Evidence Base Practice Revision, health and medicine homework help

Anonymous

Question Description

Please pay close attention to the Bold and Bold/Underlined that is what needs to be revised.

The rubric provides detailed criteria for evaluating your submission. You are expected to use the rubric to direct the creation of your submission. Each requirement below may be evaluated by more than one rubric aspect. The rubric aspect titles may contain hyperlinks to relevant portions of the course.

A. Write a brief summary (suggested length of 2–3 pages) of the significance and background of a healthcare problem by doing the following:

1. Describe a healthcare problem.

2. Explain the significance of the problem.

3. Describe the current practice related to the problem.

4. Discuss how the problem impacts the organization and/or patient’s cultural background (i.e., values, health behavior, and preferences).

B. Complete the attached “PICO Table Template” by identifying all the elements of the PICO.

1. Develop the PICO question.

C. Describe the search strategy (suggested length of 1–2 pages) you used to conduct the literature review by doing the following:

1. Identify the keywords used for the search.

2. Describe the number and types of articles that were available for consideration.

a. Discuss two research evidence and two non-research evidence sources that were considered (levels I–V).

Note: Be sure to upload a copy of the full text of the aritcles with your submission

D. Complete the attached “Evidence Matrix” to list five research evidence sources (levels I–III) from scholarly journal sources you locate in major medical databases.
**NEEDS to be fixed: Two articles could not be located in the library and two articles are inaccurately classified as Level I articles

Note: Four different authors should be used for research evidence. Research evidence must not be more than five years old.
Note: Be sure to upload a copy of the full text of the articles with your submission.

E. Explain a recommended practice change (suggested length of 1–3 pages) that addresses the PICO question within the framework of the evidence collected and used in the attached “Evidence Matrix.”
**At least one paragraph for all five articles should be included

F. Describe a process for implementing the recommendation from part E (suggested length of 2–3 pages) in which you do the following:

1. Explain how you would involve three key stakeholders in the decision to implement the recommendation.

2. Describe the specific barriers you may encounter in applying evidence to practice changes in the nursing practice setting.

3. Identify two strategies that could be used to overcome the barriers discussed in F2.

4. Identify one indicator to measure the outcome related to the recommendation.

G. Acknowledge sources, using APA-formatted in-text citations and references, for content that is quoted, paraphrased, or summarized

