Info Warfare, computer science homework help

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This assignment is worth 50 points and is due at the end of the academic week (Sunday, midnight).

Find any article from a scholarly or peer reviewed source regarding Information Warfare. Provide a summary of the article and your insight on the relative validity of the information presented within the article.

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Information is King st USMC 21 Century R By John Haystead Released in September of 2016, the Marine Corps Operating Concept document for “How an Expeditionary Force Operates in the 21st Century” doesn’t consider the electromagnetic spectrum a warfighting domain, but as Gen Robert Neller, 37th Commandant of the Marine Corps, states, any future fight “will include information operations and operations across the electromagnetic spectrum,” and “most importantly, it will require Marines who are smart, fit, disciplined, resilient, and able to adapt to uncertainty and to the unknown.” TRANSITION TO INFORMATION WARFARE The Journal of Electronic Defense | March 2017 28 To accomplish this goal, the Marine Corps’ approach is aimed at combining, integrating and exploiting the entire realm of battlefield information resources and systems including EW, C4ISR and cyberspace. As described by LtCol Jeffrey Kawada, Marine Corps Air Ground Task Force (MAGTF) EW, Offensive Cyber Ops and Military Information Support Operations (MISO) Branch Head, Information Warfare Integration Division (IWID), Capabilities Development Directorate (CDD), Combat Development and Integration (CD&I), Headquarters, USMC, “We’re at a critical point in information-environment operations here in the Marine Corps, and we’re making large strides to position ourselves for the future fight.” Kawada’s office is responsible for integrating all of the USMC’s capabilities in information warfare, cyberspace, EW, and MISO in line with the battle concept that the Marine Corps envisions. “In this building, we draft the requirements and coordinate the resources to advance and fund these projects, as well as generating the DOTMLPF capability for the programs, including coordinating training, organization, doctrine, etc. A team of capability integration officers specific to each topic coordinates each program-of-record to ensure it is properly integrated within and across the Marine Corps as in Operating Concept The Journal of Electronic Defense | March 2017 29 Credit: Derek Finch The Journal of Electronic Defense | March 2017 30 well as with the other Services and the Joint Force.” In particular, the shift to an overall information warfare strategy can be seen in the revised structure and role envisioned for the Corps’ Cyberspace and Electronic Warfare Coordination Cells (CEWCCs). Says Kawada, “With regard to the CEWCC, we’ve experimented with it, we’ve written doctrine on it, and we’ve deployed it within all our Marine Expeditionary Forces (MEFs) and our Marine Expeditionary Units (MEUs). However, for the future force, what we’re pivoting to is an Information Warfare Coordination Center (IWCC) in line with the Commandant’s vision and push for capabilities in the information environment.” As described in the Joint Electromagnetic Spectrum Operations document released in October of 2016, “The CEWCC construct originates from the traditional EW coordination cell (EWCC), but with additional capability for planning, requesting, and/or coordinating organic and external support for CO (Cyberspace Operations). The CEWCC is the principal means for the commander to plan, coordinate, synchronize, and de-conflict operations in and through the EMS and their potential impacts on the EMOE.” Going forward, however, explains Kawada, “When we talk CEWCC, you’ll start hearing and seeing the migration to IWCC, which will bring in more Credit: Boeing The Journal of Electronic Defense | March 2017 aspects to synchronize our capabilities within intel, operations, and command and control, as well as an expanded emphasis on merging information warfare into our maneuver arms construct and making sure its synchronized with every part of that – not just as an afterthought, but built in from the beginning as really a maneuver environment that we can, and we need to, attain superiority in at the time and place of the commander’s choosing.” So, while the USMC may not assign domain status to the electromagnetic spectrum just yet, it does commit to achieving and maintaining an unfettered ability to maneuver within it – Electromagnetic Maneuver Warfare (EMW). “Within our office, that’s where we’re prioritized as our number one concern,” says Kawada – “EW, counterC4ISR and cyber – to control our adversaries’ ability to rule the spectrum, as well as offensive cyber capabilities that we can bring to bear. The integrated fires concept is being expanded to additional target sets, and we’re looking to integrate our fire control using al- 31 RF SITUATIONAL AWARENESS ON-CHIP COGNITION BEYOND THE SPECTRUM ULTRA-LOW-SWaP Dense sensor networks across vast territories or on UAV swarms for real-time RF situational awareness. HIGH-PERFORMANCE COMPUTING ON-CHIP Intelligence on the radio, tightening the RF sense-act loop and enabling agile EW and ISR. WAVEFORM PROCESSING, DEMODULATION, FEC Full-stack, true software-defined radio on-chip with no external hardware required. TO DISCOVER A NEW APPROACH FOR CYBER/ELECTROMAGNETIC SPECTRUM OPERATIONS, CONTACT 848317_Cognitive.indd 1 2016-12-12 10:25 PM ready-existing platforms, payloads, and networks, but connecting them in a way that we haven’t done before, incorporating non-kinetic fires and maneuver in the spectrum.” The document describes the Marine Corps approach to Electromagnetic Spectrum Operations (EMSO) as reflecting a five-element design comprised of: Network-enabled systems; Networks and connectivity; Common data sources and formats; Common Service framework; and Common user environment. “Each element builds upon the next, and together they support how the MAGTF achieves and maintains EMS superiority.” FOUR PILLARS OF EMW The Marine Corps’ EMW efforts are organized around the four pillars of: Battlespace Awareness, Assured Command and Control, Maneuver, and Integrated Fires. Together these pillars define a system-of-system approach to the battlespace. Says Kawada, “The capabilities that we’re fielding and plan