The Conch Republic Electronics, Part 1: Mini-case
The Conch Republic Electronics mini-case will allow you to apply the cash flow models for
evaluating capital decisions. You are in the role of a recent MBA graduate and have the ability
to apply what you learn this week to a “real life” simulation.
Apply the calculations for payback analysis of a capital project.
Apply the calculations for profitability analysis of a capital project.
Apply the calculations for a NPV analysis of a capital project.
Apply the calculations for a IRR analysis of a capital project.
Make an appropriate recommendation based on the facts presented.
Case Study:
After you have completed the readings for chapter 10, you should be ready to complete this
assignment. Return to the case study on p.341-342 of the text and reread it carefully. As you
are thinking about your response, please remember that one thing about cases – usually the
quick answer is not the correct one. You need to be able to decide what the issues at hand are
and what information is really critical to giving the correct advice.
Use the questions at the end of the case for guidance, but remember you may add to your
explanations. One thing that student’s tend to do with a case is bring in more information than
what is needed – stick to the facts as presented in the case and the chapter readings.
Please prepare and submit a 1-3 page response including synthesis of chapter readings and
applications to corporate organizational structure.
You are to answer the questions that are found at the end of each case in your textbook as
clearly and succinctly as possible. You will be graded on the accuracy of your answers and the
application of the proper support from text/class material. Please show any and all
computations required since partial credit will be given for your work (when work is
shown).even if the final answer is incorrect.
5/30/2017
Fundamentals of Corporate Finance Standard Edition
PRINTED BY: cdj22@ymail.com. Printing is for personal, private use only. No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted without publisher's
prior permission. Violators will be prosecuted.
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1/2
5/30/2017
Fundamentals of Corporate Finance Standard Edition
PRINTED BY: cdj22@ymail.com. Printing is for personal, private use only. No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted without publisher's
prior permission. Violators will be prosecuted.
https://bookshelf.textbooks.com/#/books/0077769562/cfi/383!/4/4@0.00:0.00
2/2
McGraw-Hill/Irwin
Copyright © 2010 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
Key Concepts and Skills
• Be able to compute payback and discounted
payback and understand their shortcomings
• Understand accounting rates of return and
their shortcomings
• Be able to compute internal rates of return
(standard and modified) and understand their
strengths and weaknesses
• Be able to compute the net present value and
understand why it is the best decision
criterion
• Be able to compute the profitability index and
understand its relation to net present value
9-1
Chapter Outline
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Net Present Value
The Payback Rule
The Discounted Payback
The Average Accounting Return
The Internal Rate of Return
The Profitability Index
The Practice of Capital Budgeting
9-2
Good Decision Criteria
• We need to ask ourselves the
following questions when evaluating
capital budgeting decision rules:
– Does the decision rule adjust for the
time value of money?
– Does the decision rule adjust for risk?
– Does the decision rule provide
information on whether we are creating
value for the firm?
9-3
Net Present Value
• The difference between the market value
of a project and its cost
• How much value is created from
undertaking an investment?
– The first step is to estimate the expected future
cash flows.
– The second step is to estimate the required
return for projects of this risk level.
– The third step is to find the present value of
the cash flows and subtract the initial
investment.
9-4
Project Example Information
• You are reviewing a new project and have
estimated the following cash flows:
–
–
–
–
–
Year 0: CF = -165,000
Year 1: CF = 63,120; NI = 13,620
Year 2: CF = 70,800; NI = 3,300
Year 3: CF = 91,080; NI = 29,100
Average Book Value = 72,000
• Your required return for assets of this risk
level is 12%.
9-5
NPV – Decision Rule
• If the NPV is positive, accept the
project
• A positive NPV means that the project is
expected to add value to the firm and will
therefore increase the wealth of the
owners.
• Since our goal is to increase owner
wealth, NPV is a direct measure of how
well this project will meet our goal.