Unformatted Attachment Preview

Task 2 Part A1- A4 Health care problem- lack of transparency in hospital operations One of the problems that the health sector continues to face is the lack of transparency in the operations of hospitals. The lack of transparency in hospital operations leads to information asymmetry by the critical hospital stakeholders and this shields them from essential decision making. Transparency needs to be enhanced on the clinical quality of providers and the efficiency of costs so as to bridge the gaps in information asymmetry. Particularly, transparency plays a key role in the improvement of health care. The concept behind transparency is that it leads to data sharing which is key in lowering of costs and the improvement of health care quality. The focus on ensuring that there is transparency ensures that there is the increase in the satisfaction of the patients and the enhancement of the communication in the healthcare sector. Significance of the problem Throughout the healthcare settings, there is the need for greater consideration for transparency. Transparency forms part of the accessibility to information with regard to prices and the quality of healthcare services. However, when there is the lack of information required in the service pricing, consumers might be misled on the decisions that they make. This can be detrimental to the failure of the systems of healthcare results. The problem is significant in the health sector as it guarantees the consideration of services offered to the patients as the focus is on quality. Lack of transparency leads to difficulties in getting the information that the patients require for their treatment. It is important that the focus is on the systems operations as it is through this that there is an improvement in the functioning of the hospitals in accordance with the affordable act (Butcher, 2015). The development of technology in the environment necessitates for the improvement in efficiency of the hospitals and helps to ensure that there is an increase in transparency of the hospitals. With the improvement in transparency in hospitals, it is expected that there is an increase in the system of referral as there is coordination. The patients are also aware of costs of the different services that they would like to access and this gives them the ability to make decisions that influence them positively. Current practice Looking at the current practice, many healthcare organizations fail due to the lack of the transparency in hospital operations. Lack of transparency leads to the lack of information which in turn affects the organization culture, and this makes it difficult for the delivery of the services, and there is the unreliability of the reimbursement systems. The fee-for-service system has been changed to value-based care. This drives the need to have transparency between the patients and the providers of the health care services. Previously, the providers of health care services were guided by the proprietary information for the purpose of maintaining the competition positions in the negotiations of prices. However, the value-based care has resulted in transparency being a major cultural change. Impact on background The lack of transparency impacts the organization as it is concerned with the performance of the organizations and this means that there is need to observe the outcomes of the different decisions made in the organization. The issues that the health organization deals with regarding transparency are important as they help in the solving of the issues that the company continues to face. The prioritization on the quality of services is imperative, as it is through this that there is the breaking of the barriers that exist and the enhancement of the systems that the hospitals use (Holeman, Cookson & Pagliari, 2016). It is important that there is focus on the improvement of the services and this aides in the increase of transparency of the systems. It is notable that transparency in health care organizations is critical to the improvement of health care quality and cost. For instance, it is hard to have expectations for the reduction in the health care cost when the individual operating room resources cost. Most of organizations lack transparency in the areas of costs, quality initiatives and health care outcomes. PICO Table- Task 2 Part B P (patient/problem) Health sectors lack of transparency. I (intervention/indicator) Coordination among the healthcare providers. C (comparison) No comparison of costs in health care. O (outcome) Increase of retention and service quality. Task 2 Part B1 To improve the transparency factor in the healthcare sector, does coordination of different health providers assist in the reduction of costs of the company and improve service quality and the retention of the clients? Task 2 Part C1-D The approach that is used in search of the information is critical in helping to create a valid case for the importance of transparency in the health sector. The search strategy used in the case is the simple search method that is utilized by the imputing of the information required in the search button (Moucheraud et al., 2017). The information that is related to the keywords used in the search is important as it helps in showing the information that is needed in making valid conclusion. The keywords used are the lack of transparency in the health sector and its influence on the operations of the hospital. The search engine shows the different developments that have taken place in the industry, and this helps in the validation of the information. The articles used in the research are peer-reviewed articles that assist in the development of ideas towards the lack of transparency in the health sector. The credibility of the journal articles makes it necessary, as there is the assurance that the information contained helps in the formation of a strong stand on the lack of transparency in the health care sector. The peerreviewed journals used are five and this is critical in ensuring that there is the validation of the PICO question. The research evidence is mainly in publications and journals and helps in the validation of information. One of the journals is by Butcher (2015) looks at the patient's satisfaction levels on the services received. There is the use experimental research in