RMU Mythological Criticism Aladdin Hero Adventure Essay

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1 - You can find the book here: https://www.ebooks.com/Account/Login?ReturnUrl=%2F... - PLEASE NO PLAGIARISM!!!!! = = = PARALLEL MYTHS DUE DATE: WEDNESDAY Oct/13/2021 OF WEEK 5 BY 11:59 PM INITIAL POSTS "Threads" (2) DUE WEDNESDAY Oct/13/2021 OF WEEK 5 BY 11:59 PM REPLIES TO OTHERS' POSTS (6) DUE FRIDAY Oct/15/2021 OF WEEK 5 BY 11:59 PM Essay 2 DUE Oct/16/2021 >>> Here is the file for essay1 https://we.tl/t-IhzesTlLRs --------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Future Assignment Essay 2: I have included the Essay 2 assignment description in this week although it is not due until Monday of Week 8. Keep in mind that both of your essays will be submitted through turnitin.com, which will evaluate the originality of the essay. If my evaluation of the turnitin.com report determines that an essay was plagiarized, I will assign an "F" and report that student's plagiarism to the Academic Integrity Committee. 2 DUE DATE: WEDNESDAY OF WEEK 7 BY 11:59 PM Read Parallel Myths, Chapter 13, "Parallel Myths and Ways of Interpreting Them," pp. 267 to 303, and Chapter 14, "Myth--Yours, Mine, and Ours," pp. 304 to 326. Note: Journals will be graded on completeness, display of thinking process, and effort, not grammar. Your journal will consist of three steps: Step One--Summarizing (What?) For Chapter 13, summarize comprehensively the following theories providing explanations of why myths in places all over the world are parallel: • Diffusion • Matriarchal Theory • Psychological School of Myth • Structuralism • Philosophical Perspective • "History of Religions" School of Myth PLEASE NOTE THAT SUMMARIES OF THESE THEORIES SHOULD ADD UP TO AT LEAST 300 WORDS. Step Two--Responding (So What?) Following the summary, write your reaction to what you have just read (so what?). At this point, you want to explore your reaction to the text and connect the new information to your existing web of knowledge. PLEASE NOTE THAT A REACTION RESPONSE SHOULD BE AT LEAST 250 WORDS. Step Three--Analyzing To complete this section of the journal, you must answer ALL THREE prompts. Chapter 14 discusses the paradox that people of faith and/or people of science face in studying mythology. Respond in detail to the following prompts concerning this issue as it is discussed in Chapter 14 and as you see it yourself: 1. Do you agree with Bierlein that "Myth has much to say in helping us to understand the concept of our faith and the faiths of others. However, the 'stuff' of myth consists of stories of pagan gods and goddesses--'false gods,' according to our tradition" (307)? If you reply yes, speculate about the implications of that paradox. If you disagree, explain why. 2. How much does the popular definition of myth (untrue stories) influence how modern people view myths? What advantages and disadvantages does that multiplicity of definitions for "myth" create for those who study or enjoy myths? 3. Despite the fact that many see myths as irrelevant today, we still see modern myths being popular. Why does this paradox exist? PLEASE NOTE THAT THE ANALYSIS RESPONSES SHOULD ADD UP TO 600 WORDS. 3 INITIAL POSTS (2) DUE WEDNESDAY OF WEEK 7 BY 11:59 PM REPLIES TO OTHERS' POSTS (6) DUE FRIDAY OF WEEK 7 BY 11:59 PM THIS FORUM REQUIRES PARTICIPATION IN 2 THREADS, RESPONDING WITH AT LEAST 8 POSTS. After reading Parallel Myths, Chapter 13, “Parallel Myths and Ways of Interpreting Them," pp. 267 to 303, complete the TWO THREADS in this forum. 4 Thread 1: Why Are So Many Myths Parallel? COLLAPSE 4 POSTS ARE REQUIRED IN THIS THREAD In association with your reading from Parallel Myths, Chapter 13, "Parallel Myths and Ways of Interpreting Them," Reading Journal 7 asked you to describe these explanations of the reason for parallel myths of vastly separated cultures: • • • • • • Diffusion Matriarchal Theory Psychological School of Myth Structuralism Philosophical Perspective “History of Religions” School of Myth In ONE INITIAL POST of at least 300 words, discuss which explanation(s) you most believe. In addition, defend your opinion of why so many of these myths are so similar in such ideologically, philosophically, and geographically disparate cultures. In THREE RESPONSE POSTS of at least 150 words, reply to and/or extend other students' initial posts concerning this prompt. 5 Thread 2: Modern Myths? COLLAPSE 4 POSTS ARE REQUIRED IN THIS THREAD Consider all that you've learned through the course of the semester in framing your post and responses in this thread. In ONE INITIAL POST of at least 300 words, answer this question thoroughly, using evidence to support your viewpoint: • Are myths still needed in today's modern culture? Why or why not? In THREE RESPONSE POSTS of at least 150 words, reply to and/or extend other students' initial posts concerning this prompt. Reading Literature: Mythology Introduction to Mythology OED definitions of myth myth, n. Origin: Either a borrowing from Latin or a borrowing from Greek Etymons: Latin mȳthus, mȳthos; Greek μῦθος. a. A traditional story, typically involving supernatural beings or forces, which embodies and provides an explanation, etiology, or justification for something such as the early history of a society, a religious belief or ritual, or a natural phenomenon. Myth is strictly distinguished from allegory and legend by some scholars, but in general use it is often used interchangeably with these terms. b. As a mass noun: such stories collectively or as a genre. In later use, colored by sense a. A widespread but untrue or erroneous story or belief; a widely held misconception; a misrepresentation of the truth. Also: something existing only in myth; a fictitious or imaginary person or thing b. A person or thing held in awe or generally referred to with near reverential admiration on the basis of popularly repeated stories (whether real or fictitious) c. A popular conception of a person or thing which exaggerates or idealizes the truth 2 10/22/2021 Add a footer Mythology etymology From the Greek: Muthos = Story + Logos = logical speech or argument 3 10/22/2021 Add a footer Stories from the beginning of time A myth is a traditional, typically ancient, story, especially one concerning the early history of a people or explaining some natural or social phenomenon, and typically involves supernatural being or events. • Explains beliefs and values of a culture and helps the culture’s people to understand the world around them • Deals with supernatural beings or ancestors or heroes that serve to explain the worldview of a people • Explains aspects of the natural world • Explains psychology, customs, or ideals of a society 4 10/22/2021 Add a footer Most familiar? Greek mythology • Greek gods are not omniscient or omnipotent. • They manifest human qualities such as philandering, feasting and drinking to excess, and excessive jealousy. • These gods reflect humanity, acknowledging the mystery and beauty of humans. • In Greek myths, heroes become so by virtue of their bravery and strength rather than through supernatural power. • Greek myths display less strange and frightening magic than myths of other ancient civilizations. 