9-6
Computing NPV for the
Project
• Using the formulas:
– NPV = -165,000 + 63,120/(1.12) +
70,800/(1.12)2 + 91,080/(1.12)3 = 12,627.41
• Using the calculator:
– CF0 = -165,000; C01 = 63,120; F01 = 1; C02 =
70,800; F02 = 1; C03 = 91,080; F03 = 1; NPV;
I = 12; CPT NPV = 12,627.41
• Do we accept or reject the project?
9-7
Decision Criteria Test - NPV
• Does the NPV rule account for the time
value of money?
• Does the NPV rule account for the risk of
the cash flows?
• Does the NPV rule provide an indication
about the increase in value?
• Should we consider the NPV rule for our
primary decision rule?
9-8
Calculating NPVs with a
Spreadsheet
• Spreadsheets are an excellent way to
compute NPVs, especially when you have to
compute the cash flows as well.
• Using the NPV function
– The first component is the required return
entered as a decimal
– The second component is the range of cash
flows beginning with year 1
– Subtract the initial investment after computing the
NPV
9-9
Payback Period
• How long does it take to get the initial cost
back in a nominal sense?
• Computation
– Estimate the cash flows
– Subtract the future cash flows from the initial
cost until the initial investment has been
recovered
• Decision Rule – Accept if the payback
period is less than some preset limit
9-10
Computing Payback for the
Project
• Assume we will accept the project if it
pays back within two years.
– Year 1: 165,000 – 63,120 = 101,880 still to
recover
– Year 2: 101,880 – 70,800 = 31,080 still to
recover
– Year 3: 31,080 – 91,080 = -60,000 project
pays back in year 3
• Do we accept or reject the project?
9-11
Decision Criteria Test Payback
• Does the payback rule account for the
time value of money?
• Does the payback rule account for the risk
of the cash flows?
• Does the payback rule provide an
indication about the increase in value?
• Should we consider the payback rule for
our primary decision rule?
9-12
Advantages and
Disadvantages of Payback
• Advantages
– Easy to understand
– Adjusts for
uncertainty of later
cash flows
– Biased toward
liquidity
• Disadvantages
– Ignores the time
value of money
– Requires an
arbitrary cutoff point
– Ignores cash flows
beyond the cutoff
date
– Biased against
long-term projects,
such as research
and development,
and new projects
9-13
Discounted Payback Period
• Compute the present value of each cash
flow and then determine how long it takes
to pay back on a discounted basis
• Compare to a specified required period
• Decision Rule - Accept the project if it
pays back on a discounted basis within
the specified time
9-14
Computing Discounted Payback
for the Project
• Assume we will accept the project if it pays back
on a discounted basis in 2 years.
• Compute the PV for each cash flow and
determine the payback period using discounted
cash flows
– Year 1: 165,000 – 63,120/1.121 = 108,643
– Year 2: 108,643 – 70,800/1.122 = 52,202
– Year 3: 52,202 – 91,080/1.123 = -12,627 project pays
back in year 3
• Do we accept or reject the project?
9-15
Decision Criteria Test –
Discounted Payback
• Does the discounted payback rule account for the
time value of money?
• Does the discounted payback rule account for the
risk of the cash flows?
• Does the discounted payback rule provide an
indication about the increase in value?
• Should we consider the discounted payback rule
for our primary decision rule?
9-16
Advantages and Disadvantages
of Discounted Payback
• Advantages
– Includes time value
of money
– Easy to understand
– Does not accept
negative estimated
NPV investments
when all future
cash flows are
positive
– Biased towards
liquidity
• Disadvantages
– May reject positive
NPV investments
– Requires an
arbitrary cutoff
point
– Ignores cash flows
beyond the cutoff
point
– Biased against
long-term projects,
such as R&D and
new products
9-17
Average Accounting Return
• There are many different definitions for
average accounting return
• The one used in the book is:
– Average net income / average book value
– Note that the average book value depends on
how the asset is depreciated.
• Need to have a target cutoff rate
• Decision Rule: Accept the project if the
AAR is greater than a preset rate
9-18
Computing AAR for the
Project
• Assume we require an average
accounting return of 25%
• Average Net Income:
– (13,620 + 3,300 + 29,100) / 3 = 15,340
• AAR = 15,340 / 72,000 = .213 =
21.3%
• Do we accept or reject the project?