the gaining of the evidence. Oshima Lee & Emanuel (2013) looks how shared decision making is essential in the improvement of health care and the reduction in health care costs. The article encourages the utilization of shared decision making in health care which is essential in the alignment of the patient’s needs with better medical care. Non-research evidence is the article written on the Internet where there is no restriction on the information classification. Raube (2015) looks at the disruptions that occur in the health sector and the tools that should be used in the analysis of pricing of the hospital products. Moucherand et al. (2017), looks at the efficiency of the health care systems and the sustainability of the methods used. Task 2 Part E The method suggested in the implementation of change in the industry is the embracing of technology to help in the coordination of information between the different health providers. There is the focus on the growth of the sector and the various implementations that assist in gauging the improvement of the services offered. The use of technology in the industry is significant as it ensures that there is the enhancement of the communication taking place in the different organizations and that there is the maintenance of the information that belongs to the clients (Raube, 2015). The focus on the availability of the information when it is required ensures that there is the decrease in costs as the patient is likely to make their decisions on the different services that the company is offering. The consideration on the pricing of the services is important as it ensures that there is the maximization of the resources of the organization. It is through this that there is the improvement in the efficiency of the company and the ensuring that there is the coordination of the systems. The choices that the providers make ensure that there is the protection of the information of the patients and it is through this that there is the improvement in the quality of the services offered. The evaluation of the decisions made is necessary as there is the assurance that there is the increase in efficiency of the different health care organizations. Task 2 Part F1-F4 The implementation process is important as it ensures that there is the analysis of the solution given and the focus on ensuring that the company recommendations are evaluated. The stakeholders that are involved in the implementation process include patients that require that the information of the services offered and the pricing be accessible to them. They need to be educated on the access of information and the use of the data that they receive in making sound decisions. The hospitals are relevant stakeholders as they provide the information that the patients require in making different decisions (Oshima Lee & Emanuel, 2013).). They ensure that they adapt to the new technologies and ensuring that they make profits. The government is important as it regulates the operations of the hospitals and it is through this that there is the observation of the productivity in the hospitals. There are different barriers expected in the implementation process, and this is the lack of resources in the use of technology. The policies that are developed assist in making sure that there is the increase in efficiency in the environment and the assurance that the hospitals will adapt to the different changes taking place. Another barrier is the cost of the systems where not all the providers of health care can afford the systems. In overcoming the obstacles, it is important that there is the consideration of the resources that the hospitals have and the allocation to the different hospitals. The infrastructure should be in place before the implementation process as this ensures that there is the utilization of the resources that the company has in increasing the hospital's transparency. The careful consideration of the policies is another strategy that ensures that there is the transformation of the health sector. One important indicator that measures the outcomes of the implementation is the information access and the quality of services that the patients receive. The improvement in the organizations reputation is important, as it makes sure that the incentives that they get are utilized in making sure that the patients receive quality services. The improvement in the transparency of the information is assessed through the development of the methods that the patients can access information. The lack of transparency in the health sector leads to the decrease in the efficiency of operations, and it makes it necessary to ensure that there is the improvement in the services offered to the patients. There is the expectation that the information obtained will help in increasing the efficiency of the organization and the measurement methods of the data. Task 2 Part G Butcher, L. (2015). Health Care Transparency Movement Gaining Ground. Physician Leadership Journal, 2(6), 6-10. Holeman, I., Cookson, T. P., & Pagliari, C. (2016). Digital Technology For Health Sector Governance In Low And Middle-Income Countries: A Scoping Review. Journal Of Global Health, 6(2), 1. Doi:10.7189/Jogh.06.020408 Moucheraud, C., Schwitters, A., Boudreaux, C., Giles, D., Kilmarx, P. H., Ntolo, N., & Bossert, T. J. (2017). Sustainability Of Health Information Systems: A ThreeCountry 11. Qualitative Study In Southern Africa. Bmc Health Services Research, 171- Doi:10.1186/S12913- 016-1971-8 Raube, K. (2015). Castlight Health: Disrupting The Health Care Industry. California Management Review, 57(4), 104-125. Doi:10.1525/Cmr.2015.57.4.104 Oshima Lee, E., & Emanuel, E. J. (2013). Shared decision making to improve care and reduce costs. New England Journal of Medicine, 368(1), 6-8. Evidence Matrix Task 2 Part D Journal Year of Name/ WGU Publicat Library ion Results/Author’s Outcome Research Authors Sample Size Variables Level (I–III) Quality (A, B, C) Suggested Design Measured Conclusions Improved Increase in technology innovations lead to Healthcare transparency Butcher Lola movement Descriptive 2015 gaining research 52 states I A improves data increased efficiency transparency. in the hospitals. design ground. Shared decision 6 articles Oshima Lee, E., making to Importance of & Improved cared and improve care 2013 Case Study shared Emanuel, II