MCH 361 Motion Measurement Mechanical Engineering Lab Report

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Total lab report points (original) Ref# 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 Title and header Title describes report contents appropriately, adequately, and concisely Author information complete (full name, affiliations) Related information complete (course name, date, etc.) Formatting centered, top of page Abstract State background and objectives Summarize lab procedures and results Provide conclusion Standalone, clear, complete, and concise Introduction Give background and opening information Provide the significance of the lab (why we care about this lab) Present the purpose and objectives of the lab Describe the object/system being tested Provide necessary theoretical fundamentals (equations) Does not contain results Instruments Explain major device(s) or sensor(s) used in this lab Lab procedures Overview of the approach Describe the overall procedure logically, clearly and concisely Gives enough details to allow for replication of procedure All measurement instruments are accurately presented Describe instrument calibration and/or validation Describe and explain all variables in the lab Describe the variables that will be controlled, and how they respond State assumptions Self developed, not copy paste lab handout Results and discussions Present the results clearly Present the data appropriately (figures and/or tables) Give quantitative discussions of the results Provide uncertainty analysis to the results Explain sources and magnitudes of experimental uncertainties Clearly state the findings from the lab Discuss the limitations of the findings and provide recommendations Conclusions Summarize the lab (what has been done) Summarize major findings, reflecting the lab objectives Summarize major issues, and recommendations References All references given in appropriate format References are listed in the order of their appearance in the report 100 Grades 2 2 2 1 2 3 1 1 2 2 2 2 3 1 3 2 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 3 2 3 2 2 3 2 3 3 2 2 1 Acknowledgements 37 Acknowledge the institutes and persons who help you to complete the lab General formatting, wrting styles, organization, and lab attendance 38 Appropriate headings and formatting at all levels 39 Use course template (margin, font sizes, double column, justified, single spacing, indented, etc.) 40 Cite all references 41 Correct figure and table caption format 42 Figures and tables in appropriate size and font size 43 Graphs with correct markings, legends, labels, etc. 44 Cite all figures and tables, in appropriate format 45 Grammar and spelling correct 46 Attending lab session 2 2 2 2 3 2 2 3 2 5 Laboratory 2 A LAB REPORT BY USING FLUID MEASUREMENTS NAME: Mustafa Munshi Department of Mechanical Engineering University of South Carolina Columbia, SC29208 ABSTRACT Engineering is a branch of applied science in which already known ideas, facts and models are used to construct something. So to have practical knowledge about the theory studied in the classroom is essential. Fluid measurement is the determination of the flow rate, velocity and pressure of the liquid flowing in a vessel. The practical knowledge about the fluid measurements helps the students in their future study as well as in their professional life. In this lab, the students are made familiar with the experiments in which they had to take various measurements such as flow rate, pressure and power of the pump. In this experiment students also learnt to determine the coefficient of the discharge. The measurements were taken by closing valve in different sets. Pump power and flow rate dropped when the valve was closed, but pressure surged. INTRODUCTION Fluid flow measurements are required in a wide range of applications, from the regulation of drug delivery in ventilators to the control of fuel flow in engine management systems. There are many things you need to consider while doing fluid lab such as, the flow velocity, mass flow rate, and volumetric flow rate, not paying attention to them clearly might lead to wrong data. The need of the knowledge about the fluid measurements is very high. The goal of this lab was to provide students practical learning experience taking fluid measurements. Learners need to take different types of measurements by having the actual number of the flow by gathering it in a bottle for specific