-Archive/2015/12/Motivation-DoneRight Annotation Fowler (2015) conducted a qualitative research to examine how best motivation could be done within an organization. The hypothesis in the study aimed at explaining the effect of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation on employee performance. Fowler (2015) maintained a pessimistic view that employees cannot be motivated through intrinsic and extrinsic motivation strategies; instead, employees are self-motivated. The latter argued that leaders cannot motivate employees; rather, they can shift employees to an optimal motivation outlook through the adoption of best practices. The research is properly arranged into subsections which help the researcher bring out the main propositions within the study. However, the paper has various limitations. First, the article lacks the main elements of scholarly work which includes the N LITERATURE REVIEW RESOURCES 13 introduction, the body, and the conclusion. The paper does not utilize the secondary scholarly literature to support the main arguments clearly and give critical insights into the matter. Finally, the study does not include scientific methods to test the hypothesis and offer sufficient support to the main arguments in the study. As such, the propositions within the paper are less credible and unreliable. Overall, the paper is not scholarly. 10. Bibliographic Information Leuba, C. (1932). The measurement of incentives and their effect: a contribution to methodology and orientation resulting from the experimental use of incentives. Link http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/00224545.1932.99191 37?jour nalCode=vsoc20 Annotation Leuba (1932) conducted a quantitative research using a group of students from junior school at a public school. The study hypothesis aimed at discovering the effect of incentives on individuals speed in completing specific tasks and overall performance of individuals. In the study, Leuba (1932) noted that N LITERATURE REVIEW RESOURCES increased incentives increased individual’s willingness and speed to complete given tasks. The research article was properly organized into subsections which enhanced how the researcher put out the main ideas. The researcher was also able to bring out the main concepts well in a deductive manner. However, the study had several limitations. First, the study population was majorly drawn from the same environment (school) which exposed the research to bias. Also, in the selection of sample population, gender equality was not observed which introduced bias to the study. The sample population used was relatively small making the results of the study less reliable and generalizable. The research did not use secondary resources to provide critical into the research problem. Overall, the study was scholarly. 11. Bibliographic Information Taylor, B. M. (2015). The Integrated Dynamics of Motivation and Performance in the Workplace. Performance Improvement, 54(5), 28-37. doi:10.1002/pfi.21481 Link http://eds.a.ebscohost.com/eds/detail/detail?sid=00d39350-936f4b67-9cee-fe99913bc Annotation Taylor (2015) looks at the relationship that exists between 14 LITERATURE REVIEW RESOURCES 15 the employees and the environment in which they work in. it is important to look at the environment as it helps assess the impact that it has on the employees’ motivation. The environment that Taylor (2015) advances is the culture of the organization, styles of management, values and goals, rewards and incentives and the demands and support that they get while working. For performance to be improved management needs to focus on performance and it should come from the environment that the organization is operating from. The ability to interact both at the situational and contextual levels assists the organization in understanding the different consequences that arise from environment affecting the performance of the employees. The research limitation was on getting the feedback on the various methods that the organization uses to improve the motivation of the employees in the environment. A research problem is created that guides how the research is done to achieve its objectives. Bibliographic Information 12 Nasser, R., & Saadeh, B. A. (2013). Motivation for Achievement . and Structural Workplace Empowerment among Palestinian Healthcare & Professionals. Perspectives On Global Development Technology, 12(5/6), 543-560. doi:10.1163/15691497- 12341273 Y LITERATURE REVIEW RESOURCES 16 Link http://eds.a.ebscohost.com/eds/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?sid=9030ca46a797- 4fe5-aef4d487c065204b%40sessionmgr4007&vid=1&hid=4210 Annotation Nasser& Saadeh (2013) conducted a test in the healthcare environment where the test was to use the theory of structural empowerment in the workplace by Kanther. It looks at the reasons why the researches done in the past have failed and it is attributed to lack of motivation among the employees. The limitation in the research is that it has failed to show the characteristics of the employees that influence the perception of empowerment and this is said to affect the motivation of the employees (Nasser& Saadeh, 2013). The research was conducted through the use of primary data where a questionnaire was administered and analysis done to show the motivation factors as influenced by the personality of an individual. The results of the study are that motivation influences empowerment as the employees feel that they can contribute more to the organization growth. It is important that control of the characteristics of the individuals is done to enhance motivation. Y LITERATURE REVIEW RESOURCES 17 Bibliographic Information 13 Brenner, B. K. (2010). Instituting Employee Volunteer Programs as . Part of Employee Benefit Plans Yields Tangible Business Benefits. Journal Of Financial Service Professionals, 64(1), 32- 35. Link http://eds.a.ebscohost.com/eds/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?sid=9d0e5f767cc2- 49f3-876335a7f7cbf432%40sessionmgr4008&vid=1&hid=4210 Annotation Brenner (2010) in the study aims to find out the benefits that volunteer programs have in increasing the motivation of the employees. The study shows that where there is positive contribution by the organization, the employees’ satisfaction levels are likely to increase. The opportunities where the employees have the chance to volunteer enhance the