and reduce decision costs. making E. J. C reduced costs Moucheraud, Corrina1 cmouche Sustainability raud@ucla.edu of health Schwitters, information Amee2 systems: a Boudreaux, three-country Chantelle3 qualitative Giles, Denise4 study in Kilmarx, Peter southern H.5,6 Africa. Increased efficiency Importance of Qualitative 2017 of the systems 1 country quality of research III C improves the information. Ntolo, Ntolo Bangani, Zwashe hospitals services. St. Louis, Michael E. Bossert, Thomas J. Digital technology for The increase in health sector Holeman, Isaac The influence governance in the of technology health sector governance in Cookson, Tara low and middle 2016 Case study 34 articles Patricia I A in the health increased the sector management of data income Pagliari, Claudia countries: a in the health sector. scoping review. Raube, Kristiana1 2015 Case Study 2 articles Technology that helps 1 B Castlight Healt compare the Improved technology h: Disrupting differences helps in the reduction the Health Care services of of the costs of health Industry. the hospitals. care. Articulation of Response (clarity, organization, mechanics) A1. Healthcare Problem A2. Significance of Problem A3. Current Practice A4. Impact on Background B. PICO Table B1. PICO Question C1. Keywords C2. Number and Types of Articles Not Evident The candidate provides unsatisfactory articulation of response. Description is not evident or reflects a basic misunderstanding of a healthcare problem. Explanation is not evident or reflects a basic misunderstanding of the significance of the problem. Description is not evident or reflects a basic misunderstanding of the current practice related to the problem. Discussion is not evident or reflects a basic misunderstanding of the impact on either types of background. PICO table is not evident or elements provided reflect a basic misunderstanding of the PICO. Question is not evident or reflects a basic misunderstanding of the PICO. Keywords are not evident or are not relevant to the search. Approaching Competence The candidate provides weak articulation of response. Description is not evident or reflects a basic Description is incomplete (does not include number or Description is vague, illogical, or it reflects a superficial understanding of a healthcare problem. Explanation is vague or does not reflect an understanding of the significance of the problem. Description is vague or is not relevant to the current practice related to the problem. Discussion is vague or is not relevant to the impact on the types of cultural background (patient and/or organizations). Competent The candidate provides adequate articulation of response. Description is clear, logical, and reflects an authentic healthcare problem. Explanation reflects a clear and logical understanding of the significance of the problem. Description is clear, accurate, and reflects the current practice related to the problem. PICO table is incomplete or does not correctly describe all elements of the PICO. Discussion is clear, logical, and reflects the impact on at least one type of cultural background (patient and/or organizations). PICO table is complete and correctly describes all the elements of the PICO. Question is incomplete (includes some elements) or is not relevant to the PICO. Question is complete (includes all elements) and relevant to the PICO. Keywords do not reflect a comprehensive approach to finding related literature. Keywords reflect a comprehensive approach to finding related literature . Description is complete (includes number and types) C2a. Research and NonResearch Evidence D. Evidence Matrix misunderstanding of the literature search topic. Discussion is not evident or reflects a basic misunderstanding of research and non-research evidence sources. Attachment is not evident, or sources are basically unacceptable (are not from scholarly journals). E. Recommended Practice Change Explanation is not evident or reflects a basic misunderstanding of the practice change. F1. Key Stakeholders Explanation is not evident or reflects a basic misunderstanding of how to involve the 3 stakeholders. Description is not evident or reflects a basic misunderstanding of specific barriers and applying evidence. Identification is not evident or reflects a basic misunderstanding of the strategies and the barriers. Indicator is not evident or reflects a basic misunderstanding of the outcome. F2. Barriers F3. Strategies for Barriers F4. Indicator to Measure Outcome types) or is not relevant to the literature search topic. Discussion is irrelevant or incomplete (does not include 2 research and/or 2 nonresearch evidence sources). and is relevant to the literature search topic. Discussion is relevant and complete (includes 2 research and 2 non-research evidence sources). Attachment is incomplete (does not include 5 sources), or the sources are from scholarly journals but not located in major medical databases. Explanation is vague or does not inform a practice change that addresses the PICO question, or the explanation is not supported by the evidence. Explanation is vague or does not address how to involve the 3 stakeholders in the decision. Description is not relevant, includes general barriers, or vaguely applies the evidence. Attachment is complete (includes 5 sources), and the scholarly journal sources are located in major medical databases. Identification is incomplete (includes only 1 strategy) or is not relevant to the barriers. Identification is complete (includes 2 strategies) and is relevant to the barriers. Indicator is irrelevant or does not measure the outcome. Indicator is relevant and measures the outcome. Explanation is clear, informs a practice change that addresses the PICO question, and is supported by the evidence. Explanation is congruent, logical, and addresses how to involve the 3 stakeholders in the decision. Description is relevant, includes specific barriers, and clearly applies the evidence. G. Sources The submission does not include in-text citations and references according to APA style. The submission includes intext citations and references but does not demonstrate a consistent application of APA style. The submission includes intext citations and references and demonstrates a consistent application of APA style. ...
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Tutor Answer