time, and some data need to be taken from the computer like the fluid pressure, fluid flow and the power of the pump. Objectives:    Using fluid systems with wet differential pressure to measure the pressure in a system. Measuring the system’s flow rates by using fluids in venturi’s meter and paddle wheel. Observing some reactions that can happen in a fluid system that are linked to slow flow rates, and some are also due to a decrease in the system pressure. They also affect the power of a pump  The figure below shows the general arrangements of the flow system consisting pump, flow meter pressure gauge and piping system. conditions are applied and those conditions are the system having high velocity and in association with a decrease in pressure. 2 The water is pumped up by a pump and the pressure in the gauge is taken for each section: pump, flow meter, and venturi meter. The actual flow rate is taken by collecting water in reservoir for a specific time period. Venturi Meter What is the venturi meter? We use to it measure instrument that is some people name it as a meter, that is used to measure the flow of a fluid through a pipe. It basically works on the principle of Bernoulli's Theorem. The pressure of a fluid flowing through a tiny cross section decreases quickly, causing the flow velocity to rise. There are some points where you have high level of pressure and low velocity that will be transformed to a low level of pressure and high level of velocity, when it reached that point, it will go back to having the first process. The venturi meter has a maximum output when two The theoretical flow can be determined by using the expression: Qtheoretical = MA2√ 2 g / ρ( p1− p2) And the actual flow is calculated by, Qactual = Cd MA2√ 2 g / ρ( p1− p2) Where M = velocity of approach factor = 1 1 √ 2 8.82 A2 = 1− 1−( ) 2 A1 17.6 √ 2 ( ) = 1.033 Cd = coefficient of discharge = Qactual/Qtheoretical P1 = pressure at section 1 in venturi tube P2 = pressure at section 2 in venturi tube A1 = cross-section area of section 1 =π*0.01762/4= 0.000243m2 A2 = cross-section area of section 2 = π*0.00882/4 = 0.000061m2 Efficiency of the pump = ∆ p∗Q ∗100 % P Where Δp = differential pressure of the pump Q = actual flow rate collected by time period with valve fully open. 4. The obtained value of actual flow rate is entered into Labview. The labview was started and set and given time to stabilize. 5. After the readings were taken, the valve was slightly closed to lower the power of the pump by ≈ 1W and the steps from 1-5 were repeated. 6. Again the valve was closed slightly to lower the power by 0.5W-0.6W and the steps from 1-5 were repeated. P = wattage of the pump Instruments and apparatus required:     Venturi meter Pump: The pump is required to pump the water through the pipe system. Differential pressure gauge: The differential pressure gauge is used to take measurements of pressure at various section of pump, flow meter and venturi meter. Laptop computer with Labview: It gives the reading of the flow meter, pressure gauge, pump power in digital form. Results and conclusions: The data or readings obtained from the experiment are shown in the table below: Opening of valve Fully open 15.45 Slightly closed to lower power by ≈ 1w 14.8 Slightly closed to lower power by ≈ 0.5W 14.5 2.48 2.166 2.113 2.46 2.20 2.11 2.48 2.16 2.01 Procedures: 1. Initially the labview was set up and the sensors were calibrated. This process needs to start again each time the valve is locked . 2. Then, the pump was turned on and wattage was required. 3. The manual flow of the fluid was measured by collecting the fluid over a short period of time in a graduated cylinder by dividing the volume of water Pump power(W) Actual flow rate(gpm) Paddle wheel flow rate(gpm) Venturi meter flow rate(gpm) 1.36 1.64 0.23 1.01 1.78 0.247 1.92 1.81 From the above experiments it is seen that as the valve is closed, there is fluctuation in the value of the power flow rate, pressure. There is arrow that starts increasing in the differential pressure while having flow rate and the power of the pump to start increasing. This happens because as the flow decreases the velocity of the fluid increases resulting in the increase in pressure. Also, the coefficient of discharge for different flow is calculated and its value was found to be 0.775, 0.389, 0.366 for fully open valve, slightly open valve to lower power by 1W, and slightly open valve to further lower the power