Expose you to professional literature in your discipline, Journal Article Summary help

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Analyze a journal article in your career specialization that reports one of these statistical tests: correlation, t-tests, and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). In a maximum of 600 words using the DAA Template, provide a summary of the research study, identify the variables, articulate the research question and hypotheses, interpret the test statistic, and provide conclusions as well as the strengths and limitations of the study.

Note: Completing this journal article summary requires the knowledge and experience gained from completing the other four assessments in this course. Therefore, you must complete these assessments prior to beginning work on Assessment 5.

The intent of this assessment is to:

  • Expose you to professional literature in your discipline.
  • Provide practice in the interpretation of statistical results contained in an empirical (data-based) journal article.
  • Provide practice in writing and thinking in a concise and economical manner that is typical of scientific discourse.

As you prepare to complete this assessment, you may want to think about other related issues to deepen your understanding or broaden your viewpoint. You are encouraged to consider the questions below and discuss them with a fellow learner, a work associate, an interested friend, or a member of your professional community. Note that these questions are for your own development and exploration and do not need to be completed or submitted as part of your assessment.

Application of Statistics

  • How would you evaluate your current level of statistics anxiety relative to your initial level while working on your first assessment of the course?
  • How has your view of statistics changed from the beginning of the course?
  • How can you use statistics in your career.
    • Do you have a different perception than you initially did?

Required Resources

The following resources are required to complete the assessment.

For this assessment, you will identify a published research article either in the print literature or online in the Capella University Library. Your article must be based on empirical (data-based) research; qualitative or purely descriptive research is not appropriate. Select a journal article in your career specialization that reports a correlation, a t-test, a one-way ANOVA, or some combination of these test statistics. The library guides listed in the Resources area can help you to locate appropriate articles.

The intent of this assessment is to:

  • Expose you to professional literature in your discipline.
  • Provide practice in the interpretation of statistical results contained in an empirical (data-based) journal article.
  • Provide practice in writing and thinking in a concise and economical manner that is typical of scientific discourse.

You will summarize the article in a maximum of 600 words using the DAA Template located in the Resources area under the Required Resources heading. Specific instructions for completing each section of the DAA Template are listed below.

You may use some of the author's own words to summarize the article with proper citation, but avoid lengthy direct quotes (such as copying multiple sentences or paragraphs verbatim). You should not exceed the limit of 600 words. This is a situation where less is better.

Step 1: Write Section 1 of the DAA

  • Provide a brief summary of the journal article.
  • Include a definition of the specified variables (predictor, outcome) and corresponding scales of measurement (nominal, continuous).
  • Specify the sample size of the data set.
  • Discuss why the journal article is relevant to your career specialization.

Step 2: Write Section 2 of the DAA

  • Discuss the assumptions of the statistical test used in the journal article.
    • If possible, identify information in the article about how these assumptions were tested.
    • If no information on assumptions is provided, consider this as a limitation of the reported study.

Step 3: Write Section 3 of the DAA

  • Specify the research question from the journal article.
  • Articulate the null hypothesis and alternative hypothesis.

Step 4: Write Section 4 of the DAA

  • Report the results of the statistical test using proper APA guidelines. This includes:
    • The statistical notation (such as r, t, or F).
    • The degrees of freedom.
    • The statistical value of r, t, or F, and the p value.
  • Report the effect size and interpretation if one is provided.
  • Interpret the test statistic with regard to the null hypothesis.

Step 5: Write Section 5 of the DAA

  • Discuss the conclusions of the statistical test as it relates to the research question.
  • Conclude with an analysis of the strengths and limitations of the study reported in the journal article.