henryprofessor
School: New York University

Attached.

Task 2 Part A1- A4
Health care problem- lack of transparency in hospital operations
One of the problems that the health sector continues to face is the lack of transparency in
the operations of hospitals. The lack of transparency in hospital operations leads to information
asymmetry by the critical hospital stakeholders, and this shields them from essential decision
making. Transparency needs to be enhanced on the clinical quality of providers and the
efficiency of costs so as to bridge the gaps in information asymmetry. Particularly, transparency
plays a key role in the improvement of health care. The concept of transparency is that it leads to
data sharing which is key in lowering of costs and the improvement of health care quality. The
focus on ensuring that there is transparency ensures that there is the increase in the satisfaction of
the patients and the enhancement of the communication in the healthcare sector.
Significance of the problem
Throughout the healthcare settings, there is the need for greater consideration for
transparency. Transparency forms part of the accessibility to information about prices and the
quality of healthcare services. However, when there is the lack of information required in the
service pricing, consumers might be misled on the decisions that they make. This can be
detrimental to the failure of the systems of healthcare results. The problem is significant in the
health sector as it guarantees the consideration of services offered to the patients as the focus is
on quality. Lack of transparency leads to difficulties in getting the information that the patients
require for their treatment. It is important that the focus is on the systems operations as it is
through this that there is an improvement in the functioning of the hospitals by the affordable act
(Butcher, 2015). The development of technology in the environment necessitates for the
improvement in efficiency of the hospitals and helps to ensure that there is an increase in

transparency of the hospitals. With the improvement in transparency in hospitals, it is expected
that there is an increase in the system of referral as there is coordination. The patients are also
aware of costs of the different services that they would like to access and this gives them the
ability to make decisions that influence them positively.
Current practice
Looking at the current practice, many healthcare organizations fail due to the lack of the
transparency in hospital operations. Lack of transparency leads to the lack of information which
in turn affects the organization culture, and this makes it difficult for the delivery of the services,
and there is the unreliability of the reimbursement systems. The fee-for-service system has been
changed to value-based care. This drives the need to have transparency between the patients and
the providers of the health care services. Previously, the providers of health care services were
guided by the proprietary information for the purpose of maintaining the competition positions in
the negotiations of prices. However, the value-based care has resulted in transparency being a
major cultural change.
Impact on background
The lack of transparency impacts the organization as it is concerned with the performance
of the organizations and this means that there is need to observe the outcomes of the different
decisions made in the organization. The issues that the health organization deals with regarding
transparency are important as they help in the solving of the issues that the company continues to
face. The prioritization on the quality of services is imperative, as it is through this that there is
the breaking of the barriers that exist and the enhancement of the systems that the hospitals use
(Holeman, Cookson & Pagliari, 2016). It is important that there is focus on the improvement of
the services and this aids in the increase of transparency of the systems. It is notable that

transparency in health care organizations is critical to the improvement of health care quality and
cost. For instance, it is hard to have expectations for the reduction in the health care cost when
the individual operating room resources cost. Most of the organizations lack transparency in the
areas of costs, quality initiatives and health care outcomes.
PICO Table- Task 2 Part B

P (patient/problem)

Health sectors lack of transparency.

I (intervention/indicator)

Coordination among the healthcare providers.

C (comparison)

No comparison of costs in health care.