morale of the employees as organization is seen to increase the levels of retention and productivity is increased that leads to increased performance of the organization. The employees view the programs as a benefit to them as they are in a position to advance their skills (Brenner, 2010). It makes it important for the organization to consider the implementation of such programs. The study utilizes secondary data where the opportunities that are presented by the use of the Y LITERATURE REVIEW RESOURCES 18 volunteer programs are assessed. The limitation is the bias that arises is the collection of data that might lead to wrong interpretation of results. Bibliographic Information 14 Wofford, J. C. (1971). Managerial Behavior, Situational Factors, . and Productivity and Morale. Administrative Science Quarterly, 16(1), 10. Link http://eds.a.ebscohost.com/eds/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?sid=a218251a2f8d- 4e2c-84c145923563be11%40sessionmgr4009&vid=1&hid=4210 Annotation Wofford (1971) identifies the behavior of the management that helps in increasing the productivity of the employees. The research uses a conceptual framework that has distinct variables and whose definition is done by the analysis of the different factors. The variables are known to affect the relationships that exist between the behavior of the management and the morale and productivity of the employees. The sample population used in the study was eighty eight companies and the employees used were those in the middle management. The results show that situations such as security are important in increasing the motivation of the employees. It is Y LITERATURE REVIEW RESOURCES 19 important that a conceptual framework is created as it assists in acknowledging the benefits of the variable. It shows how the behavior of the management increases the productivity of the organization by increasing the productivity of the employees. The limitation of the study is where time is considered a factor in looking at the situational factors. Bibliographic Information 15 Kaya, Ç., & Başkaya, R. (2016). The Roles of Organizational and . Ethical Climate on Individual Performance of Employees. Business Management Dynamics,5(8), 27. Link http://eds.a.ebscohost.com/eds/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?sid=e0a272477b6b- 4335-976e94e34c98a4dc%40sessionmgr4010&vid=5&hid=4210 Annotation Kaya & Başkaya (2016) look at the evaluation of performance of the employees by looking at the standards that different organizations use in measuring the productivity of the employees. The increase in competition in the global world necessitates the need for increase in productivity of the employees and it happens when the organization motivates its employees. Sustainability in the human resources ensures that the organization Y LITERATURE REVIEW RESOURCES 20 continues to remain competitive in the market. The research looks at the climate of the organization in terms of ethics and roles that enhance the productivity of the employees. Data is obtained through the use of surveys that measures how the employees perceive the different roles that they have in the organization. The results show that the motivation of the employees increases where they are trusted with the different roles of the organization. The ethical climate ensures that their behaviors are guided and this makes sure that they increase their performance for them to remain competitive. Bibliographic Information 16. Rawat, B., Khugshal, R., & Chaubey, D. S. (2015). Employee Attitude Towards Motivational Practices: An Empirical Study. Global Management Review, 9(2), 14-28. Link http://eds.a.ebscohost.com/eds/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?sid=80c099ef-8244498c-9027-acbb40a41218%40sessionmgr4006&vid=1&hid=4210 Annotation The study looks at the various responsibilities that the management has in ensuring that their employees remain motivated especially in a complex working environment. The aim of the study is to look at the attitudes of the employees towards the practices that the organization uses in motivating the employees. The practices that the study looks at include simplification of the jobs, enlargement, rotation, participation of the Y LITERATURE REVIEW RESOURCES 21 employees and rewards (Rawat, Khugshal & Chaubey, 2015). Descriptive research design is used to show the trends that exist in the motivation of the employees. The results of the study show that motivation of the employees is a great challenge to many institutions and as such the management makes it its responsibility to ensure that the employees are productive in their work. They enhance this through the use of different programs such as rotation of jobs that helps increase the attitude of the employees towards the opportunities that are presented to them. Bibliographic Information 17. Ganesh, A. (2016). Understanding the Relationship between Employee Motivation and Customer Retention. Vilakshan: The XIMB Journal Of Management, 13(1), 101-114. Link http://eds.a.ebscohost.com/eds/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?sid=a3607fac-18ad4897-98bf-7191e06cc41f%40sessionmgr4009&vid=1&hid=4210 Annotation Ganesh (2016) acknowledges that the role that employees play in an organization is important in enhancing the retention of customers. The study advances that many of the organizations increase their budgets in creating customer loyalty but neglect the aspect of motivating their employees. When there is no motivation of the employees then they are less likely to ensure that they retain the customers. Mandovi company is used as the Y LITERATURE REVIEW RESOURCES 22 study population where the motivation is measured and the influences that it has on the retention of the customers. It also shows the extrinsic and intrinsic factors that an organization should be used to ensure that their employees remain motivated. The results show that there is a positive correlation between customer retention and employee motivation meaning that for the organization to achieve its objectives it has to make sure that the employees in the organization remain motivated. Bibliographic Information 18. Zeb, A., Jamal, W., & Ali, M. (2015). Reward and Recognition Priorities of Public Sector Universities' Teachers for their Motivation and Job Satisfaction. Journal Of Managerial Sciences, 9(2), 214-224.. Link