by 0.5W respectively. The efficiency of the pump for different flow rate is calculated and mean value is found to be 11.42 percentage. This unknown shown as error seems to be occurred by having wrong data(1). It seems like the error is between paddle wheel, venturi, and the actual flow that affected their rates. Moreover, the date that relates the flow rate and differential pressure in the below graph. The error encountered might be due to the incorrect reading taken, incorrectly graduated cylinder or loss of water during collection. Also the sensors might not have been properly calibrated. Differential pressure(in psi) 2.500 2.000 1.500 Pump DP 1.000 Valve DP 0.500 0.000 Venturi tube DP 2.480 2.166 Actual flow rate 2.113 2.500 Differential pressure(in psi) 0.076 2.000 1.500 Pump DP 1.000 Valve DP 0.500 0.000 Venturi tube DP 2.460 2.200 2.110 Paddle wheel flow rate 2.500 Differential pressure(in psi) Venturi tube differential pressure(psi) Valve differential pressure(psi) Pump differential pressure(psi) 2.000 1.500 Pump DP Valve DP Venturi tube DP 1.000 0.500 0.000 2.480 2.160 2.010 Venturi meter flow rate The calculation table is given below: References: Conclusions: In conclusion, the experiment was informative and useful for Mechanical engineering students, and in lecture notes and experiencing the problem in real world made it more clear. From the above experiments. students were able to measure the flow rate, pressure in the venturi meter and paddle wheel flow meter. Students were also able to see the effect of closure of valve on the pressure and flow rate. By having the above experiment, students should be fully understanding the fluid measurements and its tool Acknowledgement: I would like to express my sincere gratitude to Mechanical Engineering Department, University of South Carolina for arranging a lab class which helped the students to become familiar with the venturi meter set up. I would like to thank my professor Mr.Xue for guiding and teaching us through out the lab period. I would also like to thank professor’s assistant Mr.Xu for helping and guiding us. Limjuco, R. P., Glover, F. F. G., & Mendez, I. M. (2012). Low-Cost Venturi Meter: Understanding Bernoulli’s Equation rough A Demonstration. Adeniyi, A. A., & Komolafe, O. D. (2014). Performance Analysis of an Experimental Centrifugal Pump. Nigerian Journal of Technology, 33(2), 149-155. EMCH361 Mechanical Engineering Lab I Lab #3 Spring 2021 1 Notice: Quiz 2 Quiz content: Lecture #3 and #4 • • • • Distribution Probability Confidence interval Confidence level  It is your responsibility to use reliable computer and internet to take your quiz in Blackboard.  You are responsible for the any failures induced by your computer and internet! 2 Assignment (TA) Lab date Report due date Lab 1: LabView (Puja Chowdhury, email: pujac@email.sc.edu) Week of Sept 20 No report Lab 2: Fluid (Lei Xu, email: leix@email.sc.edu) Week of Sept 27 Oct 6 (Wednesday) Lab 3: Motion (Lei Xu, Email: leix@email.sc.edu) Week of Oct 11 Oct 20 (Wednesday) Lab 4: Hardness measurement (Deb Mandal, Email: dmandal@email.sc.edu) Week of Oct 25 Nov 3, (Wednesday) Lab 5:Strain gauge and strain measurement (Deb Mandal, Email: dmandal@email.sc.edu) Week of Nov 8 Nov 22 (Monday) 3 Submission (deadline: Oct 15) • Please submit your proposal to Bb, one per team • Files must be named in the format of “Proposal_LastName1_LastName2_LastName3” • Failing to follow the formatting requirement will result in point deduction from project grade 4 5 Lab 3 Motion measurements Step pulley spindle Pulley Platter  Tension (T) Falling mass m a mg (g= 9.80665 m/s2) 6 Actual pictures for the experimental set up 7 Actual pictures for the experimental set up 8 Major properties of ultrasound: Sound speed depends on the medium in which it propagates. 