5 10/22/2021 Add a footer Myth commonalities • Myths are considered true explanations of the natural world, as well as explanations for the making of it. • Characters are often nonhuman and are typically gods, goddesses, supernatural beings, or mystical “first” people. 6 10/22/2021 Add a footer Myth commonalities: Setting • Myths are typically ancient, or prior to the time when actual historical records began to be kept. • Often, myths are set in a world very similar to our own, but with supernatural areas or monsters 7 10/22/2021 Add a footer Myth commonalities: Plot • Myths may take place between a supernatural world and the human world • Myths do this to highlight the basic human behaviors that are essential in any setting. • Events in myths bend or break natural laws. • Myths do this to magnify the supernatural qualities of the mythical world. 8 10/22/2021 Add a footer Myth commonalities: Promotion of cultural values • Social action • Core values • Sense of mystery • Dualities • Answers for philosophical questions • Basis for religion 9 10/22/2021 Add a footer Myth commonalities: Literary elements Allegory • A story that has another symbolic story under the surface Example: • The story of Pandora is an allegory for the dangers of mankind’s curiosity. 10 10/22/2021 Add a footer Myth commonalities: Literary elements Allusion • Reference to some event, person, place, or artistic work that isn’t explained by the author Example • The Odyssey makes passing references to stories like the Trojan War and the Quest for the Golden Fleece that Homer assumes the reader already knows. 11 10/22/2021 Add a footer Myth commonalities: Literary elements Epithet • A word or phrase used to define a quality or attribute of some person or thing Examples • “Rosy-Fingered Dawn” • “Odysseus, Raider of Cities” • “Hephaestus, Forger of Weapons” 12 10/22/2021 Add a footer Myth commonalities: Literary elements In Medias Res • Starting a story at some exciting point “in the middle of things,” then using flashback to explain the preceding events Example • The Odyssey starts twenty years into the story, and we learned what happened via flashback. 13 10/22/2021 Add a footer Myth commonalities: Literary elements Situational Irony • When actions have an effect the reverse of what is intended; when the outcome of a situation is the reverse of what is expected. Example • Midas thought he would love being able to turn everything to gold, but he ended up hating it. 14 10/22/2021 Add a footer Myth commonalities: Literary elements Personification • Giving human attributes to non-human creatures, ideas, or things (also called anthropomorphism) Examples • Poseidon is the personification of the Seas • Athena is the personification of Wisdom 15 10/22/2021 Add a footer Myth commonalities: Literary elements Symbol • Something tangible or concrete that represents something abstract or not present Examples • Tree of life • Lotus flower • Eye of Horus 16 10/22/2021 Add a footer Why study myths? • To learn about ancient cultures • To inspire art • To teach morals and values • To understand common elements, values, beliefs in cultures • For entertainment 17 10/22/2021 Add a footer The Stone and the Banana (Indonesia) Thus the natives of Poso, a district of Central Celebes, say that, in the beginning, the sky was very near the earth, and that the Creator, who lived in it, used to let down his gifts to men at the end of a rope. One day, he thus lowered a stone, but our first mother and father would have none of it, and they called out to their Maker, “What have we to do with this stone?” The Creator complied and hauled away at the rope. The stone mounted up and up until it vanished from sight. 18 10/22/2021 Add a footer The Stone and the Banana (Indonesia) Presently, the rope was seen coming down from Heaven again, and, this time, there was a banana at the end of it instead of a stone. Our first parents ran at the banana and took it. Then, there came a voice from Heaven saying, “Because ye have chosen the banana, your life shall be like its life. When the banana tree has offspring, the parent stem dies. So shall ye die, and your children shall step into your place. 19 10/22/2021 Add a footer The Stone and the Banana (Indonesia) “Had ye chosen the stone, your life would have been like the life of the stone: changeless and immortal,” said the Creator. The man and his wife mourned over their fatal choice, but it was too late. That is how, through the eating of a banana, Death came into the world. 20 10/22/2021 Add a footer Reading Literature: Mythology Introduction to Mythology PARALLEL MYTHS AND WAYS OF INTERPRETING THEM MATRIARCHAL THEORY: A HISTORY OF PREHISTORY • Major Theorists • Johann Jakob Bachofen • Robert Graves • Adolf Bastian • Leo Frobenius • Lucien Lévy-Bruhl • Émile Durkheim DEFINITION OF MATRIARCHAL THEORY • Myth is “a history of prehistory.” The researchers found that many Greek myths demonstrated a record of a prehistoric battle between a matriarchy and the emerging patriarchy. Matriarchal theory states that the early, prehistoric culture’s myths show a cruel attitude toward women within the texts. BACHOFEN’S THEORY OF MATRIARCHY • 3 Stages of early European culture: 1. Barbaric Stage (Hetairism) • Neither males nor females were dominant in society. • This was a period of widespread sexual promiscuity. • Family life was virtually non-existent. BACHOFEN’S THEORY OF MATRIARCHY • 3 stages of early European culture: 2. Matriarchal Stage • Women banded together for their own defense. • First bloom