9-19
Decision Criteria Test - AAR
• Does the AAR rule account for the time
value of money?
• Does the AAR rule account for the risk of
the cash flows?
• Does the AAR rule provide an indication
about the increase in value?
• Should we consider the AAR rule for our
primary decision rule?
9-20
Advantages and
Disadvantages of AAR
• Advantages
– Easy to calculate
– Needed
information will
usually be
available
• Disadvantages
– Not a true rate of
return; time value
of money is
ignored
– Uses an arbitrary
benchmark cutoff
rate
– Based on
accounting net
income and book
values, not cash
flows and market
values
9-21
Internal Rate of Return
• This is the most important alternative
to NPV
• It is often used in practice and is
intuitively appealing
• It is based entirely on the estimated
cash flows and is independent of
interest rates found elsewhere
9-22
IRR – Definition and
Decision Rule
• Definition: IRR is the return that makes the
NPV = 0
• Decision Rule: Accept the project if the
IRR is greater than the required return
9-23
Computing IRR for the
Project
• If you do not have a financial calculator,
then this becomes a trial and error
process
• Calculator
– Enter the cash flows as you did with NPV
– Press IRR and then CPT
– IRR = 16.13% > 12% required return
• Do we accept or reject the project?
9-24
NPV Profile for the Project
70,000
60,000
IRR = 16.13%
50,000
NPV
40,000
30,000
20,000
10,000
0
-10,000 0
0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.1 0.12 0.14 0.16 0.18 0.2 0.22
-20,000
Discount Rate
9-25
Decision Criteria Test - IRR
• Does the IRR rule account for the time
value of money?
• Does the IRR rule account for the risk of
the cash flows?
• Does the IRR rule provide an indication
about the increase in value?
• Should we consider the IRR rule for our
primary decision criteria?
9-26
Advantages of IRR
• Knowing a return is intuitively appealing
• It is a simple way to communicate the
value of a project to someone who doesn’t
know all the estimation details
• If the IRR is high enough, you may not
need to estimate a required return, which
is often a difficult task
9-27
Calculating IRRs With A
Spreadsheet
• You start with the cash flows the same as
you did for the NPV
• You use the IRR function
– You first enter your range of cash flows,
beginning with the initial cash flow
– You can enter a guess, but it is not necessary
– The default format is a whole percent – you will
normally want to increase the decimal places to
at least two
9-28
Summary of Decisions for
the Project
Summary
Net Present Value
Accept
Payback Period
Reject
Discounted Payback Period
Reject
Average Accounting Return
Reject
Internal Rate of Return
Accept
9-29
NPV vs. IRR
• NPV and IRR will generally give us
the same decision
• Exceptions
– Nonconventional cash flows – cash flow
signs change more than once
– Mutually exclusive projects
• Initial investments are substantially different
(issue of scale)
• Timing of cash flows is substantially
different
9-30
IRR and Nonconventional
Cash Flows
• When the cash flows change sign more
than once, there is more than one IRR
• When you solve for IRR you are solving for
the root of an equation, and when you
cross the x-axis more than once, there will
be more than one return that solves the
equation
• If you have more than one IRR, which one
do you use to make your decision?
9-31
Another Example –
Nonconventional Cash Flows
• Suppose an investment will cost $90,000
initially and will generate the following
cash flows:
– Year 1: 132,000
– Year 2: 100,000
– Year 3: -150,000
• The required return is 15%.
• Should we accept or reject the project?
9-32
NPV Profile
IRR = 10.11% and 42.66%
$4,000.00
$2,000.00
NPV
$0.00
($2,000.00)
0
0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 0.35 0.4 0.45 0.5 0.55
($4,000.00)
($6,000.00)
($8,000.00)
($10,000.00)
Discount Rate
9-33
Summary of Decision Rules
• The NPV is positive at a required
return of 15%, so you should Accept
• If you use the financial calculator,
you would get an IRR of 10.11%
which would tell you to Reject
• You need to recognize that there are
non-conventional cash flows and look
at the NPV profile
9-34
IRR and Mutually Exclusive
Projects
• Mutually exclusive projects
– If you choose one, you can’t choose the other
– Example: You can choose to attend graduate
school at either Harvard or Stanford, but not
both
• Intuitively, you would use the following
decision rules:
– NPV – choose the project with the higher NPV
– IRR – choose the project with the higher IRR
9-35
Example With Mutually
Exclusive Projects
Period Project Project The required return
A
B
for both projects is
0
-500
-400
10%.