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Running head: DATA ANALYSIS AND APPLICATION TEMPLATE Data Analysis and Application (DAA) Template Learner Name Capella University 1 DATA ANALYSIS AND APPLICATION TEMPLATE Data Analysis and Application (DAA) Template Use this file for all assignments that require the DAA Template. Although the statistical tests will change from week to week, the basic organization and structure of the DAA remains the same. Update the title of the template. Remove this text and provide a brief introduction. Section 1: Data File Description 1. Describe the context of the data set. You may cite your previous description if the same data set is used from a previous assignment. 2. Specify the variables used in this DAA and the scale of measurement of each variable. 3. Specify sample size (N). Section 2: Testing Assumptions 1. Articulate the assumptions of the statistical test. 2. Paste SPSS output that tests those assumptions and interpret them. Properly integrate SPSS output where appropriate. Do not string all output together at the beginning of the section. 3. Summarize whether or not the assumptions are met. If assumptions are not met, discuss how to ameliorate violations of the assumptions. Section 3: Research Question, Hypotheses, and Alpha Level 1. Articulate a research question relevant to the statistical test. 2. Articulate the null hypothesis and alternative hypothesis. 3. Specify the alpha level. Section 4: Interpretation 1. Paste SPSS output for an inferential statistic. Properly integrate SPSS output where appropriate. Do not string all output together at the beginning of the section. 2. Report the test statistics. 2 DATA ANALYSIS AND APPLICATION TEMPLATE 3. Interpret statistical results against the null hypothesis. Section 5: Conclusion 1. State your conclusions. 2. Analyze strengths and limitations of the statistical test. 3 DATA ANALYSIS AND APPLICATION TEMPLATE References Provide references if necessary. 4 Article Mentoring and Psychological Empowerment: Relationship with Turnover Intentions of Managers: A Study on Private Sector Banks of Delhi-NCR Region Jindal Journal of Business Research 5(2) 145–156 © 2017 O.P. Jindal Global University SAGE Publications sagepub.in/home.nav DOI: 10.1177/2278682116680927 http://jjbr.sagepub.com Shalini Srivastava1 Abstract The purpose of the study was to understand impact of mentoring and psychological empowerment on turnover intentions of managers of private sector banks of Delhi-NCR Region of India. The study was conducted on 280 middle-level managers of private sector banks. Validated instruments were used and SPSS 20 was used for data analysis. Descriptive statistics, Pearson product moment correlation, and moderated regression analysis were used for the study. A significant relationship was found between psychological empowerment and turnover intention. The result found a negative association between mentoring and turnover intention. The results further found that mentoring moderated the psychological empowerment–turnover intentions relationship. As human capital is the pillar of the organization, it is pertinent that organizations must emphasize the role of mentoring in making the employees realize the true sense of empowerment and thereby reducing turnover intentions. The study is first of its kind in Indian work setting that has tried to understand the relationship between mentoring, psychological empowerment, and turnover intentions with reference to banking sector employees. Keywords Mentoring, psychological empowerment, turnover intentions, middle-level managers, Delhi-NCR Region, private sector bank, research paper Introduction Among the most important service sectors, banking sector is considered one of the most important one by becoming a highly competitive industry worldwide (Wilkinson & Lomax, 1989). In order to make banking sector competitive and thereby expanding the business, the decades of 1980s and 1990s witnessed a lot of customer service programmes. However, the dilemma is that being such an important 1 Jaipuria Institute of Management, Noida, UP, India. Corresponding author: Shalini Srivastava, Professor–OB and HR, Jaipuria Institute of Management, A-32A, Sector 62, Noida, UP, India. E-mail: Shalini.srivastava@jaipuria.ac.in 146 Jindal Journal of Business Research 5(2) service sector, the rate of attrition is considered to be high in the banking sector (Branham, 2005; Nelson, 2007). In Indian context, in a survey by Hay Group (2013) which covered 700 million employees in 19 countries, it was found that attrition rate in Indian banking sector is approximately 26.9 percent, which is the highest in comparison to Russia, Indonesia, Brazil, US, UK, and China (Economic Times, June 2013). To prevent the flight of competitive human capital (Harman et al., 2007), researchers are deliberating upon the ways to reduce the turnover rate. One such way for doing so is to make the employees empowered. Although, there are contradictory evidences that link psychological empowerment to turnover intentions, the researchers feel that lack of psychological empowerment could be one of the reasons for this grave problem faced by banking sector. Though