of civilization, laws, agriculture, and the arts. • Love of the mother and the Mother Goddess. • Amazons are an ancestral memory of women banding together for protection. BACHOFEN’S THEORY OF MATRIARCHY • Three stages of early European culture: 3. Patriarchal Stage • Patriarchal social structures did not develop until many years after the end of the Pleistocene Era, following social and technological developments such as agriculture and domestication. • Lineage started to be defined through the father’s line; therefore, women had to be protected from other males. • Gender roles became more delineated. GRAVES’ THEORY OF MATRIARCHY • “Ancient Europe had no gods. The Great Goddess was regarded as immortal, changeless, and omnipotent; and the concept of fatherhood had not been introduced into religious thought. She took lovers, but for pleasure, not to provide her children with a father. Men feared, adored and obeyed the matriarch: the hearth which she tended in a cave or hut being their earliest social centre, and motherhood their prime mystery. . . . There is, however, no evidence that, even when women were sovereign in religious matters, men were denied fields in which they might act without female supervision. . . . They could be trusted to hunt, fish, gather certain foods, mind flocks and herds, and help defend the tribal territory against intruders, so long as they did not transgress matriarchal law.” PSYCHOLOGICAL THEORY • Major Theorists • Pierre Janet • Sigmund Freud • Carl Jung • Joseph Campbell DEFINITION OF PSYCHOLOGICAL THEORY • Four functions of the unconscious mind: 1. Conservative function: recording of personal memories 2. Dissolutive function: thoughts, once conscious, become unconscious or repressed 3. Creative function: ability to juggle contradictory modes of thought— cognitive and emotional, deliberate and spontaneous. 4. Mythopoetic function • Mythic/epic stories, a permanent part of human mental structure, are constantly composed and played out in the unconscious mind of the individual. JANET’S PSYCHOLOGICAL THEORY • Religion and mythology are vital keys to understanding the human psyche. • The mind works to allocate mental resources in the most efficient manner possible. • Humans perform rites, “complicated conducts in which the least details are rigidly fixed.” JANET’S PSYCHOLOGICAL THEORY • Human religious rites are “transactional.” • After the rites are performed for a period of time, humans compose myths to justify the rites and to ensure that the rites are continued. • Thus, animistic religions are born; that it, societies have covenants with gods or God “out of fear, the need for morality, or a need for direction of love.” • When the god fails to speak, the society abandons the myth. FREUD'S PSYCHOLOGICAL THEORY • Studying dreams is the essential element to understanding the human unconscious psyche. • Myth is a collection projection of the processes taking place in the unconscious mind or shared dreams among humans. • These shared dreams are the products of the individual unconscious, not a universal mythproducing area of the mind. • Parallel myths are due to fact that everyone has similar experiences (e.g., mothers and fathers). COMPARISON OF BACHOFEN AND FREUD BACHOFEN FREUD • Hetairistic period of sexual promiscuity • Infantile sexuality (polymorphous perversion) • Matriarchal period: rule by women • Complete dependence on mother • Dionysian period: reversion to orgiastic cults • Phallic stage: male becomes aware of penis • Oedipal mythic period: shift from matriarchy • Oedipal stage: sexual attachment to the mother, jealousy of the father (stress) to patriarchy (stress) • Genital adult stage: male children identify • Patriarchy: rule by the fathers with the father; female with mother JUNG'S PSYCHOLOGICAL THEORY • “Myth is the natural and indispensable intermediate stage between unconscious and conscious cognition. The need for mythic statements is satisfied when we frame a view of the world which adequately explains the meaning of human existence in the cosmos. . . . Meaninglessness inhibits fullness of life and is therefore equivalent to illness. Meaning makes a great many things endurable—perhaps everything. No science will ever replace myth, and a myth cannot be made out of any science. For it is not that ‘God’ is a myth, but that myth is the revelation of a divine life in man. It is not we who invent myth, rather is speaks to us as a word of God.” JUNG'S PSYCHOLOGICAL THEORY • Collective unconscious: Every human being carries an inborn, neurologically based element of the unconscious manifested in dreams and in myths. • Jung believed that the scripts of our dreams at night and our myths during the day are contained in the collective unconscious and are universal. • “This collective unconscious does not develop individually, but is inherited. It consists of pre-existing forms, the archetypes, which can only become conscious secondarily and which give definite forms to certain psychic elements.” JUNG'S PSYCHOLOGICAL THEORY • Some of Jung’s archetypes: • Hero • Great Mother/Father • Trickster • Wise Old Woman/Man • Devil • Goddess/God • Maiden • Child • Shadow DIFFUSION THEORY • No prominent theorists stand out. • Some theorists use this theory as a portion of their explanations of parallel mythologies. • All myths have a common origin and common structures from which all languages have their descent. • As cultures move around, humans take their cultures with them, preserving them in their new geography and exposing them to new people. • Modern people are culturally connected to the Ancients. STRUCTURALISM THEORY • Major Theorist • Claude Lévi-Strauss DEFINITION OF STRUCTURALISM THEORY • All human beings have the same neurologicallybased “hardware” for thinking, which provides an explanation for parallel myths. • Myths are similar because all people have the same “elemental cells” filled with the “software” of a particular culture. • Myths are structures in this human “software,” and humans are unaware of these structural systems in the brain. • Because humans think in dualist terms (good/bad, light/dark), a theme in a myth of one culture must be matched to themes in myths of other cultures. PHILOSOPHICAL PERSPECTIVE OF MYTH • Major Theorist: Paul Ricoeur • Ricoeur was influenced by existentialism. • Humans are “suspended between two poles of