http://eds.a.ebscohost.com/eds/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?sid=4ecbcac9-c0d0406a-aa95-01d966b6f3ef%40sessionmgr4007&vid=1&hid=4210 Annotation Zeb, Jamal & Ali (2015) in their study look at the importance of satisfaction of the employees and motivation that makes them perform better in the organization. They further look at the factors that increase the satisfaction of the employees such as promotions, rewards, relationships and good conditions of working. The study was performed in Pakistan universities where it was found that teachers are more motivated towards performance when they are sure that the organization continues to improve Y LITERATURE REVIEW RESOURCES 23 their benefits. When the efforts of the teachers are recognized, they are likely to be highly motivated and this in turn increases their delivery standards to the students. The creation of an environment that is conducive for the employees also increases their motivation levels as they are in a position to deliver more results. The limitation of the study is that data collection method where the use of the questionnaire is likely to increase biasness. Bibliographic Information 19. Saira, B., Mohsin, S., Mohsin Ali, B., & Hina, F. (2016). The Influence of Motivation on Performance of Public Sector Employees. Annual International Conference On Qualitative & Quantitative Economics Research, 49-51. doi:10.5176/2251-2012_QQE16.26. Link http://eds.a.ebscohost.com/eds/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?sid=61239fd0-449f4d4e-afdc-b0dc85f06da2%40sessionmgr4008&vid=1&hid=4210 Annotation Saira et al. (2016) in their study aim to investigate the relationship that exists between motivation and the performance of the employees in the public sector. The research is different from the previous ones as it looks at the dimensions of motivation that the organizations use. The results indicate there is a positive correlation between the performance and the salaries that the employees receive. The motivation factor that is most common among Y LITERATURE REVIEW RESOURCES 24 the employees is their salary annually and this is seen to increase how well they perform in the organization. It shows that a vital role is played by motivation as for excellence to be achieved the organization has to increase the employee’s salary. It is important that organizations devise the strategies that they are likely to use in increasing the motivation of their employees. It ensures that the employees are more productive in the organization. The strategies to increase the salary should be such that the organization benefits from it. Bibliographic Information 20. Rukuižienė, R., & Bocharov, V. J. (2016). Monitoring Indicators To Measure The Level Of Work Motivation In Industrial And NonIndustrial Organizations.Regional Formation & Development Studies, (19), 117-126. doi:10.15181/rfds.v19i2.1288 Link http://eds.a.ebscohost.com/eds/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?sid=33c1b9b1-5be549cc-8f68-67b06a790342%40sessionmgr4008&vid=1&hid=4210 Annotation Rukuižienė & Bocharov (2016) looks at the different concepts of motivation and the possibilities that it has of improving the performance of the organization. It looks at measuring the commitment of the organization in enhancing the motivation of the employees. It is done through the use of focus groups in the different industries and identifying the motivation levels in both the industries. The longitudinal studies are used to show the Y LITERATURE REVIEW RESOURCES 25 different strategies that the management uses and the value that they use in their managerial level to optimize the motivation of the employees. Motivation in the organization helps to bring changes in the strategies that the businesses use and the development of objectives for the different workshops that they may have. Results show that the increases in motivation of the employees help to increase performance and the relations in the organization. Limitation of the study is seen where the willingness of the industries to give feedback is limited. Bibliographic Information 21. Forsyth, P. (2010). How to Motivate People. London: Kogan Page Link http://eds.a.ebscohost.com/eds/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?sid=80c099ef-8244498c-9027-acbb40a41218%40sessionmgr4006&vid=1&hid=4210 Annotation Forsyth (2010) looks at the demands of the employees and the things that increase their morale in the company. Employees feel motivated when they are appreciates, consulted in work matters and when the working environment is conducive. The approach that is used is the estimation of the pressure that exists in the workplace and the identification of the ways in which the same affects the employees morale. The results that are identified are that the inspiration that the employees are given by the organization enables their performance in the organization and leads to increased productivity. It ensures that the team work in the organization is enhanced. Y LITERATURE REVIEW RESOURCES 26 Bibliographic Information 22. Baird, J. E., & Bradley, P. H. (1978). Communication Correlates Of Employee Morale. Journal Of Business Communication, 15(3), 4756. Link http://eds.a.ebscohost.com/eds/detail/detail?sid=59288aab-1400-455d-a084d84210ba0ce7%40sessionmgr4006&vid=0&hid=4103&bdata=JnNp dGU9ZWRzLWxpdmU%3d#AN=5764379&db=bth Annotation Baird & Bradley (1978) in their research found that there are different factors that lead to the influence of motivation factors of the employees in the organization. The factors that the research uses to identify the morale of the employees are the cohesiveness of the employees and enhancement of communication in the organization. The identification of the behaviors of the employees shows the management of their satisfaction in the organization. The research found that the quality of communication in the organization contributes to increase in the morale of the employees. Relationships that the employees have with their seniors are also seen to influence their morale. Y LITERATURE REVIEW RESOURCES 27 Bibliographic Information 23 Hearn, S. (2016). MORALE vs ENGAGEMENT. Training Journal, 28-30. Link http://eds.a.ebscohost.com/eds/detail/detail?sid=1ccbd70d-29f4-4a70-b5662541116311e4%40sessionmgr4009&vid=0&hid= Annotation Hearn (2016) looks at the differences between the morale that exists in the organization and the engagement