Thank you, would you be interested in taking the Chemistry lab and quiz and also the cell membrane transport lab and quiz ??
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click on BSC2085L- HUMAN ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY LAB
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click on Chemistry Lab, Chemistry quiz
after completed then go to next section and click on Cell and Cell transport mech lab, cell and membrane transport lab quiz
Notes for chapter 4
Functions: maintain boundaries, metabolism, digestion, excretion, reproduction-red blood cells do not reproduce because they do not have a nucleus, movement, irritability
Parts of a cell membrane: plasma membrane, cytoplasm, and nucleus
- Plasma membrane-outer cell membrane; porous in nature. Selectively permeable by the charge, solubility, and size. Hydrophilic and hydrophobic parts. Double layer of phospholipids with proteins scattered in it. 20% of the membrane is made of cholesterol. Proteins make up half the plasma membrane. Solubility-fat soluble substances will pass through.
- Cytoplasm- a jellylike substance present between nucleus and plasma membrane
- Nucleus (RBC exception)-most important structure inside the cell, porous and selectively permeable.
Specializations of plasma membrane:
Microvilli-small fingerlike projections help increase surface area. Seen in the GI tract and kidney tubules
Cilia-tiny hair like projections. Found in the respiratory tract.
Flagella-found in sperm. No tail=infertile
Plasma Membrane Functions
- Protection (Selectively permeable)
- Resting membrane potential
- Cell environment interaction
Membrane Junctions- Three types
- Tight junctions-sticks adjacent cells together. Is impermeable. Most commonly seen in the stomach and intestines.
- Desmosomes-anchoring junctions; found in skin and heart muscles.
- Gap junctions-communicating junction, different things can pass through; permeable; found in heart and smooth muscle.
- Passive processes (along conc/pressure gradient), no energy utilized
- Diffusion-high to low concentration
- Osmosis-diffusion of water
- Facilitated diffusion-large molecules piggybacked across the membrane
- Filtration-high pressure to low pressure
Isotonic – Same (iso) tonicity, no net loss/gain of water
Hypertonic – high concentration of solutes; less water; Crenation: shrinking/shriveling
Hypotonic – low concentration of solutes/expands until bursts
- Active processes, utilizes energy, and allows large molecules to be transported; moves from
low to high therefore moves up the concentration gradient
- Active transport
- Vesicular transport (tiny bubbles)
-Endocytosis (endo-inside) taken into the cell
- Phagocytosis: cell eating: (macrophages) (neutrophils)
- Bulk phase endocytosis (dissolved nutrients are taken into body)
- Receptor mediated endocytosis (hormones) takes in hormones
- Pinocytosis-cell drinking. Seen in kidney cells and linings of the intestines.
-important for cell division
-Porous nuclear membrane which is selectively permeable
-Nucleolus- RNA and proteins
Cytoplasm: activity center of the entire cell
-The activity center has certain organelles inside that carry out all the activity
-Mitochondria-energy source ATP. Found in kidney and liver cells and skeletal muscles
-Ribosomes-protein synthesizers; free; attached to endoplasmic reticulum
- Rough ER: studded with ribosome and transports proteins, also manufactures membranes. Seen in secretory cells. Pancreas. Deals with protein synthesis
- Smooth ER: no ribosomes and concerned with lipid synthesis, metabolism, and alcohol and drug detox.
- Calcium ions stored in both rough and smooth ER
-Golgi Apparatus-packer. Packages material for secretion (pancreas). Forms lysosomes. Protein synthesis. Lots found in pancreas
-Lysosomes- Digestion. Acid enzymes. Lots of phagocytes. Many found in GI tract.
-Peroxisomes-detoxifiers. Oxidase enzymes. Lots found in liver and kidney cells. Neutralize free radicals.
-Centrioles-conductors of cell division
*Cell anatomy-p. 66-67 Know Fig 4.3 and 4.4
Mitosis (know Fig 4.9)
- Interphase-centrioles and DNA replication
- Prophase-longest phase; chromosome formation; formation of mitotic spindle; nucleolus & nuclear membrane
- Anaphase-shortest phase; centromeres split and move towards opposite poles...look V shaped; cleavage of cell begins
- Telophase-chromosomes at opposite poles; uncoil and form chromatin; nuclear membrane reforms, spindle disappears and nucleolus reappears
- Cytokinesis-cleavage completed and 2 daughter cells for