1 = 2 the speed of sound in the air is about 340 meters per second (m/s). That in water is about 1530 m/s and that in iron as high as about 5,850 m/s. wiki 9 Data Acquirement 10 Data Acquirement 11 EMCH361 END of Lab #3 12 Motion Lab Introduction Course: EMCH 361 Professors: Lingyu Yu, Xingjian Xue TA: Lei Xu TA Email: leix@email.sc.edu Objectives We will be conducting experiments on motion measurements in a system with a rotating disc connected to a mass by a string. The objectives of this lab are to: • Learn linear motion measurement using ultrasonic position/proximity sensor • Learn rotational motion measurement using optical decoder sensor • Learn how to determine acceleration from displacement measurements through 2nd order curve fitting • Understand the relations between rotational and linear motions in terms of accelerations (verify a = r × α), and how mass affects the linear and rotational motions (acceleration) Equipment • ToughSonic TSPC-30 ultrasonic distance sensor • US Digital E7P optical kit encoder • Motion fixture • Weights • Laptop computer with LabVIEW (for data acquisition) Handout: Displacement Equations Calibration Procedure (Only need to do once) • Make sure the switches for the DAQ and sensors are on • Open SignalExpress • Click: Add Step, Acquire Signals, DAQmx, Analog Input, Voltage, find channel on DAQ(ai0-3), hit run • For calibration you’ll need the linear equation y = mx + b • Find value(mV) at weight bottom (measure the height), • Find value (mV) when the weight is back at the top and measure the height. Find the slope m (meter/V). x is your read voltage, solve b. • This equation translates Voltage to meters. • With your y=mx + b equation, find custom scaling -> create new -> linear -> name -> put in m and b. (This sets up the voltage) • Find Add step -> counter input -> angular position -> set pulse/rev to 720, units to radians. Experiment Procedure • Coil the string so that the hanger is at the highest position and hold it. • Hit record, both voltage and angular, and let go of the disk as you hit ok. Hit record again when the hanger reaches the bottom. • Open your data under the logs, on the bottom left of the program. • Open both voltage and angular and export to excel. • Select data, scatter diagram, trendline, 2nd order polynomial, display equation. Save File and share. • Change the falling mass and repeat the experiment. Examples of linear and angular motion Results and analysis • Graph the linear and angular positions w.r.t. time at 3 selected falling masses, respectively • Use 2nd order curve fitting to derive the linear and angular displacements as functions of time for all masses, respectively • Determine the linear and angular acceleration for all curves • Compare the experimental accelerations with the theoretical values and give the error in %. How do you think of your experimental measurements? What could be the possible reasons for error? Analysis Cont. • Example linear acceleration error: • Do the linear and angular accelerations satisfy the theoretical relation? • • Graph the linear and angular acceleration w.r.t. masses, and discuss how mass affects the acceleration • (Note: in this lab, you will process and conclude with large amount of data. Using Tables to present your data or results is an effective means. You need to design your own table to present your data or results.) EMCH 361 – Mechanical Engineering Lab I Lab 7: Motion Measurements is ar stu ed d vi y re aC s o ou urc rs e eH w er as o. co m Objectives We will be conducting experiments on motion measurements in a system with a rotating disc connected to a mass by a string. The objectives of this lab are to:  Learn linear motion measurement using ultrasonic position/proximity sensor  Learn rotational motion measurement using optical decoder sensor  Learn how to determine acceleration from displacement measurements through 2 nd order curve fitting  Understand the relations between rotational and linear motions in terms of accelerations, and how mass affects the linear and rotational motions (acceleration) Introduction When all the particles of a rigid body move along paths which are equidistant from a fixed plane, the body is said to undergo planar motion. In general, planar motions can be categorized into linear (or called translational) motion, rotational motion, or combined. Rotational motion occurs if every particle in the rigid body moves about a fixed axis. sh Th The motion in which all particles in the rigid body move through the same distance is defined as translational motion. It can be rectilinear or curvilinear. Only the former will be discussed in this lab. Such a motion can be described by the position of the rigid body as a function of time. Using equations of motion, the displacement for motions with constant acceleration a is given as: 1 x  x0  v0t  at 2 (1) 2 with x0 and v0 being the initial displacement and velocity. In the limit of very small times, the acceleration is the derivative the velocity w.r.t. time while the velocity is the derivative of the displacement w.r.t. time. Hence, the relation between