existence, finitude, and the infinite.” • Myth is the “cry of pathos,” an anguished attempt to reconcile the objective, finite world with the infinite (belief in God vs. uncertainty about God). • Ricoeur focused on the passage of the mythos (certain, final) to logos (debatable) or the passage of the worldview from universally accepted myth to ambiguous philosophical speculation. PHILOSOPHICAL PERSPECTIVE OF MYTH • Major Theorist: Karl Jaspers • Jaspers focused on the Axial Period: the transition between the mythological era, when human relationships with the gods were transactional, based on appeasement or rewards with sacrifices or offerings, to the philosophical era, when the gods gave over to “God” as a unified force. • Human spiritual thinking evolved as evidenced in the rise of Greek philosophy, Christianity, Confucianism, Taoism, and transitions in Hinduism. • (Refer to Janet’s discussion of abandoning the gods.) HISTORY OF RELIGION SCHOOL OF MYTHS • Major Theorist: Mircea Eliade • Eliade viewed myth as the record of the breakthrough of “the transcendent into our world.” • Myth and religion are permanent parts of human consciousness, and to think about things that are transcendent or infinite is to express your humanity. • He believed that, as religions diffused around the globe from religious centers, myths diffused around the world from myth-producing centers. • No society can be understood without an understanding of its sacred history with its institutions, morals, and culture. PARALLEL MYTHS AND WAYS OF INTERPRETING THEM Stages of the Hero’s Journey Stage 1: Departure or Separation The Call to Adventure ____________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ Refusal of the Call ______________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ Supernatural Aid _______________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ Crossing the First Threshold _______________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ Belly of the Whale ______________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ Stage 2: Initiation The Road of Trials ______________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ Meeting with the Goddess _________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ Goddess as Temptress ___________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ Atonement with the Father ________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ Apotheosis ____________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ The Ultimate Boon/Magic Elixir ____________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ Stage 3: Return Refusal of the Return ____________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ Magic Flight ___________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ Rescue from Without ____________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ Crossing the Return Threshold _____________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ Master of Two Worlds ____________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ Freedom to Live ________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ THE HERO’S JOURNEY Joseph Campbell, an American psychologist and mythological researcher, wrote a famous book entitled The Hero with a Thousand Faces. In his lifelong research Campbell discovered many common patterns running through hero myths and stories from around the world. Years of research lead Campbell to discover several basic stages that almost every heroquest goes through (no matter what culture the myth is a part of). He calls this common structure “the monomyth.” George Lucas, the creator of Star Wars, claims that Campbell’s monomyth was the inspiration for his groundbreaking films. Lucas also believes that Star Wars is such a popular saga because it taps into a timeless story-structure which has existed for thousands of years. Many followers of Campbell have defined the stages of his monomyth in various ways, sometimes supplying different names for certain stages. For this reason there are many different versions of the Hero’s Journey that retain the same basic elements. THE ORDINARY WORLD Heroes exist in a world is considered ordinary or uneventful by those who live there. Often the heroes are considered odd by those in the ordinary world and possess some ability or characteristic that makes them feel out-of-place.  The Wonderful Wizard of Oz: Dorothy in Kansas  The Hobbit: Bilbo Baggins in Hobbiton  Star Wars: Luke Skywalker on Tatooine  The Lion King: Simba at Pride Rock THE CALL TO ADVENTURE For heroes to begin their journeys, they must be called away from the ordinary world. Fantastic quests don’t happen in everyday life. Heroes must be removed from their typical environment. Most heroes show a reluctance to leave their home, their friends, and their life to journey on a quest. But in the end they accept their destiny. Usually there is a discovery, some event, or some danger that starts them on the heroic path. Heroes find a mystic object or discover their world is in danger. In some cases, heroes happen upon their quest by accident. Campbell puts it like this, “A blunder—the merest chance—reveals an unsuspected world.” The new world the hero is forced into is much different than the old one. Campbell describes this new world as a “fateful region of both treasure and danger…a distant land, a forest, a kingdom underground, beneath the waves, or above the sky, a secret island, lofty mountaintop, or profound dream state…a place of strangely fluid and polymorphous beings, unimaginable torments, superhuman deeds, and impossible delight”. This description may seem pretty vague, but think of all the various fantasy realms characters have entered throughout the years: Middle-Earth, Oz, Narnia, Wonderland. It could even be outer space, a haunted house, or the Matrix. Regardless of the details, the new world is sure to be filled with adventure.  