1
325
325
2
325
200
IRR
19.43
%
64.05
22.17
%
60.74
NPV
Which project
should you accept
and why?
9-36
NPV Profiles
$160.00
IRR for A = 19.43%
$140.00
IRR for B = 22.17%
$120.00
Crossover Point = 11.8%
NPV
$100.00
$80.00
A
B
$60.00
$40.00
$20.00
$0.00
($20.00) 0
0.05
0.1
0.15
0.2
0.25
0.3
($40.00)
Discount Rate
9-37
Conflicts Between NPV and
IRR
• NPV directly measures the increase in
value to the firm
• Whenever there is a conflict between NPV
and another decision rule, you should
always use NPV
• IRR is unreliable in the following situations
– Nonconventional cash flows
– Mutually exclusive projects
9-38
Modified IRR
• Calculate the net present value of all
cash outflows using the borrowing
rate.
• Calculate the net future value of all
cash inflows using the investing rate.
• Find the rate of return that equates
these values.
• Benefits: single answer and specific
rates for borrowing and reinvestment
9-39
Profitability Index
• Measures the benefit per unit cost,
based on the time value of money
• A profitability index of 1.1 implies that
for every $1 of investment, we create
an additional $0.10 in value
• This measure can be very useful in
situations in which we have limited
capital
9-40
Advantages and Disadvantages
of Profitability Index
• Advantages
• Disadvantages
– Closely related to
– May lead to
NPV, generally
incorrect decisions
leading to identical
in comparisons of
decisions
mutually exclusive
investments
– Easy to understand
and communicate
– May be useful when
available investment
funds are limited
9-41
Capital Budgeting In
Practice
• We should consider several
investment criteria when making
decisions
• NPV and IRR are the most
commonly used primary investment
criteria
• Payback is a commonly used
secondary investment criteria
9-42
Summary – DCF Criteria
• Net present value
–
–
–
–
Difference between market value and cost
Take the project if the NPV is positive
Has no serious problems
Preferred decision criterion
• Internal rate of return
–
–
–
–
Discount rate that makes NPV = 0
Take the project if the IRR is greater than the required return
Same decision as NPV with conventional cash flows
IRR is unreliable with nonconventional cash flows or mutually
exclusive projects
• Profitability Index
–
–
–
–
Benefit-cost ratio
Take investment if PI > 1
Cannot be used to rank mutually exclusive projects
May be used to rank projects in the presence of capital
rationing
9-43
Summary – Payback
Criteria
• Payback period
– Length of time until initial investment is recovered
– Take the project if it pays back within some specified
period
– Doesn’t account for time value of money, and there is an
arbitrary cutoff period
• Discounted payback period
– Length of time until initial investment is recovered on a
discounted basis
– Take the project if it pays back in some specified period
– There is an arbitrary cutoff period
9-44
Summary – Accounting
Criterion
• Average Accounting Return
– Measure of accounting profit relative to
book value
– Similar to return on assets measure
– Take the investment if the AAR exceeds
some specified return level
– Serious problems and should not be
used
9-45
Quick Quiz
• Consider an investment that costs
$100,000 and has a cash inflow of $25,000
every year for 5 years. The required return
is 9%, and required payback is 4 years.
– What is the payback period?
– What is the discounted payback period?
– What is the NPV?
– What is the IRR?
– Should we accept the project?
• What decision rule should be the primary
decision method?
• When is the IRR rule unreliable?
9-46
Ethics Issues
• An ABC poll in the spring of 2004 found that onethird of students age 12 – 17 admitted to cheating
and the percentage increased as the students got
older and felt more grade pressure. If a book
entitled “How to Cheat: A User’s Guide” would
generate a positive NPV, would it be proper for a
publishing company to offer the new book?