there are plethora of studies done in the area of psychological empowerment, only few studies have justified its significance in the service sector. The dimension of psychological empowerment is of much relevance in the service sector as compared to the other sectors because the employees of service sector have a direct association with the customers. Thereby, looking on some of these day-today situations, it is necessary for the organization to make its employees more empowered in taking the decisions which are fruitful for the organization. In a study by Chen (1998), it was found that there is a close association between the satisfaction of the customer with service performance. So, if the employees are more empowered, they will be more enthusiastic, and will be quick in responding to customers need and complaints (Barbee & Bott, 1991). To make the employees empowered, a trust between the manager and his senior is must. Creating a strong bonding between the superior and the subordinate will break the ice between the two and thus, may empower the managers. Here comes the role of a mentor, who can guide his protégé in a right direction. Previous studies (Egan & Song, 2008; Kaplan, Keinath, & Walo, 2001) suggest that traditional “one-toone” mentoring programmes are positively correlated with retention rates, the development of personal networks for women and minorities, organizational commitment, increased promotions, and greater career satisfaction. A strong mentor is well versed with his protégé’s intentions and can, therefore, play a crucial role in empowering them in a direction where he deems them worthy of being empowered. The present study challenges the studies done in the past that opined that psychological empowerment reduces turnover intentions (Collins, 2007; Geralis & Terziovski, 2003; Lashley, 1995). The study contributes to field of research in establishing that psychological empowerment increases the chances of turnover intentions but the role of mentor plays a crucial role in reducing the impact of psychological empowerment on turnover intentions. The study wants to deliberate how mentor can help his protégé’ in understanding the significance of psychological empowerment and thereby reducing his protégé’s turnover intentions. Concepts of Turnover Intentions, Psychological Empowerment, and Mentoring Turnover Intentions In the present scenario, attracting and retaining talent is of immense importance for any organization. As human capital is being considered the backbone of an organization, turnover continues to be a vibrant area for research scholars who have been debating to understand the causal mechanisms between HR practices and organization’s performance. Previous studies have tried to investigate the antecedents and consequences of employees’ turnover (Hussian et al., 2012; Khan et al., 2011; Newaz, Ali, & Akhter, 2007). Srivastava 147 Turnover intentions can be defined as one’s intention to separate from the job (Fishbein, 1967). As we are all aware of the fact that turnover intentions is a negative as well as a costly affair for any organizations, there are several studies which had tried to provide effective strategies to overcome the same (Kammeyer-Mueller & Wanberg, 2003). Employees’ turnover has been considered an important issue (Kim et al., 2010), as it takes huge costs associated with it. Studies done in the past suggest that there is an inverse relationship between turnover and organizational profitability (Davidson, Timo, & Wang, 2010; Simon & Hinkin, 2001). Independent Variable: Psychological Empowerment The ideology of empowerment was derived from the previous theories of participative management and employee involvement (Spreitzer, Kizilos, & Nason, 1997). Conger and Kanungo (1988) defined psychological empowerment as “the process of enhancing the feeling of self-efficacy among the members of an organization through identifying conditions causing powerlessness and ways to reduce the powerless state.”. Empowerment is one of the important organizational factors that can help in improving personal and organizational effectiveness. A study done by Lawler (1992, 1996) suggested that actively involving the employees can lead to sustainable advantage. Needless to say, the success of any organization is closely associated with empowered manpower. The four cognition which Spreitzer has used in his model are meaning cognition (refers to a sense of purpose) and the congruence or consistency of an individual’s beliefs, and beliefs and values of the organization (Thomas & Velthouse, 1990). Impact cognition refers to the degree to which an individual can influence work outcomes and create a difference in the organizations by their work (Spreitzer, 1995b; Spreitzer et al., 1997; Thomas & Velthouse, 1990). Competence cognition refers to self-efficacy and capacity of an individual to perform skillfully (Spreitzer, 1995). Self-determination cognition refers to autonomy or freedom in initiation and continuation of work behaviors and processes (Spreitzer, 1995). Psychological Empowerment and Organizational Turnover Intentions There are contradicting views in literature which deliberates on the relationship between