The Wonderful Wizard of Oz: The tornado  The Hobbit: Gandalf the wizard arrives  Star Wars: R2D2’s cryptic message REFUSAL OF THE QUEST During the Call to Adventure heroes are given a task or quest which only they can complete. They are faced with a choice: accept the quest or deny it. Their choice might seem like a no-brainer. If they don’t accept the quest, there won’t be much of a story—or will there? Actually there are stories where heroes don’t accept their destinies. When this happens, the stage is set for disaster. There’s a reason why the powers-that-be have chosen a particular hero. A refusal of the quest only brings trouble. King Minos, the monarch of Crete who antagonizes the Greek hero Theseus, does not do what the gods ask of him. Poseidon, Lord of the Seas, sends him a beautiful white bull. The god’s only order is that Minos must sacrifice the creature back to him. After seeing the magnificent beast, Minos decides he just can’t bring himself to do what the god asks and keeps the bull as a personal trophy. Enraged, Poseidon vows revenge and causes Minos’ wife to burn with lust for her husband’s prized beast. The rest of this story is strictly NC-17. It results in the birth of the Minotaur, a creature half-bull, half-human, a curse to his father King Minos. Campbell notes that heroes who refuse their quest often become characters in need of rescuing or in Minos’ case, the villain of another hero’s journey.  Star Wars: Luke refuses the quest until he learns his aunt and uncle are dead  The Lion King: Simba refuses to return to Pride Rock and accept his destiny  Groundhog Day: Example of the negative cycle caused by refusing the call ACCEPTING THE CALL: Once the adventure is accepted, the heroes advance into the next stage of their journey. ENTERING THE UNKNOWN As they embark on their journey, the heroes enter a world they have never experienced before. Very often it is filled with supernatural creatures, breathtaking sights, and the constant threat of death. Unlike the heroes’ home, this outside world has its own rules, and they quickly learns to respect these rules as their endurance, strength, and mettle are tested time and time again. After all, it is not the end of the journey which teaches, but the journey itself. The Wizard of Oz: Dorothy must learn the rules of Oz The Matrix: Neo must come to grips with the realities and unrealities of the Matrix SUPERNATURAL AID Supernatural doesn’t have to mean magical. There are plenty of hero stories that don’t have wizards or witches per say. Supernatural simply means “above the laws of nature.” Heroes are almost always started on their journey by a character who has mastered the laws of the outside world and come back to bestow this wisdom upon them. This supernatural character often gives them the means to complete the quest. Some of the time the gift is simply wisdom. Other times it is an object with magical powers. In every instance it is something the hero needs to succeed. As Campbell says, “One has only to know and trust, and the ageless guardians will appear.” The job of the supernatural assistor is to give the heroes what they need to finish the quest—not finish it for them. The Hobbit: Gandalf Star Wars: Obi-Wan Kenobi Cinderella: Fairy Godmother TALISMAN: A Special (and often magical) items that assist the heroes on their quest. The Wizard of Oz: Ruby Slippers The Hobbit: The Ring Star Wars: Lightsaber ALLIES/HELPERS Every hero needs a helper, much like every superhero needs a sidekick. Without the assistance of their companions and helpers along the way, most heroes would fail miserably. For example, in the Greek hero story of Theseus, Minos’ daughter Ariadne, after falling hopelessly in love, helps Theseus navigate the Labyrinth. She does this by holding one end of a golden thread while Theseus works his way inward to slay the Minotaur. Without her help, Theseus would never have fulfilled his quest or found his way out of the maze once he did so. Lord of the Rings: Samwise Gamgee The Wizard of Oz: The Tin Woodsman, Scarecrow, and Cowardly Lion TESTS & THE SUPREME ORDEAL The heroes progress through a series of tests, a set of obstacles that make them stronger, preparing them for their final showdown. At long last they reach the Supreme Ordeal, the obstacle they have journeyed so far to overcome. All the heroes’ training and toil comes into play now. The journey has hardened them, and it’s time for them to show their prowess. Once this obstacle is overcome, the tension will be relieved. The worst is passed, and the quest, while not officially over, has succeeded. Star Wars: Blowing up the Death Star Lord of the Rings: Mount Doom The Wizard of Oz: Defeating the Wicked Witch REWARD AND THE JOURNEY HOME Typically, there is a reward given to heroes for passing the Supreme Ordeal. It could be a kingdom. It could be the hand of a beautiful princess. It could be the Holy Grail. Whatever it is, it is a reward for the heroes’ endurance and strength. After the heroes complete the Supreme Ordeal and have the reward firmly in hand, all that is left is for them to return home. Just because the majority of the adventure has passed doesn’t mean that the return journey will be smooth sailing. There are still lesser homebound obstacles to overcome. The Hobbit: The Battle of Five Armies The Lord of the Rings: Return to Hobbiton MASTER OF TWO WORLDS/ RESTORING THE WORLD Success on the heroes’ quest is life-changing, for them and often for many others. By achieving victory, they have changed or preserved their original world. Often they return with “the exilir,” an object or personal ability that allows them to save their world. The heroes have also grown in spirit and strength. They have proved themselves worthy for marriage, kingship, or queenship. Their mastery of the outside world qualifies them to be giants in their own. Lord of the Rings: Frodo saves the Shire The Wizard of Oz: Dorothy rids Oz of the Wicked Witch THE MONOMYTH: NOT JUST FOR MYTHOLOGY W hile Joseph Campbell’s monomyth works best with the traditional form of the quest— folk and fairy tales, myths, legends, and other fantasies—it can be applied to many different genres or types of stories. A quest does not have to include swords and monsters. It can just as easily occur in the real world. The monomyth, ageless and universal, exists anywhere and everywhere. ARCHETYPES APPEARING IN THE HERO’S JOURNEY J oseph Campbell was heavily influenced by the Swiss Psychiatrist Carl Jung whose theory of the collective unconscious involved archetypes—recurring images, patterns, and ideas from dreams and myths across various cultures. Below are several archetypes often found in myths.    HEROES: Central figures in stories. Everyone is the hero of his or her own myth. SHADOWS: Villains, enemies, or perhaps the enemy within. This could be the repressed possibilities of the hero, his or her potential for evil. MENTORS: The hero’s guide or guiding principles.       