• Should a firm exceed the minimum legal limits of
government imposed environmental regulations
and be responsible for the environment, even if this
responsibility leads to a wealth reduction for the
firm? Is environmental damage merely a cost of
doing business?
• Should municipalities offer monetary incentives to
induce firms to relocate to their areas?
9-47
Comprehensive Problem
• An investment project has the following
cash flows: CF0 = -1,000,000; C01 – C08 =
200,000 each
• If the required rate of return is 12%, what
decision should be made using NPV?
• How would the IRR decision rule be used
for this project, and what decision would be
reached?
• How are the above two decisions related?
9-48
End of Chapter
9-49
McGraw-Hill/Irwin
Copyright © 2010 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
Key Concepts and Skills
• Understand how to determine the
relevant cash flows for various types
of proposed investments
• Understand the various methods for
computing operating cash flow
• Understand how to set a bid price for
a project
• Understand how to evaluate the
equivalent annual cost of a project
10-1
Chapter Outline
• Project Cash Flows: A First Look
• Incremental Cash Flows
• Pro Forma Financial Statements and
Project Cash Flows
• More about Project Cash Flow
• Alternative Definitions of Operating Cash
Flow
• Some Special Cases of Discounted Cash
Flow Analysis
10-2
Relevant Cash Flows
• The cash flows that should be included in a
capital budgeting analysis are those that
will only occur (or not occur) if the project is
accepted
• These cash flows are called incremental
cash flows
• The stand-alone principle allows us to
analyze each project in isolation from the
firm simply by focusing on incremental cash
flows
10-3
Asking the Right Question
• You should always ask yourself “Will this
cash flow occur ONLY if we accept the
project?”
– If the answer is “yes,” it should be included in
the analysis because it is incremental
– If the answer is “no,” it should not be included
in the analysis because it will occur anyway
– If the answer is “part of it,” then we should
include the part that occurs because of the
project
10-4
Common Types of Cash
Flows
• Sunk costs – costs that have accrued in the
past
• Opportunity costs – costs of lost options
• Side effects
– Positive side effects – benefits to other
projects
– Negative side effects – costs to other
projects
• Changes in net working capital
• Financing costs
• Taxes
10-5
Pro Forma Statements and
Cash Flow
• Capital budgeting relies heavily on pro
forma accounting statements, particularly
income statements
• Computing cash flows – refresher
– Operating Cash Flow (OCF) = EBIT +
depreciation – taxes
– OCF = Net income + depreciation (when there
is no interest expense)
– Cash Flow From Assets (CFFA) = OCF – net
capital spending (NCS) – changes in NWC
10-6
Table 10.1 Pro Forma
Income Statement
Sales (50,000 units at $4.00/unit)
$200,000
Variable Costs ($2.50/unit)
125,000
Gross profit
$ 75,000
Fixed costs
12,000
Depreciation ($90,000 / 3)
30,000
EBIT
Taxes (34%)
Net Income
$ 33,000
11,220
$ 21,780
10-7
Table 10.2 Projected Capital
Requirements
Year
0
1
2
3
NWC
$20,000
$20,000
$20,000
$20,000
NFA
90,000
60,000
30,000
0
Total
$110,000
$80,000
$50,000
$20,000
10-8
Table 10.5 Projected Total
Cash Flows
Year
0
OCF
Change
in NWC
-$20,000
NCS
-$90,000
CFFA
-$110,00
1
2
3
$51,780
$51,780
$51,780
20,000
$51,780
$51,780
$71,780
10-9
Making The Decision
• Now that we have the cash flows, we can
apply the techniques that we learned in
Chapter 9
• Enter the cash flows into the calculator
and compute NPV and IRR
– CF0 = -110,000; C01 = 51,780; F01 = 2; C02
= 71,780; F02 = 1
– NPV; I = 20; CPT NPV = 10,648
– CPT IRR = 25.8%
• Should we accept or reject the
project?
10-10
More on NWC
• Why do we have to consider changes in
NWC separately?