psychological empowerment and turnover intentions. For example, Lashley (1996) while discussing the significance of empowerment in hotel industry clinched that empowerment could bring positive changes in job-related behaviors. Psychological empowerment is negatively associated with employees’ intentions to leave the job or organization (Ingersoll, 2001; Kim, 2005; Moynihan & Landuyt, 2008). Yang and Lee (2009) also clinched that psychological empowerment is negatively associated with employees’ turnover intentions, but this relation is mediated by employees’ satisfaction. Fook, Brinten, Sidhu, and Fooi (2011) concluded that psychological empowerment is negatively associated with withdrawal and turnover intentions. In a study done by Maertz and Griffeth (2004), the researchers opined that employees with high psychological empowerment may lead to his belief that he has an ability to have an alternative position in another organization, thus leading to a positive impact on turnover intentions. Managers with high levels of psychological empowerment have a strong belief on their ability, competence, and influence (Maertz & Griffeth, 2004) in contrast to their co-workers who have low psychological empowerment and believe that they lack necessary skills, competence, or influence to obtain valued alternative employment in other firms (Benson, Finegold, & Mohrman, 2004). 148 Jindal Journal of Business Research 5(2) Based on above analysis the following hypothesis was derived: Hypothesis 1: There is a positive association between psychological empowerment and organizational turnover intentions. Moderator Variable: Mentoring In a globally interconnected society with complexities at the workplace, it is a great challenge for the employees to adjust. Every employee is trying to find someone who can guide him to grow and develop at his workplace. Here comes to role of a mentor who is able to understand the concerns of his junior fellow who is in dire need of professional and personal support. The concept of mentoring has been taken from the concept of apprenticeship (Clutterbeuck, 2001) where the young apprentice was taken under the more experienced craftsman. The purpose of it was to ensure that the KSA of the guilds of craftsman were kept intact. In Greek mythology, mentor was the wise servant that Odysseus entrusted to take care of his son Telemachus, when he was away on his famous adventures (O’Neill, Horton, & Crosby, 1999). In the present era, mentoring is considered as a powerful tool that helps the employees in career advancement (Cummings & Worley, 1997). The studies done in the past suggest that the mentor is often an advisor, counselor or role model (Geiger-DuMond & Boyle, 1995; Phillips-Jones, 1983). Mentoring relationships contribute to these work areas by facilitating increased social networks for the mentee that could not be accessed without the mentor, and modeling of successful behaviors by the mentor. The process of mentoring helps the protégé in developing networks which are supportive in accessing relevant information related to his field (Dreher & Ash, 1990). Mentoring and Psychological Empowerment Previous studies had shown a positive link between mentoring and psychological empowerment (Luna & Cullen, 1995). Mentoring is one of the ways which the organizations can use to facilitate an employee’s psychological empowerment by assisting in socialization to its respective departments(DunhamTaylor, Lynn, Moore, McDaniel, & Walker, 2008) and modeling empowerment (Thorpe & Kalischuk, 2003). Mentoring facilitates increased psychological empowerment for both the mentee and the mentor by supporting professional growth. Mentor can also model behaviors to the mentee (Vance & Bamford, 1998) after which the mentee can adapt the behavior into their own gamut. This will automatically lead to modification of mentee’s internal dimensions of empowerment. Hypothesis 2: There exists a significant and positive relationship between mentoring and psychological empowerment. Mentoring and Turnover Intentions Studies done in the past shows a positive association between mentoring and retention rates but there are mixed results about the relationship as well (Kaplan et al., 2001; Stallworth, 2003; Viator, 2001). Their research suggests that, “… the mere presence/absence of a mentor has no effect on organizational turnover intentions or any other variables within our research model” (Hall & Smith, 2008, p. 699). Some studies find a negative association between having a mentor and intentions to leave the accounting firm (Barker, Monks, & Buckley, 1999; Scandura & Viator, 1994; Viator & Scandura, 1991), whereas others 149 Srivastava report no association (Herbohn, 2004; Viator, 2001). Literature suggests that there is a positive relationship between mentoring and retention rates, organizational commitment and career satisfaction (Egan & Song, 2008; Kaplan et al., 2001; Kleinman). A study carried out by Srivastava (2011) found that mentoring acts as a moderator for the relationship between job burnout and job satisfaction relationship. We can link the result to our present study by addressing that a strong mentor can play a crucial role in reducing