O (outcome)

Increase of retention and service quality.
Task 2 Part B1

To improve the transparency factor in the healthcare sector, does coordination of
different health providers assist in the reduction of costs of the company and improve service
quality and the retention of the clients?
Task 2 Part C1-D
The approach that is used in search of the information is critical in helping to create a
valid case for the importance of transparency in the health sector. The search strategy used in the
case is the simple search method that is utilized by the imputing of the information required in
the search button (Moucheraud et al., 2017). The information that is related to the keywords used
in the search is important as it helps in showing the information that is needed in making valid
conclusion. The keywords used are the lack of transparency in the health sector and its influence

on the operations of the hospital. The search engine shows the different developments that have
taken place in the industry, and this helps in the validation of the information.
The articles used in the research are peer-reviewed articles that assist in the development
of ideas towards the lack of transparency in the health sector. The credibility of the journal
articles makes it necessary, as there is the assurance that the information contained helps in the
formation of a strong stand on the lack of transparency in the health care sector. The peerreviewed journals used are five and this is critical in ensuring that there is the validation of the
PICO question.
The research evidence is mainly in publications and journals and helps in the validation
of information. One of the journals is by Butcher (2015) looks at the patient's satisfaction levels
on the services received. There is the use experimental research in the gaining of the evidence.
Oshima Lee & Emanuel (2013) looks how shared decision making is essential in the
improvement of health care and the reduction in health care costs. The article encourages the
utilization of shared decision making in health care which is essential in the alignment of the
patient’s needs with better medical care. Non-research evidence is the article written on the
Internet where there is no restriction on the information classification. Raube (2015) looks at the
disruptions that occur in the health sector and the tools that should be used in the analysis of
pricing of the hospital products. Moucherand et al. (2017), looks at the efficiency of the health
care systems and the sustainability of the methods used.
Research Evidences
One of the research evidence is clinical practice experience research evidence and the
Quasi-experimental research evidence. The Quasi-experimental study involved a systematic
review of the combination of the Randomized Controlled Trials or RCTs and the quasi-

experimental research only, with or without a meta-analysis., and more precisely research about
efficiency with assumed pre-eminence. On the other hand, the clinical practice experience
research evidence involves a mediation through a contact and connection between an individual
medical practitioner and a patient, and could only get achieved through the use of the clinical
practice guidelines as the sources of evidence.
Correspondingly, from the level V, the non-research evidence included the nonexperimental study which involves a systematic review of the combination of the Randomized
Controlled Trials, the quasi-experimental and also the non-experimental and non-experimental
studies only, with or absence of a meta-analysis. Lastly was the literature reviews which were
aimed at answering focused questions to inform the practitioners and patients about the best
available non-research evidence while making the healthcare decisions, influencing policies and
identifying the future research priorities.
Task 2 Part E
The method suggested in the implementation of change in the industry is the embracing
of technology to help in the coordination of information between the different health providers.
There is the focus on the growth of the sector and the various implementations that assist in
gauging the improvement of the services offered. The use of technology in the industry is
significant as it ensures that there is the enhancement of the communication taking place in the
different organizations and that there is the maintenance of the information that belongs to the
clients (Raube, 2015). The focus on the availability of the information when it is required
ensures that there is the decrease in costs as the patient is likely to make their decisions on the
different services that the company is offering. The consideration on the pricing of the services is
important as it ensures that there is the maximization of the resources of the organization. It is

through this that there is the improvement in the efficiency of the company and the ensuring that
there is the coordination of the systems. The choices that the providers make ensure that there is
the protection of the information of the patients and it is through this that there is the
improvement in the quality of the services offered. The evaluation of the decisions made is
necessary as there is the assurance that there is the increase in efficiency of the different health
care organizations.
Recommended Practice Change that Addresses PICO Question
Without a well-focused practice change, there can be complexities and time consumption
while trying to identify the appropriate resources and a hunt for relevant evidence. Practitioners
of the Evidence-Based Practice often use a particular framework that involves PICO to form the
problem and simplify the literature search. One of the practice changes should incorporate
increased innovations in the tools meant for preclinical and clinical research studies which
eventually would lead to increased efficiency in the health facilities. Another recommended
practice change should be greater efficiency in the patient-clinician relationship to improve
healthcare outcomes and improved management of the randomized data in the health sector.
Task 2 Part F1-F4
The implementation process is important as it ensures that there is the analysis of the
solution given and the focus on ensuring that the company recommendations are evaluated. The
stakeholders that are involved in the implementation process include patients that require that the
information of the services offered and the pricing be accessible to them. They need to be
educated on the access of information and the use of the data that they receive in making sound
decisions. The hospitals are relevant stakeholders as they provide the information that the
patients require in making different decisions (Oshima Lee & Emanuel, 2013).). They ensure that