– GAAP requires that sales be recorded on the
income statement when made, not when cash
is received
– GAAP also requires that we record cost of
goods sold when the corresponding sales are
made, whether we have actually paid our
suppliers yet
– Finally, we have to buy inventory to support
sales, although we haven’t collected cash yet
10-11
Depreciation
• The depreciation expense used for capital
budgeting should be the depreciation
schedule required by the IRS for tax
purposes
• Depreciation itself is a non-cash expense;
consequently, it is only relevant because it
affects taxes
• Depreciation tax shield = DT
– D = depreciation expense
– T = marginal tax rate
10-12
Computing Depreciation
• Straight-line depreciation
– D = (Initial cost – salvage) / number of years
– Very few assets are depreciated straight-line
for tax purposes
• MACRS
– Need to know which asset class is appropriate
for tax purposes
– Multiply percentage given in table by the initial
cost
– Depreciate to zero
– Mid-year convention
10-13
After-tax Salvage
• If the salvage value is different from
the book value of the asset, then
there is a tax effect
• Book value = initial cost –
accumulated depreciation
• After-tax salvage = salvage –
T(salvage – book value)
10-14
Example: Depreciation and
After-tax Salvage
• You purchase equipment for $100,000, and
it costs $10,000 to have it delivered and
installed. Based on past information, you
believe that you can sell the equipment for
$17,000 when you are done with it in 6
years. The company’s marginal tax rate is
40%. What is the depreciation expense
each year and the after-tax salvage in year
6 for each of the following situations?
10-15
Example: Straight-line
• Suppose the appropriate depreciation
schedule is straight-line
– D = (110,000 – 17,000) / 6 = 15,500 every year
for 6 years
– BV in year 6 = 110,000 – 6(15,500) = 17,000
– After-tax salvage = 17,000 - .4(17,000 –
17,000) = 17,000
10-16
Example: Three-year
MACRS
Year MACRS
D
percent
1
.3333 .3333(110,000)
= 36,663
2
.4445
3
.1481
4
.0741
.4445(110,000)
= 48,895
.1481(110,000)
= 16,291
.0741(110,000)
= 8,151
BV in year 6 =
110,000 – 36,663 –
48,895 – 16,291 –
8,151 = 0
After-tax salvage
= 17,000 .4(17,000 – 0) =
$10,200
10-17
Example: Seven-Year
MACRS
Year
MACRS
Percent
D
1
.1429
.1429(110,000) =
15,719
2
.2449
.2449(110,000) =
26,939
3
.1749
.1749(110,000) =
19,239
4
.1249
.1249(110,000) =
13,739
5
.0893
.0893(110,000) = 9,823
6
.0892
.0892(110,000) = 9,812
BV in year 6 =
110,000 – 15,719 –
26,939 – 19,239 –
13,739 – 9,823 –
9,812 = 14,729
After-tax salvage
= 17,000 –
.4(17,000 –
14,729) =
16,091.60
10-18
Example: Replacement
Problem
• Original Machine
– Initial cost = 100,000
– Annual depreciation =
9,000
– Purchased 5 years ago
– Book Value = 55,000
– Salvage today =
65,000
– Salvage in 5 years =
10,000
• New Machine
– Initial cost = 150,000
– 5-year life
– Salvage in 5 years =
0
– Cost savings =
50,000 per year
– 3-year MACRS
depreciation
• Required return = 10%
• Tax rate = 40%
10-19
Replacement Problem –
Computing Cash Flows
• Remember that we are interested in
incremental cash flows
• If we buy the new machine, then we
will sell the old machine
• What are the cash flow consequences
of selling the old machine today
instead of in 5 years?
10-20
Replacement Problem – Pro
Forma Income Statements
Year
Cost
Savings
1
2
3
4
5
50,000
50,000
50,000
50,000
50,000
New
49,995
66,675
22,215
11,115
0
Old
9,000
9,000
9,000
9,000
9,000
40,995
57,675
13,215
2,115
(9,000)
EBIT
9,005
(7,675)
36,785
47,885
59,000
Taxes
3,602
(3,070)
14,714
19,154
23,600
NI
5,403
(4,605)
22,071
28,731
35,400
Depr.