HERALD: The one who brings the Call to Adventure. This could be a person or an event. THRESHOLD GUARDIANS: The forces that stand in the way at important turning points, including jealous enemies, professional gatekeepers, or even the hero’s own fears and doubts. SHAPESHIFTERS: In stories, creatures like vampires or werewolves who change shape. In life, the shapeshifter represents change. TRICKSTERS: Clowns and mischief-makers. ALLIES: Characters who help the hero throughout the quest. WOMAN AS TEMPTRESS: Sometimes a female character offers danger to the hero (a femme fatale) Group work 5) • • • • • • • • When the customer is ordering the pizza and chicken wings by phone number, if the customer is new you can add the address details in the customer information or update the customer information if they are not new The pizza or chicken wings order would be based on the customer ordering the items The billing process in done in the Account department and it is stored in the Payment master table, and the bill-invoice would include calculating the tax and delivery cost The order is then given to the kitchen, where the cooks then prepare the food The weekly total calculation are calculated and kept in the previously mentioned Account department for comparison with the last year If there is any coupon or offer, it is added with the bill-invoice The cooked food would send to delivery part of the business fir delivery The pizza is then sent to the customer with a copy of the bill 6) • 7) Lucidchart 1 Thread 1 Andie Mapel RE: Thread 1: Why Are So Many Myths Parallel? COLLAPSE It was discussed in chapter 13 the many different theories of how certain myths parallel each other from many different cultures that included the theories of diffusion, matriarchal theory, psychological school of myth, structuralism, philosophical perspective, and "History of Religions" school of myth. The theory of diffusion is a theory that definitely makes a lot of sense to me as to why certain cultures that are geographically close share very similar myths, due to those stories being passed across those cultures. Many cultures that are relatively geographically close to each other share many aspects not only their myths but also their religion, customs, ideologies, and culture as a whole which makes perfect sense why certain cultures that are located close to each other will have similar myths ways of life that have diffused into one another. Another theory that I agreed with was the Philosophical Perspective theory. This theory discussed how human function stems from feeling and viewing humans as fragile. It also discusses the transition from mythos to logos, where mythos is derived from myth, where it is thought of as being certain and final, and logos is derived from word, where it is something that could be debated. However, as mythos became logos, the certainty and sense of meaning disappeared which thus led to humans becoming fragile and now having humans rely on feeling to give them the necessary sense of meaning. This theory makes sense to me because many myths end up having a lesson in then where the main character performs an action because they felt it was the morally right thing to do. This universal theme in countless stories is seen all across the world where feelings and emotions drive actions that can either lead to the triumph or the demise of such characters time and time again. 2 Joseph Salemi RE: Thread 1: Why Are So Many Myths Parallel? COLLAPSE There are a few theories about this that I believe more than the others. First, the one that I really agreed with was Structuralism because this one really blew my mind. Within it, they explained how human beings have a strong tendency to dualize everything. Giving everything a polar opposite such as good and bad or even light and dark. I never really thought of this before but after reading it I really agreed with it. Next, I think that diffusion makes the most logical sense out of any of them. Having all myths originate from various parts of the world then spread along makes plenty of sense in my mind and it is why I tend to agree with it. The third and last theory of why I think myths are parallel across cultures is the theory of Psychology School of Myth which basically explains that all humans have a very similar thinking process behind the questions each myth addresses. I think that humans tend to have the same feelings, responses, actions as one another and that all comes from the same thinking process. Myths are similar despite their disparities between cultures because of their mind processes and how they come to a conclusion of difficult questions that need answers. The theories of Diffusion, Matriarchal Theory, Psychological School of Myth, Structuralism, Philosophical Perspectives, and History of Religions School of Myths all hold some truth behind them but I feel that others hold more truth behind them. In addition, I believe that the theory of diffusion can support the fact that cultures that are close geographically are also similar in meanings. In conclusion, I support the ideas of diffusion, structuralism, and History of Religions School of Myths and I find these to be the most believable for why myths are similar across the different cultures. 3 Stephen Rakus RE: Thread 1: Why Are So Many Myths Parallel? COLLAPSE Personally, I could find a bit of truth in just about every explination. As I read through the theories, I mentally went through some of the myths we have read over the semester and more often than not, the theories fit in one way or another. That being said, I do believe some make better arguments than others. Over the semester I have been answering answering other questions that have been posed to us by making up my own theories as to why so many of the myths are similar, and I came to find that my ideas were the same as some of the theories in chapter 14. the first theory that was the same was the Psychology school of thought. myths are motivated by the brains mental processing and we use them to understand things around us. The second one is the Philosophical perspective, where myths are used to apply charisteric of the smaller things to the larger parts of the world. between these two theories, it is very difficult to decide which leads to greater understanding, so I believe that the two should be combined. Together, they make a very complamentary pair and in my opinion, they do a great job of explaining myths. To back this statment up, I would like to call out a common trait in humans: we aleays seek to understand things we currently do not understand. Through all of history, humans have thrived off of assuming relationships between things. an example of this is when doctors used to believe that ailments were caused by bad blood, which led them to bleeding people to try to fix their ailments. Although this was not correct, it illustrates how we have always tried to understand things, and myths are just another way of our brains trying to rationalize the universe. 