GEOG 217 MSUM Preciptation Mechanisms and Clouds Worksheet

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GEOG 217

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Geography 217 Weather Precipitation Mechanisms and Clouds 10/13-14/21 Name: Section: Part I: Lutgens and Tarbuck and Lecture material 1. Describe and diagram the temperature profile associated with sleet. 2. Freezing rain can occur when snow melts into raindrops and the raindrops pass through a layer of air below freezing and then become super-cooled or the cloud can simply precipitate super-cooled water. What is super-cooled water? How does freezing rain differ from sleet? 3. Graupel and hail both contain ice crystals. How do they differ? Which precipitation form would likely cause the most property damage and why? When are these forms of precipitation likely to occur in Minnesota? 4. Describe the methods used for measuring snowfall in the U.S. and Canada. What are the challenges of measuring snowfall both as actual accumulation and as water equivalent. 5. In warm clouds, the collision-coalescence process is the main method of forming precipitation. What are warm clouds? How does this method operate? Where is collisioncoalescence likely to be encountered? 6. The Bergeron process comprises the main precipitation process in cold clouds. What are cold clouds? Describe how this Bergeron process works. 7. Clouds over urban areas often take longer to burn-off completely. Why is this? 8. Examine the Cloud Profile Diagram with T dry and Tdew. At what elevation is the LCL encountered? At what elevation is the cloud top encountered? Based on the information provided at the bottom of the graph, does this cloud possess a (a) vertical. (b) horizontal structure? What category of cloud exists? Not doing this one Part II: NEXRAD Doppler Scans featuring Precipitation from Weather Underground 9. Examine the NEXRAD 124 NM Composite Image: Caribou_snow_3_1_21. This file is a doppler radar image of dated 3/1/21 taken at 7:40 Eastern Daylight Time (EDT). A weather bulletin would read something like this: (Pay attention to our answer) A band of light to moderate snowfall exists in SW New Brunswick and SE Maine. A line of moderate snowfall exists in a band about 10 Miles wide along the US/Canadian border roughly 10 miles north and south Houghton, ME. A band of Light Rain exists along the coastline from St John NB to Bangor, ME and extend about 10 miles out into the Atlantic Ocean 10. Examine the NEXRAD 124 NM Composite radar image from Sitka, AK dated 10/11/21. What types of precipitation are occurring? Where is it happening? Use your FAA definitions of precipitation intensity, to describe the intensity of rainfall. Answer using the write-up answer n question 9 as a model. 11. A pilot is getting ready for take-off from the Sitka Airport. Describe the latest wind profile in NEXRAD_Sitka_wind_10_11_21 that he/she will encounter from take-off to 30,000 ft. Pay attention to wind direction and speed and note any areas of shear (change in direction) 12. Examine the NEXRAD image for South Hawaii dated 2/15/18. Winds SE at 10 knots (11 mph) with surface dewpoint at 67°F. (a) Describe and locate the areas of precipitation intensity/accumulation. (b) What type of uplift mechanisms are involved? You will need to examine the map depicting terrain (HI2.jpg) (c) Do the rainfall totals make sense? Elaborate. (d) Would rain occur later in the west central part of the Big Island including Waimea, as noted by the white oval on the map? 13. Regional Radar Image: Dayton OH Regional Radar from 2/28/19. Notice the dashed line running about 225 NM southwesterly from the SW corner of Pennsylvania. This storm is occurring in the context of a middle latitude cyclone with frontal lifting—we have not yet delved into these storms but we will later this term a. Describe the precipitation north of that line using the Dayton OH NWS definitions for light, moderate and heavy snowfall b. Where is the zone of heaviest precipitation? What type is occurring? According to your FAA Guide what amount of ppt is occurring per hour? c. What other uplift mechanism besides frontal do you think is responsible for squeezing more ppt out of this storm that you described in 13b? 14. Chicago (ORD) 124 NM Composite Scan and Echo Tops Scan from 10/11/21. You are taking off from Chicago (ORD) on a flight to Philadelphia (PHL) in a Boeing 737. a. Where are the two heaviest bands of precipitation located on the 124 Composite Scan? b. Examine the Echo tops scan (next page). Where are the highest clouds and what type do you think these are? c. What is their altitude? Can you fly over them? Chicago (ORD) Scan
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Geography 217 Weather
Precipitation Mechanisms and Clouds
10/13-14/21

Name:
Section:

Part I: Lutgens and Tarbuck and Lecture material
1. Describe and diagram the temperature profile associated with sleet.
When the temperature is below 0°C (32°F), the temperature profile associated with sleet
occurs. Sleet and hail are possible only if the temperature climbs above freezing. As the snow
melts, it becomes droplets, which harden into sleet (Atkinson, 2019).

2. Freezing rain can occur when snow melts into raindrops and the raindrops pass through a
layer of air below freezing and then become super-cooled or the cloud can simply
precipitate super-cooled water. What is super-cooled water? How does freezing rain differ
from sleet?




Super-cooled water is the one that has been maintained at a temperature below zero Super
degrees Fahrenheit while still in liquid form.
As opposed to sleet, freezing rain freezes immediately upon contact with the ground
(Atkinson, 2019).

3. Graupel and hail both contain ice crystals. How do they differ? Which precipitation form
would likely cause the most property damage and why? When are these forms of
precipitation likely to occur in Minnesota?
• Graupel ice crystals are softer than hail ice crystals (Atkinson, 2019).
• Hail will cause property damage since it is made up of very hard ice crystals.
• Definitely in the summer.
4. Describe the methods used for measuring snowfall in the U.S. and Canada. What are the
challenges of measuring snowfall both as actual accumulation and as water equivalent.
• The U.S. Snow pillow method: It has a...


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