of the employees. The author looks at the methods that are used to increase the engagement of the employees and this include the flexibility that exists in the different roles that they are given. Where the employees have flexible time such that they can work from home, they are likely to have increased levels of morale. The increase in the interactions that exist among the employees and the company leads to increased levels of engagement in the organization. It also ensures that they freely ask important questions regarding the work carried out. Bibliographic Information 24 Bowles, D., & Cooper, C. L. (2009). Employee Morale : Driving Performance in Challenging Times. Basingstoke, Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan. Link http://eds.b.ebscohost.com/eds/detail/detail?sid=de959506-58e9-4d7d-87af- Y LITERATURE REVIEW RESOURCES 28 0749618bae26%40sessionmgr102&vid=0&hid=119&bdata=JnNpd GU9ZWRzLWxpdmU%3d#AN=303612&db=edsebk Y Annotation Bowles & Cooper (2009) look at the morale of the employees and how it improves their performance in the organization. They advance that the business environment is constantly changing and the morale results in an organization is the improved performance. It means that the organization should ensure that the treatment of the staff is fair as it through this that motivation is increased. Research shows that there is a great connection between the morale of the employees and the productivity in the organization. The authors note that where the morale of the employees is not present then the number of conflicts is likely to increase. Bibliographic Information 25. Decker, P. (2016). Feature: Passion, morale and motivation. World Pumps, 201628-30. doi:10.1016/S0262-1762(16)30065-7 Link http://eds.b.ebscohost.com/eds/detail/detail?sid=6a1a39ac-85a8-4834-9db3a77a27983fc6%40sessionmgr104&vid=0&hid=119&bdata=JnNpdG U9ZWRz LWxpdmU%3d#AN=S0262176216300657&db=edselp Annotation Decker (2016) in his research advances that the passion that the LITERATURE REVIEW RESOURCES 29 employees have towards their work increases their morale. In his recent appointment he discovered that the motivation of the employees is contributed by the efforts of the management in ensuring that the employees Y enjoy their work. It implies that they have to work towards making sure that the employees remain engaged in the organization as it is through this that they are likley to increase the profitability of the organization. Morale also enables the employees to remain positive when different things in the organization are unplanned and it helps increase their motivation. 26. Bibliographic Information Sale, J. (2016). Mapping Motivation : Unlocking the Key to Employee Energy and Engagement. Farnham, Surrey, England: Gower. Link http://eds.b.ebscohost.com/eds/detail/detail?sid=b20e34c5-b3b6-4e92-91bd9b5a98ee6a80%40sessionmgr105&vid=0&hid=119&bdata=JnNpd GU9ZWRzLWxpdmU%3d#db=edsebk&AsN=1062421 Annotation Sale (2016) advances that morale of the employees in an organization is important as there are repercussions when the organization does not motivate its employees. In his research, he identifies the key things that increase the morale of the employees and this includes appraisals, team building activities, development of leadership and programs that increase their motivation. He uses a questionnaire in his research to map the motivation of the employees in the organization and concludes that it is the N LITERATURE REVIEW RESOURCES responsibility of the employers to ensure that the employees in an organization are motivated as it is through this that they develop the employees and increase the productivity in the organization. 27. Bibliographic Information Apak, S., & Gümüş, S. (2015). A Research about the Effect of the Leadership Qualities of Public Administrators on the Motivation of the Employees. Procedia - Social And Behavioral Sciences, 210(Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Leadership, Technology, Innovation and Business Management (ICLTIBM-2014), 368-377. doi:10.1016/j.sbspro.2015.11.384 Link http://eds.b.ebscohost.com/eds/detail/detail?sid=9f06830f-04ce-40a7-8432bf5e640babde%40sessionmgr105&vid=0&hid=119&bdata=JnNpdG Y U9ZWRzLWxpdmU%3d#AN=S1877042815057316&db=edselp Annotation Apak & Gümüş (2015) look at the responsibility that the administrators have in enhancing the motivation of the employees in the organization. In public administration there are different perceptions of the motivation of the employees that necessitated the need for the research. The characteristics of the employees in the public sectors are identified first and the qualities that leaders have in ensuring that they maintain the motivation levels in the employees. It helps to make sure that the employees are committed to their work and this done through the enhancement of trainings 30 LITERATURE REVIEW RESOURCES 31 and paying attention to the needs of the employees. 28. Bibliographic Information Stapleton, P., Henderson, A., Creedy, D. K., Cooke, M., Patterson, E., Alexander, H., & ... Dalton, M. (2007). Boosting Morale And Improving Performance In The Nursing Setting. Journal Of Nursing Management, 15(8), 811-816. Doi:10.1111/J.13652934.2007.00745.X Link http://eds.b.ebscohost.com/eds/detail/detail?sid=f8f88f2b-39c5-46b7-8a21bf12743fade0%40sessionmgr105&vid=0&hid=119&bdata=JnNpdG U9ZWRzLWxpdmU%3d#AN=27091753&db=aph Annotation Stapleton et al. (2007) looks at the strategies that are used in increasing the morale of the nurses. From the research it is seen that there are a number of complexities that are likely to occur and the institution then has the responsibility of ensuring that the efficiency at the place of work is increased and this is mainly done through the evaluation of the issue that leads to the declining of the morale of the employees. The factors that lead to the motivation of the nurses in the case are the evaluation of the concepts such as the attitude of the employees and ensuring that the same is considered in increasing their incentives. N LITERATURE REVIEW RESOURCES 32 29. Bibliographic Information Peshawaria, R. (2012). Energizing the organization. Leader To Leader, 2012(63), 19-25. doi:10.1002/ltl.20005 Link http://eds.b.ebscohost.com/eds/detail/detail?sid=0e9711ed-93bd-4e6e-a16c218650a963e0%40sessionmgr101&vid=0&hid=119&bdata=JnNpd GU9ZWRzLWxpdmU%3d#db=bth&AN=67731253 Annotation Peshawaria (2012) in his research looks at the role that the leadership of an organization plays in ensuring that the morale of the employees is increased. In his research he advances that the leaders are known to rely on the energy that the employees’ exhibit as it is seen to increase the productivity of the organization. The leaders then should ensure that there is proper alignment of the energy of the employees to their skills as it helps the organization to achieve its objectives. It is important that they invest in techniques of training that helps to increase the levels of motivation. 