acceleration (a) and displacement (x) is: d 2x (2) a 2 dt Similarly, angular displacement is the measure of the angle the rigid object rotates at a certain amount of time. It can be in radians, degrees or revolutions. For motions with constant acceleration in the limit of very small times, the angular acceleration is the derivative the angular velocity w.r.t. time while the angular velocity is the derivative of the angular displacement w.r.t. time. Hence, the relation between angular acceleration (α) and displacement (θ) is: d 2 (3)  2 dt In the rotational motion, the angular quantities (acceleration, velocity, and displacement) are the same for every point in the body. Hence tangential quantities are often used to describe rotational motion as well. Given θ as the angular displacement in radians at a given amount of time, the arc length s that being passed by a point at radius r can be determined as s r (4) 1 Prepared by Yu, August 19 2019 This study source was downloaded by 100000832983210 from CourseHero.com on 10-18-2021 21:11:37 GMT -05:00 https://www.coursehero.com/file/50176812/Lecture-21-Lab-7-Motion-measurementsdoc/ Such a relation also applies to the velocity and acceleration. For example, the tangential acceleration a and angular acceleration α is: a r (5) is ar stu ed d vi y re aC s o ou urc rs e eH w er as o. co m Equipment In the motion lab, you will study the dynamic behaviors of a rotating disk driven by a falling mass. Schematic drawing and the actual lab setup are shown in Figure 1 below. Figure 1 Schematic of a rotating disk driven by a falling mass used for linear and rotational motion measurements Th Actual laboratory setup of the disk and falling mass is shown in Figure 2. The box on the ground is the ultrasonic sensor for measuring the height of the falling mass. The weight is attached by a string to a pulley on the main platter. In this picture, the main platter is sitting on top of the auxiliary platter. It is instrumented with the decoder sensor for measuring the angular position of the platter. Figure 2 Picture of the actual setup of motion lab sh Equipment ToughSonic TSPC-30 ultrasonic distance sensor US Digital E7P optical kit encoder Motion fixture Weights Laptop computer with LabVIEW (for data acquisition) 2 Prepared by Yu, August 19 2019 This study source was downloaded by 100000832983210 from CourseHero.com on 10-18-2021 21:11:37 GMT -05:00 https://www.coursehero.com/file/50176812/Lecture-21-Lab-7-Motion-measurementsdoc/ Procedure You are going to graph the weight’s position (height) vs. time and the disk’s position (radians) vs. time for variations in mass. For varying the mass, you’re going to need at least three levels of this variable. Then each graph will have three curves. Please be aware that SI units shall be used during the graphing and subsequent analysis, while the immediate outputs from the measuring sensors might be in English units. Hence conversion is needed from inches to meters. Example of data recording table is shown in Table 1. Parts specifications are given in Table 2. It is recommended that you start with the main platter on the rotary apparatus and a mass of 50300 grams on the falling weight. Remember that the mass of the hanger is 50 grams. The properties of the platters are on page 2 of the instruction manual for rotary apparatus. is ar stu ed d vi y re aC s o ou urc rs e eH w er as o. co m Using second order polynomial curve fitting, you will be able to determine the linear and rotational positions (displacements) as a function of time. From there, you can find the corresponding linear and angular accelerations. Figure 1 gives the examples of linear and angular motions from the measurements. After deriving the accelerations, you will need to verify if you are getting the relationship between angular and linear acceleration in this system, as described in Eq. (4), where r is the radius of the pulley attached to the string, α is the linear acceleration of the falling mass, and α is the angular acceleration of the rotating disk. You will also need to study the effect of falling weight on the accelerations by graphing the relations between the acceleration and the mass. Report General Guideline • • sh • • Abstract – a standalone summary of the whole report Introduction – Overall (what is being reported here? why measuring positions in motion systems? how in general linear and angular positions are measured? etc.) Theory – linear and angular