4 Thread 2 Luke Michalek RE: Thread 2: Modern Myths? COLLAPSE This course has taught me more about mythology and “myth” than any other course in my academic career. It was interesting though because it was not at all what I imagined it to be. I expected to learn a great deal about the Greek and roman gods. Not that I didn’t learn about those gods and their cultures, but I also learned about many other culture’s myths and gods and how many different parallels can be seen between them all. With that being said, I would definitely have to say that myths are still needed in today’s modern culture. One reason that myths are still needed today is because they make up a major part of people’s heritage. Every cultures across the world has legends, myths, and folktales that are constant reminders of where people of a specific culture come from. In a way, myths help remind us of where we came from and who we are as a people. Another reason myths are needed today in modern culture is because they are the foundation for many religions that are practiced today. There is usually a theme of good versus evil in myths that religions across the world interpret and translate into their own view. Many religions deal with combating sin and worshipping good. An example of this would be god (good) and the devil (sin) in the Catholic church. However, in my opinion, the most important reason myths are needed today in modern culture is for entertainment purposes. The entertainment industry involving fantasy fiction contains numerous aspects of mythology. These type of narratives that are told in the industry tend to be greatly supported and reviewed by people of modern times. Many of the modern day films incorporate mythology into them in some way. For instance, the Thor movies build on the Norse myths of Loki, Odin, and all other aspects of the Norse gods way of life. All in all, myths make us who we are today, and without them we would likely feel lost and believe that our lives have no meaning. 5 Kacey Pristas RE: Thread 2: Modern Myths? COLLAPSE After going through this course and gaining knowledge about mythology, in my opinion, I would have to conclude that myths are still highly needed within today’s modern society. I believe this to be true because myths have a wide range of cultures in which they were created from. With those myths can help created a better understanding of where different cultures came from and provide explanations for some actions taken within the cultures themselves. In present time, the action of understanding and accepting others different from themselves is heavily needed and should/can be valued through the reading of mythology pieces from other cultures. Going along with that point, another reason I agree that myths are still needed today is because I believe it is important to have an open mind. I experienced this while taking this course, I have never been so exposed to such a wide range of myths that when I was, I looked at my personal thoughts on questions of the world they made me stop and think about my thoughts compared to the myth presented. Myths from countless cultures can provide this challenge of truth, and with the wide range and the possibility of the truth to never be fully known, expanding one’s knowledge through myths can help develop and grow the personal idea of truth. Already, myths have been present in our modern-day culture and have had an influence on our thoughts and beliefs. Therefore and in conclusion today, myths still continue to be needed especially within the world we current live in. Myths give the opportunity for one to grow an understanding for others, the world, and possibly the most important thing for a person to understand... themselves as individuals with own truths and beliefs. 6 Benjamin Smith RE: Thread 2: Modern Myths? COLLAPSE I believe that the correct response to this is looking into what types of myth are still relevant to todays cultures. With that being said, theres different ways we can look at it. If we take the play on the word myth such as in Myth Busters, it does not fully satisfy what true myth is and that falls on the people who let it be that way. Mythology is more the term that comes to mind to the average joe in modern culture, and I am almost sure of it. So, where does mythology have its place in our culture? I believe that it boils down to historical aspects, such as in greece, rome, and many more, introduction of story telling to children, and not breaking straight truth to all of our young children. We certainly cannot forget about our religions that still contain many many myths because we still do happen to preach those stories as well. Turns out that mythology is still needed in specific ways, but there is not the backing and worship that it once had back in the day. According to the book, and I partially agree with it, mythology has its place in areas where science is still unable to explain how and why. To me, mythology still has its place and need for the above reasons. And on top of it, its still ineresting as all heck.
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Week 7

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Summary
Diffusion Theory
Diffusion introduces a concept of dissemination of an idea, value, physical element,
attitude, and social practice between and through populations. According to the theory, myths
were developed in a few myth-creating areas, including India. After that spread through contact
among various cultures through generations from the earliest time; this contributes to myths
parallelism across different cultures.