30. Bibliographic Information Cowart, L. (2014). Why employee morale matters--especially now: The solution to engagement and retention issues is the ability of the N LITERATURE REVIEW RESOURCES 33 manager to truly understand what is in the hearts and minds of their employees. The Public Manager, (1). 48. Link http://eds.b.ebscohost.com/eds/detail/detail?sid=d2fa6b36-ab69-4493-aa35dbc0d837a22e%40sessionmgr103&vid=0&hid=119&bdata=JnNpd GU9ZWRzLWxpdmU%3d#db=edsgao&AN=edsgcl.365111108 Annotation Cowart (2014) advance that it is important that the morale of the employees is increased as it is one of the solutions to increasing the retention levels. For the morale to be increased, the organization has to know the specific things that the employees are concerned with. It is through the identification of the issues that the organization is in a position to know how to motivate them and this is mainly through the increase of salaries and issuance of bonuses. Performance is then enhanced appraisals as the employees remain committed to the organization. It also ensures that the retention levels are increased. Y LITERATURE REVIEW RESOURCES 31. 34 Bibliographic Information Sekhar, C., Patwardhan, M., & Singh, R. K. (2013). A literature review on motivation. Global Business Perspectives, 1(4), 471-487. Link https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Chandra_Sekhar_Singh/public ation/263225315_A_literature_review_on_motivation/links/551ece0 f0cf2a2d9e1402bd6.pdf Annotation Sekhar, Patwardhan and Singh (2013) conducted a qualitative research to study the effects of different motivation techniques on employee satisfaction and employee performance. Sekhar, Patwardhan and Singh (2013) found out that different motivation techniques such as training, monetary incentives, job satisfaction, promotion, recognition, job security, achievement and social opportunity help improve performance. The study had several strengths and weaknesses. First, the study drew from a wide range of literature to provide in depth knowledge about the subject matter. Besides, the paper was organized well into subsections so as to deliver the main points well to the audience. However, the primary weakness in the study is that it primarily relied on secondary research to arrive at major conclusions. The study should have incorporated primary research as well to validate N LITERATURE REVIEW RESOURCES 35 the conclusions drawn. 32 Bibliographic Information Kuranchie-Mensah, Elizabeth Boye, and Kwesi Amponsah-Tawiah. "Employee motivation and work performance: A comparative study of mining companies in Ghana." Journal of Industrial Engineering and Management 9.2 (2016): 255. Link http://www.jiem.org/index.php/jiem/article/viewFile/1530/755 Kuranchie-Mensah, Elizabeth, and Kwesi (2016) conducted a qualitative study to investigate the effect of employee motivation on performance among the Ghanaian mining workers. The latter noted that employee motivation helps prevent industrial unrest which significantly affect mining activities thereby affecting respective industries involved. The study had several strengths and weaknesses. First, the paper was well organized into introduction body and conclusion. Also, the researcher conducted a deep research into the subject deriving critical information from both primary and secondary sources. Besides, the researcher used scientific techniques in sampling, testing hypothesis as well as conducting analysis. The primary weakness of the research is that the some of the secondary sources of the data utilized were outdated. Such materials might have adversely affected the validity of the findings. 33 Bibliographic Information N LITERATURE REVIEW RESOURCES Khan, M. I. (2012). The impact of training and motivation on performance of employees. Link http://www.iba.edu.pk/Business_review/business_review_VOL7_No_2_Jul-Dec_2012.pdf#page=88 Khan (2012) conducted a quantitative study to investigate the impact of training and motivation on employee performance of employees. Although the researcher noted that training improves performance of N the employees significantly than motivation, the researcher ascertained a significant positive relationship between employee motivation and employee performance. The study had several strengths and limitations. First, the all the variables investigated within the comprehensively covered through both primary and secondary research. Also, the author organized the paper well into subsections which enhanced how the author delivered the main insights presented in the article. However, the article utilized outdated research which might have affected the validity of the research findings. 36 LITERATURE REVIEW RESOURCES 37 34 Bibliographic Information Osabiya, B. J. (2015). The effect of employees motivation on organizational performance. Journal of public administration and policy research, 7(4), 62-75. Link https://scholar.google.com/scholar?q=The+effect+of+employees+m otivation+on+organizational+performance&btnG=&hl=en&as_sdt= 0%2C5 Osibiya (2015) conducted a survey to investigate factors that affect construction worker’s motivation and the corresponding effect of such motivation to employee motivation. The latter found out that team work, contract work, leadership by example and equipment provision has a significant effect on employee motivation and employee productivity. Other factors that enhanced employee motivation and performance included communication, opportunity to handle challenging work, goal identity, overtime and love. Overall, the paper was well organized into introduction, body and conclusion. Besides, the paper drew from secondary sources to provide critical insights into the main issues discussed in the paper. However, a majority of the secondary resources utilized in the article were outdated and therefore might affected the validity of the results. 