position measurement devices • Explain the ultrasonic distance sensor used in this lab • Explain the encoder sensor used in this lab Methods – your measurement methods and analysis methods • Explain how the 2nd order curve fitting method • Explain how to determine acceleration through displacement function Lab Procedures Results and analysis • Graph the linear and angular positions w.r.t. time at 3 selected masses, respectively • Use 2nd order curve fitting to derive the linear and angular displacements as functions of time for all masses, respectively • Determine the linear and angular acceleration for all curves • Compare the experimental accelerations with the theoretical values, and give the error in %. How do you think of your experimental measurements? What could be the possible reasons for error? Th   3 Prepared by Yu, August 19 2019 This study source was downloaded by 100000832983210 from CourseHero.com on 10-18-2021 21:11:37 GMT -05:00 https://www.coursehero.com/file/50176812/Lecture-21-Lab-7-Motion-measurementsdoc/ • • • is ar stu ed d vi y re aC s o ou urc rs e eH w er as o. co m • • Do the linear and angular accelerations satisfy the theoretical relation? Graph the linear and angular acceleration w.r.t. masses, and discuss how mass affects the acceleration (Note: in this lab, you will process and conclude with large amount of data. Using Tables to present your data or results is an effective means. You need to design your own table to present your data or results.) Discussion and conclusions  Have all the objectives of this lab been met?  Are you able to prove some theories? Any errors or discrepancy? What could be the possible reasons?  Any other discussion that you think necessary Acknowledgement Reference sh Th Figure 2 Examples of linear and angular motions from the laboratory measurements. Using Excel, 2nd order curve fitting gives the position functions by which accelerations can be derived. 4 Prepared by Yu, August 19 2019 This study source was downloaded by 100000832983210 from CourseHero.com on 10-18-2021 21:11:37 GMT -05:00 https://www.coursehero.com/file/50176812/Lecture-21-Lab-7-Motion-measurementsdoc/ is ar stu ed d vi y re aC s o ou urc rs e eH w er as o. co m Table 1 Example of data recording table used by students in lab. You need to test three different mass values to see how mass affects the accelerations. Table 2 Parts specifications Mass Dimension Moment of Inertia Main platter 991 grams Radius=12.7 cm 7.50x10-3 kgm2 Auxiliary platter 894 grams Radius=12.7 cm 7.22x10-3 kgm2 Steel bar 690 grams L22.2cmxW5.1 cm 2.98x10-3 kgm2 Steel ring 701 grams OR=6.4cm; IR=5.4cm 2.46x10-3 kgm2 Step pulley spindle negligible Radii=1.50 cm negligible sh Th Component 5 Prepared by Yu, August 19 2019 This study source was downloaded by 100000832983210 from CourseHero.com on 10-18-2021 21:11:37 GMT -05:00 https://www.coursehero.com/file/50176812/Lecture-21-Lab-7-Motion-measurementsdoc/ sh Th is ar stu ed d vi y re aC s o ou urc rs e eH w er as o. co m Appendix A 6 Prepared by Yu, August 19 2019 This study source was downloaded by 100000832983210 from CourseHero.com on 10-18-2021 21:11:37 GMT -05:00 https://www.coursehero.com/file/50176812/Lecture-21-Lab-7-Motion-measurementsdoc/ sh Th is ar stu ed d vi y re aC s o ou urc rs e eH w er as o. co m Appendix B 7 Prepared by Yu, August 19 2019 This study source was downloaded by 100000832983210 from CourseHero.com on 10-18-2021 21:11:37 GMT -05:00 https://www.coursehero.com/file/50176812/Lecture-21-Lab-7-Motion-measurementsdoc/ Powered by TCPDF (www.tcpdf.org) EMCH361 Mechanical Engineering Laboratory I, Fall 2019 Laboratory 2 ELECTICAL MEASUREMENTS William E. Davidson Department of Mechanical Engineering University of South Carolina Columbia, SC 29208 The RMS (root mean square), also known as the quadratic mean, is a statistical measure of the magnitude of a varying quantity. It is especially relevant when the function is alternating between positive and negative values. The equation to find the RMS is: is ar stu ed d vi y re aC s o ou urc rs e eH w er as o. co m ABSTRACT The objective of this experiment is to analyze Kirchhoff’s current and voltage law, as well as ohms law, while at the same time learning how to use oscilloscope and multimeter equipment and quantifying common waveforms. Different resistors were tested and measuring the voltage and resistance of a circuit allowed to use ohm’s law to find that the current of the circuit was 