the impact of psychological empowerment that will automatically lead to less turnover intentions. One of the strongest claims regarding mentoring relationships is that they assist public accounting firms in retaining employees (American Institute of Certified Public Accountants, 2007; Gregg, 1999). Based on the above analysis, the following hypotheses were proposed: Hypothesis 3: There is an inverse relationship between mentoring and turnover intentions. Hypothesis 4:  Mentoring will weaken the impact of psychological empowerment on turnover intentions. Objective of the Study To study was to understand impact of mentoring and psychological empowerment on turnover intentions of managers of private sector banks of Delhi-NCR Region. Conceptual Framework of the Present Study Although previous studies have linked two or three of the variables under study, but no studies were found that link all three variables within one framework. Due to a gap in research with respect to banking sector in the areas of mentoring, psychological empowerment, and turnover intentions, the proposed work will be of immense value to the Indian banking sector in general and private banking sector in specific. This research is relevant in the services sector, especially in the banking sector, which did not have any holistic work comprising of the dimensions of the variables under study. The relationship between these variables has been studied with limited scope and specific countries. The study intends to find its significance in the non-western work context like India. The present study has adopted the moderation model to see the relationship among these variables (Baron & Kenny, 1986). Figure 1 depicts psychological empowerment as an independent variable, mentoring as a moderator variable, and turnover intentions as dependent variable. The underlying assumption is that mentoring Figure 1. The Conceptual Framework of the Study Source: Author’s own. 150 Jindal Journal of Business Research 5(2) will have a significant moderating impact on the relationship between psychological empowerment and turnover intentions. Figure 1 also shows negative impact of mentoring and positive impact of psychological empowerment on turnover intentions and negative moderating impact of mentoring on the relationship between psychological empowerment and turnover intentions. Research Methodology Participants and Procedures A sample size of 280 managers from Delhi-NCR Region belonging to banking sector was taken for the present study. The banks that were included in the present study consisted of Axis Bank, HDFC bank, ICICI Bank, Kothari Bank, and Yes Bank. The designations of middle-level managers were teller authorizer; personal banker authorizers, relationship banking head, branch operation managers, and branch managers. Around 64 percent of the managers were males, whereas rests were female managers. Of the total sample, 68.2 percent were married. In all 400 managers across banks were contacted for the survey, but only 280 complete questionnaires were collected leading to a response rate of 70 percent. Respondents’ age ranged between 20 and 55 years with 178 as males and rest as females. The managers were appraised regarding the academic purpose of the study and were promised for confidentiality. Measures All the measures used and adapted in this study followed the guidelines of the International Test Commission (ITC) for good test use and for best practice in assessments. The scales of the research were obtained from the past literature and published studies. Turnover Intentions Turnover intention having four items was taken from Bluedorn (1982) on a 5-point scale ranging from Strongly Disagree to Strongly Agree. The instrument consisted of items like, “I often think about quitting” and “It is likely that I will actively look for a new job next year.” The reliability score of the measure was 0.74. Psychological Empowerment Scale Psychological empowerment is measured using a 12-item scale developed by Spreitzer (1995). The scale is composed of four subscales: meaning, competence, self determination, and impact. Example of competence is “I am confident about my ability to do my job”; self-determinati ...
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Running head: DATA ANALYSIS AND APPLICATION TEMPLATE

Journal article Summary Assessment
Learner Name
Capella University

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DATA ANALYSIS AND APPLICATION TEMPLATE
Data Analysis and Application (DAA) Template
The study was aimed at creating a significant understanding on the impact of mentoring
and psychological empowerment on the turnover intentions of managers focusing on the private
sector banks of Delhi-NCR Region of India
Section 1: Data File Description
1. The data set was obtained from middle-level managers of private sector banks who were
involved in the study with the significant aim of finding the impact of mentoring and
psychological empowerment on turnover intentions. The variables that were considered
in the study include psychological empowerment, which was the independent variable
that was considered in the ...

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