35 Bibliographic Information N LITERATURE REVIEW RESOURCES 38 Ajang, P. E. (2007). Assessing the role of work Motivation on Employee Performance. Link http://umu.divaportal.org/smash/get/diva2:140549/FULLTEXT01.pdf Ajang (2007) conducted a qualitative study to investigate about the role of employee motivation on employee performance. Ajang (2007) found out that job satisfaction, promotions, employee recognition, good pay and effective management styles enhance employee motivation which enhances their performance. Overall, the paper had several strengths and weaknesses. The primary strength of the paper was that the researcher utilized both primary and secondary sources to investigate deep into the matter. Besides, the researcher used scientific methods of investigation to arrive at major conclusions. However, the author used a limited sample size making limiting the generalizability of the findings to the entire population. 36 Bibliographic Information Pratheepkanth, P. (2011). Reward system and its impact on employee motivation in commercial bank of sri lanka plc, in jaffna district. Global Journal of Management and Business Research, 11(4). N LITERATURE REVIEW RESOURCES 39 Link https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/8378/bd926b3379626b421a497729 76ddb58c375a.pdf Pratheepkanth (2011) conducted a quantitative study to investigate impact of rewards and recognition on employee motivation. The researcher noted that giving employees rewards and recognizing their efforts improves their motivation significantly. Increased motivation, in turn, enhances employee’s confidence, self-esteem, innovation and more willingness to undertake more challenging work. The research had several strengths and weaknesses. First, the research utilized current research to provide critical insights to the subject matter. The paper was organized into introduction, body and conclusion. However, the study utilized a sample size making the results less generalizable across populations. 37 Bibliographic Information Pushpakumari, M. D. (2008, January). The impact of job satisfaction on job performance: An empirical analysis. In City Forum (Vol. 9, No. 1, pp. 89-105). Link http://wwwbiz.meijou.ac.jp/SEBM/ronso/no9_1/08_PUSHPAKUMARI.pdf . Y LITERATURE REVIEW RESOURCES Pushpakumari (2008) conducted a quantitative study to investigate the effect of job satisfaction on job performance. The latter noted that among the factors that affect satisfaction include rewards, both intrinsic and extrinsic. Pushpakumari (2008) also indicated that enhanced job satisfaction results in improved job performance. Overall, the study had several strengths and weaknesses. First, the paper utilized both primary and secondary researches. The author also utilized a large sample size which enhanced the generalizability of the findings across various populations. Besides, the author covered all topics comprehensively. However, the author utilized some outdated research which might have interfered with the credibility of the results. 38 Bibliographic Information Yousaf, S., Latif, M., Aslam, S., & Saddiqui, A. (2014). Impact of financial and non-financial rewards on employee motivation. Middle-East Journal of Scientific Research, 21(10), 1776-1786. Link Yousaf et al. (2014) conducted a quantitative study to investigate about the impact of financial and non-financial rewards on employee motivation. The latter found out that although financial resources 40 LITERATURE REVIEW RESOURCES 41 play an important role in employee motivation, non-financial resources also play a role in employee motivation. Overall, Yousaf Y et al. (2014) indicated that improved motivation often translates to improved performance. The paper had several strengths and weaknesses. First, the article used mixed methods (qualitative and quantitative) to arrive at major conclusions. Besides, the paper incorporated both primary and secondary research to provide critical insights to the matters being investigated. However, some of the secondary research utilized in the paper were outdated and therefore affected the validity of the findings. 39 Bibliographic Information Dobre, O. I. (2013). Employee motivation and organizational performance. Journal of Management and Socio-Economic, (1). Link http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.473.4070 &rep=rep1&type=pdf#page=53 Dobre (2013) conducted a qualitative research to investigate about the effect of motivation on organizational performance. Dobre N LITERATURE REVIEW RESOURCES 42 (2013) indentified a positive relationship between employee motivation and job performance. Noteworthy, the research indicated that both intrinsic and extrinsic rewards enhance employee performance which increases worker output. The study had several strengths and weakness. First, the study utilized secondary resources to provide critical insights to the subject matter. Besides, the author organized the paper into subsections which enhanced how the author delivered his main points to the audience. However, the author did not utilize primary research to validate the findings. Also, the researcher did cover the subject comprehensively. 40 Bibliographic Information Shahzadi, I., Javed, A., Pirzada, S. S., Nasreen, S., & Khanam, F. (2014). Impact of Employee Motivation on Employee Performance. European Journal of Business and Management Vol, 6. Link http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.684.9465 &rep=rep1&type=pdf Shahzadi et al (2014) conducted a quantitative study to examine the relationship between employee motivation and employee performance. Shahzadi et al (2014) noted a positive relationship between employee motivation and employee performance. Most N LITERATURE REVIEW RESOURCES important, the latter noted that there exists a significant positive relationship between intrinsic rewards and performance. Overall, the study had several strengths and weaknesses. First, the study utilized a quantitative study to establish the main findings making the study effective in establishing critical relationship between variables investigated in the study. Besides, the author drew from secondary research to provide critical insights into the subject being investigated. However, the researcher utilized a relatively small sample size. As such, the generalizability of the findings across populations is questionable. 43