1.48 mA. The potential difference across the circuit nodes were measured to be 13.488 V and proved Kirchhoff’s law that the input voltage of 13.44 V was equal to the output voltage. The difference in voltage input/output can be attributed to certain variables present during measuring. Two wavelengths were examined, and their RMS values were calculated to be 0.2828 V and 0.413 V. Oscilloscope - is used to display and analyze the waveform of electronic signals. A digital multimeter is a tool used to measure electrical values, primarily voltage, current, and resistance. Signal generator - a device that can produce various patterns of voltage at a variety of frequencies and amplitudes. Voltage divider circuit - a passive linear circuit that produces and output voltage that is a fraction of its input voltage. sh Th INTRODUCTION Regarding voltage, current, and resistance in electrical circuits there exists fundamental laws that can be studied and used to accurately predict the way in these three factors affect each other. One of which is Kirchhoff’s law, which is broken down into two parts, Kirchhoff’s voltage law and current law. Kirchhoff’s current law uses the same guidelines as the conservation of energy, stating that the sum of the current entering a node in a circuit is the same as the current leaving the circuit, resulting in a net sum of zero. Very similar to this law is Kirchhoff’s voltage law, which states that the sum of the voltage entering a circuit is equal to the voltage leaving the circuit, so when all the voltages across the various nodes are added together the result should be equal to the voltage entering the circuit. Ohm’s law is another fundamental law that denotes the relationship between voltage, current, and resistance. This law states that in a circuit, voltage is equal to the current multiplied by the resistance. Resistors value can be identified by the different colored band’s around the resistor. Each specific color is directly correlated to a specific resistance value. In this lab, one will use various physical measurements of the resistance, current, voltage, wavelength, and frequency of an electrical circuit and compare them to the theoretical values given by the various laws to determine their effectiveness and uncertainty. These fundamental laws are essential to creating many different technologies that are used throughout people’s daily lives and it is important to understand the theories and practicalities behind them. INSTRUMENTS To complete this lab, one will need an oscilloscope, digital multimeter, signal generator, voltage divider current, wall circuit adapter, and assorted resistors. 1 This study source was downloaded by 100000832983210 from CourseHero.com on 10-18-2021 21:25:31 GMT -05:00 https://www.coursehero.com/file/50286883/Electrical-Measurements-Lab-Report-0ct-9-2019doc/ Mechanical Engineering, USC A wall circuit adapter - converts AC to DC current, or vice versa. Assorted resistors - resistors of varying resistance values. Frequency Amplitude RMS Value Wavelength 1 33.9 Hz 400 mV 0.2828 V Wavelength 2 47.9 Hz 584 mV 0.413 V Table 3 shows the frequency, amplitude, and calculated rms values from two different wavelengths. From the values shown on the oscilloscope, the RMS values were calculated to be 032828 V for wavelength 1 and 0.413 V for wavelength 2. RMS is important to calculate because it is used to compare both alternating and direct currents (or voltage). Any possible errors in the calculations for the RMS value from this experiment would be that the wavelength amplitude values were estimated when measured. CONCLUSIONS During this experiment, the total measured potential difference of the voltage divider circuit (13.488 V) was found to be higher than that of the total voltage entering the circuit (13.44 V). This difference can be attributed partly to the uncertainty in the measurements provided by the equipment. This led to error propagation and the resulting calculations results became higher than the actual value. This could also have been due to certain physical variables present such as temperature or temperature. If one ignores the propagation error, the sum of the input and output potential difference equal each other, this proves Kirchhoff’s law. Ohms law was used to calculate the current, which was 1.47 mA, and the RMS for wavelength 1 was 0.2828 V and wavelength 2 RMS was 0.413 V. is ar stu ed d vi y re aC s o ou urc rs e eH w er as