they adapt to the new technologies and ensuring that they make profits. The government is
important as it regulates the operations of the hospitals and it is through this that there is the
observation of the productivity in the hospitals.
There are different barriers expected in the implementation process, and this is the lack of
resources in the use of technology. The policies that are developed assist in making sure that
there is the increase in efficiency in the environment and the assurance that the hospitals will
adapt to the different changes taking place. Another barrier is the cost of the systems where not
all the providers of health care can afford the systems.
In overcoming the obstacles, it is important that there is the consideration of the resources
that the hospitals have and the allocation to the different hospitals. The infrastructure should be
in place before the implementation process as this ensures that there is the utilization of the
resources that the company has in increasing the hospital's transparency. Also, the careful
consideration of the policies is another strategy that ensures that there is the transformation of the
health sector.
One important indicator that measures the outcomes of the implementation is the
information access and the quality of services that the patients receive. The improvement in the
organizations reputation is important, as it makes sure that the incentives that they get are
utilized in making sure that the patients receive quality services. The improvement in the
transparency of the information is assessed through the development of the methods that the
patients can access information.
The lack of transparency in the health sector leads to the decrease in the efficiency of
operations, and it makes it necessary to ensure that there is the improvement in the services

offered to the patients. There is the expectation that the information obtained will help in
increasing the efficiency of the organization and the measurement methods of the data.
Task 2 Part G
Butcher, L. (2015). Health Care Transparency Movement Gaining Ground. Physician Leadership
Journal, 2(6), 6-10.
Holeman, I., Cookson, T. P., & Pagliari, C. (2016). Digital Technology For Health Sector
Governance In Low And Middle-Income Countries: A Scoping Review. Journal
Of

Global Health, 6(2), 1. Doi:10.7189/Jogh.06.020408

Moucheraud, C., Schwitters, A., Boudreaux, C., Giles, D., Kilmarx, P. H., Ntolo, N., &
Bossert, T. J. (2017). Sustainability Of Health Information Systems: A ThreeCountry
11.

Qualitative Study In Southern Africa. Bmc Health Services Research, 171-

Doi:10.1186/S12913- 016-1971-8

Raube, K. (2015). Castlight Health: Disrupting The Health Care Industry. California
Management Review, 57(4), 104-125. Doi:10.1525/Cmr.2015.57.4.104
Oshima Lee, E., & Emanuel, E. J. (2013). Shared decision making to improve care and reduce
costs. New England Journal of Medicine, 368(1), 6-8.


Evidence Matrix Task 2 Part D
Journal

Year of

Name/ WGU

Publicat

Library

ion

Results/Author’s

Outcome
Research

Authors

Sample Size

Variables

Level (I–III)

Quality (A, B, C)

Suggested

Design
Measured

Conclusions

The
methodological
quality
Increase in
assessment
Zeng, X., Zhang,

innovations in tools
tools for

Improved

Y., Kwong, J. S.,

Descriptive

for preclinical and

preclinical and
Zhang, C., Li, S.,

technology
2015

research

clinical studies,
Sun, F., ... & Du,

52 states

I

design
systematic

L.

A

clinical studies leads

improves data
to increased
transparency.
efficiency in the

review and
hospitals.
meta‐ analysis,
and clinical
practice

guideline: a
systematic
review.
Shared
decision

6 articles

making to...

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