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Running head: LITERATURE REVIEW RESOURCES

Literature Review Resources
Karlatta Coyle
Grand Canyon University: PSY-803
November 23, 2016

1

LITERATURE REVIEW RESOURCES

2

RES-811 Literature Review Resources
Number Article Information

Added to
RefWorks?
(Y or N)

1.

Bibliographic Information
Manzoor, Q. A. (2012). Impact of employees motivation on
organizational effectiveness. Business management and
strategy, 3(1), 1.

Link
http://www.macrothink.org/journal/index.php/bms/article/view/904

Annotation
Manzoor (2012) conducted a qualitative research by
examining various secondary materials from distinct areas of study.
The hypothesis of the study aimed at establishing the various factors
that affect employee motivation as well as examining the association
between organization effectiveness and employee motivation.
Manzoor (2012) asserted that both employee empowerment and
recognition have a positive association with employee motivation.
Additionally, Manzoor (2012) noted that there exists a positive
association between employee motivation and organizational
effectiveness. The study was appropriately organized into an

N

LITERATURE REVIEW RESOURCES

3

introduction, body, and conclusion which made the work easy to
follow. The study drew from various scholarly materials which
provided profound insights into the topic. However, the study was
subject to various shortcomings. The research included prior
research which could be outdated currently. From the above
shortcomings, the validity and reliability of the information is
questionable.

2.

Bibliographic Information
Cristini, A. (2011). Employees’ motivation and high performance
workplace practices. Mimeo, University of Bergamo.

Link
http://www.sole-jole.org/12477.pdf

Annotation
Cristini (2011) quantitive research aimed at investigating
organization factors that influence employee innovation and
commitment to the organization. The hypothesis in the study aimed
at investigating the effect of intrinsic rewards and extrinsic rewards
to employee innovation and commitment. Cristini (2011) suggested
that although extrinsic rewards increase employee efforts, they have

N

LITERATURE REVIEW RESOURCES
a marginal effect on employee commitment and innovation.
Additionally, extrinsic rewards may crowd intrinsic rewards which
have a significant impact on employee loyalty and commitment.
Overall, cristini (2011) suggested that firms should invest in
empowerment practices to enhance employee commitment to the
organization. The research is scholarly and provides critical insights
into the subject matter especially with the fact that it derives from
various studies, both primary and secondary. A major strength of the
research is that it includes a large sample size which makes the
results significant and generalizable across various fields. However,
the major shortcoming of the study is that it uses relatively older
secondary literature which may be outdated.

3.

Bibliographic Information
Baker, & John. (1996). 50 Sure Fire Ideas for Boosting Morale and
Creating a Can-Do Culture

Link
http://eric.ed.gov/?id=ED395636

Annotation
Baker and John (1996) article examined the various ways of

4

LITERATURE REVIEW RESOURCES
enhancing the morale and performance of the employees. In the
article, Baker and John (1996) suggested that employee could be
motivated by both intrinsic and extrinsic rewards. Analytically, the
various intrinsic rewards mentioned in the article aimed at giving
recognition to employees and acknowledging their achievements
which led to employee satisfaction hence enhance performance. On
the other hand, the extrinsic rewards mentioned in the article include
giving gifts and other monetary rewards to the employees to
enhance their morale and performance. Although the article provides
valuable insights to employee motivation, it has several limitations.
First, the article does not draw from primary and secondary
research, therefore, lacks in-depth knowledge about the subject. The
article lacks the fundamental elements of scholarly work since it
lacks an introduction, conclusion and referencing. Finally, the article
does not use scientific methods in investigating the matter making
the findings less credible and unreliable.

4.

Bibliographic Information
Elqadri, Z. M., Suci, R. P., & Chandra, T. (2015). Effect of
Leadership Style, Motivation, and Giving Incentives on the
Performance of Employees-PT. Kurnia Wijaya Various
Industries. International Education Studies, 8(10), 183.

5
N

LITERATURE REVIEW RESOURCES

6

Link
http://www.ccsenet.org/journal/index.php/ies/article/view/53552

Annotation
Elqadri, Priyono, Suci and Chandra (2015) conducted a
quantitative study on employees from the sales department across
various industries. The study hypothesis aimed at examining the role
of leadership style, motivation and incentive (independent variables)
in enhancing the performance of the employees (dependent
variables). Elqadri et al (2015) found out that the three independent
variables have a significant effect on the dependent variable.
Analytically, the study is arranged well into introduction, body, and
conclusion which helps brings out the study’s propositions clearly.
Also, the study utilizes various scholarly materials which add
various insights to employee performance. The secondary scholarly
resources used in the research are current and therefore reliable. The
study incorporated scientific methods during sampling, data
collection, and data analysis which make the results valid and
dependable for academic use. However, the main limitation of the
study is the use of a small sample population which makes the
findings less generalizable across various related fields.

N

LITERATURE REVIEW RESOURCES

5.