o. co m LAB PROCEDURES To perform this lab, the first step it to measure and record the resistance of the five resistors with an equal indicated value. After this one must measure and record the resistance of the resistors in the voltage divider circuit, which will be used to calculate the voltages between each resistor for a known input voltage. Then the potential differences will be measured and compared to the calculated theoretical values. Choosing one resistor in the voltage divider circuit at random, measure the resistance and voltage across the resistor five different times, this value will be used to evaluate the errors contained in the current measurements. After completing this step, proceed to utilize the oscilloscope to display and record the frequency and amplitude of two different unique signals that will be produced from the signal generator. Table 3 RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS Table 1 Mean Resistance Theoretical Resistance Value Value 22.1 ohm 22.0 ohm Table 1 represents the mean measured resistance value of five resistors and their theoretical resistance value. When the five different resistors where measured the there were varying measurements for the actual resistance, with the lowest being 22.0 ohm and the highest being 22.2 ohm. With the percent tolerance of the resistors being .1% (0.11 ohm), it is concluded that the probability of an out of tolerance resistor is 20%. REFERENCES Alwazzan, Mohammad. “Hardness.” EMCH 361. University of South Carolina, Columbia, October 9, 2019. . Zhao, Yueyang. “Electrical Measurements Lab.” EMCH 361. University of South Carolina, Columbia, October 9, 2019. sh Th Table 2 Measured Theoretical Potential Resistance Resistance Difference Value Value (across resistor) R1 1.79 Kohm 1.8 Kohm 2.678  0.04 V R2 0.467 Kohm 0.470 ohm 0.7  0.04 V R3 6.76 Kohm 6.8 Kohm 11.11  0.04 V Table 2 shows the measured and theoretical resistance values found from the resistors along with the potential difference across each resistor in the voltage divider circuit. Based on the theoretical resistance values of the resistors and the total voltage entering the circuit (13.44 V) the current was calculated to be 1.48 mA. The total voltage potential difference sum across the resistors combined equaled 13.48 V, which proves Kirchhoff’s law. There were possible variables in effect that may have occurred while measuring resulting in a slightly higher output voltage than the input voltage of 13.44 V. 2 This study source was downloaded by 100000832983210 from CourseHero.com on 10-18-2021 21:25:31 GMT -05:00 https://www.coursehero.com/file/50286883/Electrical-Measurements-Lab-Report-0ct-9-2019doc/ Powered by TCPDF (www.tcpdf.org) Mechanical Engineering, USC
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EMCH361 Mechanical Engineering Laboratory I, Fall 2019

Laboratory 3
MOTIONS

William E. Davidson
Department of Mechanical Engineering
University of South Carolina
Columbia, SC 29208

ABSTRACT
The objective of this experiment is to learn the motion
measurements i.e. linear using ultrasonic sensor and
rotational using optical encoder. This experiment helps to
analyze the process to obtain the acceleration using 2nd order
polynomial curve fitting. The relation between linear and
angular acceleration can be determined and analyzed during
this experiment. The experiment was performed for three
different hanging masses value as 50, 100 and 150 grams
and angular and linear acceleration of 0.358, 0.92, 1.12
rad/s2 and 0.0052,0.0112,0.0158 m/s2 respectively. The
experimentally obtained values were compared with the
theoretical values and the errors were determined to be 50%
to 80% for different measurements. The sources of error was
found to be the instrument error and human error in the
experimental performance
INTRODUCTION
The linear and angular motion and their relation
and analysis can be major concerned in many areas.
This experiment provides the ways to determine the
linear and angular acceleration and created a relation
between them to verify the theoretical relation. The
use of the 2nd order curve fitting to find the
accelerations can be understood through this lab
setup.
The planar motions are considered when the
bodies move equal distance from the fixed plane with
respect to time. The planar motion is considered
when all the points ...


Anonymous
Really great stuff, couldn't ask for more.

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