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Describe the differences between open and closed circulatory systems. Include advantages and disadvantages and examples.

Feb 10th, 2015

Open circulation

1.  Blood flows through open spaces called lacunae and sinuses

2.  Internal organs are bathed by blood

3.  Blood takes long time to complete

Closed circulation

1.  Blood flows through closed vessels

2.  Internal organs are not in direct contact with blood

3.  Blood takes short time to complete

Advantages of open circulation

An open circulatory system renders animals much less vulnerable to pressure. This can be an advantage for mollusks which live at great depths, because it prevents compression of their bodies. Because many insects use their tracheal systems to transport oxygen, they tend to have open circulatory systems because they place less demands on their bodies; efficiency is not as urgent when oxygen and carbon dioxide are handled through a separate system.

Disadvantages of open circulation There is a limited capability for animals that have an open circulatory system to increase or decrease distribution and velocity of blood flow. There is not a lot of variability to oxygen uptake because changes in such are very slow. Because of the limits to diffusion, animals with open circulatory systems usually have relatively low metabolic rates.

Advantages of closed circulation

In a closed circulatory system, blood flows from arteries to capillaries and through veins, but the tissues surrounding the vessels are not directly bathed by blood. Some invertebrates and all vertebrates have closed circulatory systems. A closed circulatory system allows more of a complete separation of function than an open circulatory system does. The blood volume in these animals is considerably lower than that of animals with open circulatory systems. In animals with closed circulatory systems, the heart is the chambered organ that pushes the blood into the arterial system. The heart also sustains the high pressure necessary for the blood to reach all of the extremities of the body.

Disadvantages of closed circulation. Pushing things through a closed system takes work, so when things aren't running smoothly problems develop. If you sit in one position too long, your blood can stop moving and clot up .Your heart can give out or clots can block off the only routes that blood has to get to one organ or another... and then you're dead or badly wounded. Creatures without these things don't have these problems. Creatures with open circulatory systems still have some of these problems (they have a heart, for example, and actually need to move their other muscles to maintain circulation too) but because they have less of the elaborations they can have a much simpler system. Blood pressure is low, so that means less risk of bleeding to death from a small injury, and sharing a common solution that can come and go as it pleases can keep all the parts of the body in more or less the same state.

Feb 10th, 2015

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