7

Bibliographic Information
Diefendorff, J. M., & Mehta, K. (2007). The relations of
motivational traits with workplace deviance. Journal of
Applied Psychology, 92(4), 967

Link
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17638458

Annotation
Diefendorff and Mehta (2007) conducted a quantitative
research on employed undergraduate students drawn from different
organizations and occupations. The various set hypothesis in their
study aimed at examining the relationship between the approach and
avoidance motivational traits with deviant behaviors at work. For
the approach motivation, Diefendorff and Mehta (2007) noted that
personal mastery was negatively related to both organizational and
interpersonal deviance; Behavioral activation system approach was
positively related to organizational and interpersonal deviance while
competitive excellence had no association with both deviances. The
avoidance motivation, on the other hand, had a positive association
with organization deviance but interacted with significant
constraints within the organization to influence interpersonal

N

LITERATURE REVIEW RESOURCES

8

deviance. The fact that the study thoroughly utilized both primary
and secondary research enabled the study to cover the topic in
question comprehensively. The work was also neatly organized to
subsections enabling the reader to grasp the main concepts of the
study. The primary shortcoming which renders the findings
unsuitable for use as the primary study of note is the use of students
to be representative of the working population. Also, the sample
population was unevenly distributed as far as gender is concerned
which might have resulted in bias. Overall, the research was
scholarly.

6.

Bibliographic Information
Ashman, I., & Winstanley, D. (2006). The ethics of organizational
commitment. Business Ethics: A European Review, 15(2),
142-153.

Link
doi:10.1111/j.1467-8608.2006.00438.x

Annotation
Ashman and Winstanley (2009) conducted qualitative
research to examine the concept of organization commitment
critically. Ashman and Winstanley (2009) work serves as a critic to

Y

LITERATURE REVIEW RESOURCES

9

the orthodox perception of organization commitment. The latter
demonstrates the above perspective through conducting in-depth
interviews. In their research, Ashman and Winstanley (2009)
recognized that although proper human resource practices play a
significant role in enhancing employee loyalty and dedication which
enhanced organization commitment, the latter pointed out useful
organization commitment results from an individual’s set of morals
and values. Analytically, their article is scholarly and is organized in
an introduction, body, and conclusion. Also, the article derives from
various scholarly primary and secondary sources which help provide
critical insights to the subject matter. However, the primary
limitation of the work is that the research utilized a small sample
population of 45 respondents. As such, the study is not generalizable
to come to practical conclusions regarding the subject matter.

7.

Bibliographic Information
Klann, G. (2004). How Leaders Can Build Positive Energy

Link
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/lia.1076/abstract

Annotation
Klann (2004) article examined how effective leaders can

Y

LITERATURE REVIEW RESOURCES
create positive energy within the organization. The article aimed at
explaining how morale, pride, and spirit could be created within an
organization to enhance organizations productivity. Klann (2004)
claimed that proper communication and shared experiences need to
be encouraged within the organization to enhance team’s morale,
pride, and spirit within the organization. Also, social needs and
emotional connections of the employees need to be addressed. The
study is organized into subsection which enhances the readability of
the text to grasp the main ideas. However, the article has several
shortcomings. The article does not reference from other materials to
support the main arguments and provide profound knowledge into
the matter. The article lacks the introduction and the conclusion
sections. Also, the article does not use scientific methods to support
it main claims; therefore, the credibility of the information in the
article is questionable. Overall, the article is not scholarly.

8.

Bibliographic Information
Rabinowitz, W., Falkenbach, K., Travers, J. R., Valentine, C. G., &
Weener, P. (1983). Worker Motivation: Unsolved Problem
or Untapped Resource?.California Management
Review, 25(2), 45-56.

Link

10

LITERATURE REVIEW RESOURCES

11

http://eds.b.ebscohost.com.lopes.idm.oclc.org/ehost/detail/detail?sid
=a65d4

8ab-e646-42db-9b0b588fd4b50855%40sessionmgr120&vid=0&hid=127&bdata=

JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZSZzY29wZT1zaXRl#AN=4759880&d
b=bah
Y
Annotation
Rabinowitz, Falkebach, Travers, Valentin and Winner (1983)
conducted a quantitative study in thirty-seven countries in the
United States. Their central hypothesis aimed at examining the
factors that influence worker satisfaction and pride. Rabinowitz et
al. (1983) claimed that the principal source of employee
dissatisfaction within an organization included the perceived
inequities in pay rates, inequities in work requirements, improper
communication within the organization and finally poor corporate
practices and policies. Overall, Rabinowitz et al. (1983) claimed that
inadequate communication is the leading factor of worker
dissatisfaction and pride. The study included a large sample from
diverse working fields which rendered the findings reliable and
generalizable to across various fields. The research was properly
organized which enhanced how the main ideas were delivered. The
primary limitation of the research is that it only utilized a sample
from the American population; therefore, the findings from the

LITERATURE REVIEW RESOURCES

12

study may not be generalized to other countries.

9.

Bibliographic Information
Fowler, S. (2015). Motivation Done Right.

Link
https://www.td.org/TD/TD-Archive/2015/12/Motivation-DoneRight

Annotation
Fowler (2015) conducted a qualitative research to examine
how best motivation could be done within an organization. The
hypothesis in the study aimed at explaining the effect of intrinsic
and extrinsic motivation on employee performance. Fowler (2015)
maintained a pessimistic view that employees cannot be motivated
through intrinsic and extrinsic motivation strategies; instead,
employees are self-motivated. The latter argued that leaders cannot
motivate employees; rather, they can shift employees to an optimal
motivation outlook through the adoption of best practices. The
research is properly arranged into subsections which help the
researcher bring out the main propositions within the study.
However, the paper has various limitations. First, the article lacks
the main elements of scholarly work which includes the

N

LITERATURE REVIEW RESOURCES

13

introduction, the body, and the conclusion. The paper does not
utilize the secondary scholarly literature to support the main
arguments clearly and give critical insigh...

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