Matriarchal Theory
Matriarchal suggests a form of social organization where the oldest female or the mother
is the head of a family. According to the approach, there is evidence in records, especially in
Greek myths of prehistoric war between matriarchy and patriarchy. Therefore, some myths have
a similar record of the history of struggle in society through different generations.
Psychological School of Myth
According to the psychological view on parallels between myths, the main elements of
myths are products of the human psyche or emotions, which are believed to be universal.
Besides, the theory suggests that myths come from the human subconscious mind. Further, the
theory also suggests that cultures worldwide had similar fears, wishes, and questions; this aspect
introduces parallelism in myths across cultures.
Structuralism
Structuralism is a modern non-psychological approach that explains myths parallelism. It
suggests that human behavior can be formulated precisely by unraveling the invariant structures
of human thinking. Structuralism also supports the concept that human minds have molds,

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making it possible to think of the totality of things. The brain is then filled with information and
beliefs by a certain culture, giving people the potential to understand each type of culture.
Philosophical Perspective
According to the approach, man has always remained open to new ideas. Besides, the
myth suggests that without the necessary sense of meaning, human beings became fragile.
Through myths, they could have a sense of belonging in the universe, which gave them the
necessary sense of meaning. Therefore, it is reasonable to suggest that a myth is a "reality"
because we can feel it.
"History of Religions" School of Myth
The myths suggest that religion and myth are not phases in our consciousness but a part
of our consciousness. According to the approach, it is challenging to understand a society that
does not understand its sacred history. The shared sacred history shapes the culture, institutions,
and molarity of any society. According to the approach, Christianity offers a complete set of
myths that satisfy an innate human need. Therefore, Christianity should be reexamined according
to modern society.
Part 2: Response
It is reasonable to suggest that myths can be used as an identity to a certain culture.
Often, myths are unique to a certain culture, meaning that they can define the various aspects of
the culture, especially those presented in the myth. For instance, Christians have unique myths
that differentiate them from any other religion, such as Islamic. Similarly, some of the myths
studied in this course show the identity of different cultures and walks of life in different
geographical locations and different times or generations.

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However, there are some striking similarities among the myths that suggest parallelism in
myths from different cultures. While it may be obvious to suggest that the cultures might have
interacted in different ways that led to cultural similarities, one needs well detailed, structured,
and recognized insights to highlight the parallelism. Various explanations may be used to relate
to the similarities and contrasts between the myths. Chapter thirteen of Parallel Myths has
highlighted some of the best explanations for the relationship and parallelism between myths.
The six highlighted theories, including "History of Religions" School of Myth,
Philosophical Perspective, Structuralism, Psychological School of Myth, Matriarchal Theory,
and the diffusion theory, have introduced satisfying and enriched explanations to the striking
similarities in myths across different cultures. The select explanations have taken the
psychological, philosophical, structural, customary, and religious approaches, making them
applicable for a wide variety of audiences. It is important for people to understand different types
of myths and compare them with myths from different cultures; this will ensure cultural
competence and results in harmony and constructive relationship among people from different
cultures and walks of life.
Part 3: Analysis
Question 1
Yes. I agree that myths have much to say in helping us understand the concept of our
faith and the faiths of others. Myths represent the way a certain culture or tradition relates with
its gods. They show the basis of their religious believes, norms, practices, worship, and
orientation. Often the difference between myths and religion is subtle. Religion refers to a set of
formally organized beliefs and practices centered on worshiping supernatural forces or beings.

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In contrast, mythology refers to a collection of myths or stories from a particular religious
or cultural tradition that explains a practice, belief, or natural phenomenon. While myths are
commonly associated with religious traditions, they can also have cultural connotations. Religion
and mythology refer to a set of notions that are extremely important to a group, making claims
about the supernatural or sacred. Myths are accounts of gods or supernatural beings involved in
unusual events or situations in an indeterminate time yet thought to exist outside of ordinary
human experience. Mythology refers to the study of myth and the collection of myths associated
with a certain religious system.
Question 2
Myths are just as significant today as they were in ancient times. Myths provide answers
to age-old issues and act as a compass for successive generations. Lost paradise stories, for
example, give people hope that by leading a good life, they would be rewarded with a better
existence in the hereafter. Myths are frequently promoted by rulers, priests, or clergy and are
strongly associated with religion or spirituality. Many cultures combine myths, stories, and
history, believing myths and legends to describe their distant past accurately. Creation stories, for
instance, take place in a prehistoric era when the earth had not yet reached its final shape. Other
myths describe the establishment and sanctification of a society's norms, institutions, and taboos.
The execution of rituals and the narration of myths have a complicated relationship. In modern
societies, mythical thought and myths can be both actual and resolved for ages. When studying
contemporary man and his consciousness, society as a whole, or even specific institutions,
mythology and genuine myths may be found everywhere. Because the term myth is commonly
used to imply that a story is not objectively true, labeling a narrative as a myth can be

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contentious: many religious adherents believe their own religion's stories to be true and thus
object to them being labeled as myths, while seeing the stories of other religions as myths.
Question 3
Myths are stories that have been passed down through generations. Some are based on
true events, while others are entirely made up. On the other hand, myths are more than just
stories; they have a deeper meaning in both ancient and modern societies. Myths are holy stories
that explain the universe and human experience. Myths are just as significan...


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