Running Head: HISTORY QUESTIONS
According to Peterson freedom primarily comprises of three scopes, civic, personal and
sovereign. Patterson defines personal freedom as the capability to carry out activities as one
deems fit without being compelled or looking at the desires of other people. Sovereign freedom
is described as the power of acting as one deems fit without caring for other people’s desires
(Chanley & Chanley, 2014). Lastly, Patterson explains civic freedom as the people’s ability to be
able to take part in governance.
Patterson argues that civic and personal dimensions of freedom are directly limited. The
limits of personal freedom primarily entails prohibition of behavior especially behavior that is
perceived it may harm the ability of other people to act. On the other hand, participation in
creation of rules and their enforcement involves limits also which in essence is civic freedom
(Chanley & Chanley, 2014). Sovereign freedom is viewed as the real definition of freedom that
involves exclusive concentration on what an individual desires while ignoring the needs of other
people. However, Patterson acknowledges that only a single person can be sovereign since all
others submit to the wishes of the sovereign body.
Kings defines freedom as people’s innate ability of deciding who and how they want to
be and in the end, be in the position of actualizing their desires in their own world. In his
freedoms idea kings included capability approaches and human development as important
components (Emblem 2013). He emphasized that individuals possess rights that are innate to
both instrumental and substantive freedoms.
According to Forner freedom can be defined using five elements of freedom. These
elements are; political freedom which is people’s right to participate in various public activities.
Civil liberties represent individual’s freedom of declaring against any form of authority.
Christian ideal is described as individual’s capacity of acting within some standards of ethics.
Personal freedom primarily represents an individual’s ability of making important choices
without any coercion from any one and finally economic freedom which encompass various
things such as industrial freedom, economic autonomy and economic security (Chanley &
Chanley, 2014). Unlike Patterson’s three dimension which only two had limits, Forner’s all five
elements have limits.
According to the general public interpretation on the concept of alienation of African
American by Smith and Walter Jr is that the African Americans are discriminated due to their
color. African Americans are vie...
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