Increm.
10-21
Replacement Problem –
Incremental Net Capital Spending
• Year 0
– Cost of new machine = 150,000 (outflow)
– After-tax salvage on old machine = 65,000 .4(65,000 – 55,000) = 61,000 (inflow)
– Incremental net capital spending = 150,000 –
61,000 = 89,000 (outflow)
• Year 5
– After-tax salvage on old machine = 10,000 .4(10,000 – 10,000) = 10,000 (outflow because
we no longer receive this)
10-22
Replacement Problem – Cash
Flow From Assets
Year
0
1
2
46,398 53,070
OCF
3
4
5
35,286
30,846
26,400
NCS
-89,000
-10,000
In
NWC
CFFA
0
0
-89,000
46,398 53,070
35,286
30,846
16,400
10-23
Replacement Problem –
Analyzing the Cash Flows
• Now that we have the cash flows, we
can compute the NPV and IRR
– Enter the cash flows
– Compute NPV = 54,801.74
– Compute IRR = 36.28%
• Should the company replace the
equipment?
10-24
Other Methods for Computing
OCF
• Bottom-Up Approach
– Works only when there is no interest expense
– OCF = NI + depreciation
• Top-Down Approach
– OCF = Sales – Costs – Taxes
– Don’t subtract non-cash deductions
• Tax Shield Approach
– OCF = (Sales – Costs)(1 – T) + Depreciation*T
10-25
Example: Cost Cutting
• Your company is considering a new computer
system that will initially cost $1 million. It will save
$300,000 per year in inventory and receivables
management costs. The system is expected to last
for five years and will be depreciated using 3-year
MACRS. The system is expected to have a
salvage value of $50,000 at the end of year 5.
There is no impact on net working capital. The
marginal tax rate is 40%. The required return is
8%.
• Click on the Excel icon to work through the
example
10-26
Example: Setting the Bid
Price
• Consider the following information:
– Army has requested bid for multiple use
digitizing devices (MUDDs)
– Deliver 4 units each year for the next 3 years
– Labor and materials estimated to be $10,000
per unit
– Production space leased for $12,000 per year
– Requires $50,000 in fixed assets with
expected salvage of $10,000 at the end of the
project (depreciate straight-line)
– Require initial $10,000 increase in NWC
– Tax rate = 34%
– Required return = 15%
10-27
Example: Equivalent Annual
Cost Analysis
• Burnout Batteries
– Initial Cost = $36 each
– 3-year life
– $100 per year to keep
charged
– Expected salvage = $5
– Straight-line
depreciation
• Long-lasting Batteries
– Initial Cost = $60 each
– 5-year life
– $88 per year to keep
charged
– Expected salvage = $5
– Straight-line
depreciation
The machine chosen will be replaced indefinitely and
neither machine will have a differential impact on revenue.
No change in NWC is required.
The required return is 15%, and the tax rate is 34%.
10-28
Quick Quiz
• How do we determine if cash flows are
relevant to the capital budgeting decision?
• What are the different methods for
computing operating cash flow and when
are they important?
• What is the basic process for finding the bid
price?
• What is equivalent annual cost and when
should it be used?
10-29
Ethics Issues
• In an L.A. Law episode, an automobile
manufacturer knowingly built cars that had a
significant safety flaw. Rather than redesigning the
cars (at substantial additional cost), the
manufacturer calculated the expected costs of
future lawsuits and determined that it would be
cheaper to sell an unsafe car and defend itself
against lawsuits than to redesign the car. What
issues does the financial analysis overlook?
10-30
Comprehensive Problem
• A $1,000,000 investment is depreciated
using a seven-year MACRS class life. It
requires $150,000 in additional inventory
and will increase accounts payable by
$50,000. It will generate $400,000 in
revenue and $150,000 in cash expenses
annually, and the tax rate is 40%. What is
the incremental cash flow in years 0, 1, 7,
and 8?
10-31
End of Chapter
10-32

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