to field for man- aging the information environment are specifically organic capabilities to the Marine Corps – capabilities that we can independently control and task. The target, as we go forward with the Marine Corps Operating Concept, is to put information-environment, operational capabilities into the hands of our maneuver elements all the way down to the squad level.” In addition however, the plan calls for all of these individual capabilities to be networked together to form a larger, distributed and collaborative capability for higher command echelons providing more capability to the battalion, regiment, and larger MAGTF levels, up to the Expeditionary Force, and beyond. “The key,” says Kawada, “is to have an organic EW/informationenvironment capability at the lowest tactical level but with ties to the higher headquarters and out to the Joint and Coalition environment.” Cyberspace operations will play an enormous role in the plan to harness all aspects of the information environment. Says Kawada, “As we work in, and push forward, in this information environment, we need to be able to integrate and synchronize our cyber capabilities into the effects that we’re trying to achieve. We need to be able to create our own information payloads and integrate them across all of the mission areas. And, we need to build the right force because, in cyber operations, you have both defensive and offensive operations. With defensive operations, there are some things you do 100 percent of the time and you want to be able to operate smoothly in the EMS environment, but there are also certain times that you want to apply offensive force. It needs to be a balanced force with the right emphasis, at the right level, and underneath the right command, whether at the strategic or tactical level.” SYSTEM-OF-SYSTEMS Since the Marines aren’t expecting their budget allocations to be increased dramatically anytime soon, the objective is to make the most of their existing EW equipment inventory. Says Kawada, “We’re working on ways to al- The Journal of Electronic Defense | March 2017 32 COMINT and ELINT for surface and subsurface platforms Upcoming events. Centralise your SIGINT capabilities and missions ▪ Tactical superiority through coordinated mission tasking for COMINT and ELINT in one application ▪ Combined sensors for automatic detection, bearing and localisation of comms and non-comms signals ▪ Data fusion from all connected platforms in real-time or any time later ▪ Early warning and alarming functions ▪ In-house development and manufacturing · 850198_PLATH.indd 1 2017-01-26 12:56 PM variant. Begun in FY2016, the Intrepid Tiger II Block X program will expand the current system’s target set to include radars, as well. As described by Kawada, “Intrepid Tiger is a family of systems with different form factors depending on the aircraft, providing Marine aviation with an organic, high-density, distributed EW capability for both Marines on the ground as well as the threats encountered by aviation missions.” Other existing EW capabilities include the Communications Emitter Sensing and Attack System (CESAS) ground-based EW system operated by Marine Corps Radio Battalions. CESAS is being upgraded to the CESAS II configuration giving the MAGTF an organic ground capability to deny, disrupt or degrade detected enemy communications. Kawada points to one program in particular to illustrate the point of how existing systems can be leveraged effectively to provide new, expanded capabilities. The RadioMap program harnesses existing tactical radios and CREW systems using their inherent RFsensing capabilities. “By networking and re-tasking these existing sensors on the battlefield, we’re able to improve our ability to sense the environment without having to add new equipment. It’s expanding our situational awareness of the EMS on the battlefield, and in the fiscal environment we’re in. The objective is to make existing equipment multifunction as much as possible.” (For more on RadioMap, see JED, May 2016, p. 40) Certainly, the imminent retirement of the Marine Corps’ EA-6B Prowler has raised questions about the Service’s sustained ability to conduct airborne electronic attack missions. However, as Lieutenant Colonel Kawada points out, “We see what we’re doing as actually additive to what we’re providing the DOD overall. The truth is that the EA-6B was never an organic capability to the Marine Corp, but rather a Joint tasking capability. The Navy is replacing that capability with the EA-18G, so the Joint Force is not losing any EA capability because the Marine Corps Prowlers are standing down. In fact, with all the efforts we’re doing in the Marine Corps, we’re actually very much adding to and 844784_Gigatronics.indd 1 The Journal of Electronic Defense | March 2017 low our existing systems to talk in a way that hasn’t been done before while making them more lethal than ever before. Instead of looking individually at different kinds of kill chains and how we might network a few things together to create an ability to kill something, we’re starting to look at how do we get to the fully-networked option – how do we connect everything, including platforms, payloads and sensors, and think about what we can then do from an integrated-fires perspective.” Among the Corps’ existing EW assets are its principle programs-of-record, such as the airborne EW capabilities inherent to the F-35B. But, its biggest contributor is expected to be the Intrepid Tiger II (ALQ-231) pod. Intrepid Tiger is a platform-agnostic family of EW payloads intended for a variety of airborne platforms. The system is already flying on Marine Corps’ AV-8B Harrier and multiple F/A-18 Hornet aircraft generations with a (V)3 variant recently making its first deployment on the UH-1Y Venom helicopter. Plans call for also integrating the system on the AH-1Z Cobra, CH-53 Sea Stallion, and MV-22 rotorcraft as well as the KC-130J Super Hercules aircraft. A variant is also planned for integration with the Marine’s RQ-21 Blackjack UAS. The FY2017 budget includes $80.2 million for procurement of four expeditionary RQ-21A systems (which includes 20 air vehicles) to address Marine Corps ISR capability requirements. According to the budget document, the systems will provide “the MAGTF and Marine Corps Forces Special Operations Command with significantly improved capabilities. Initiatives include over-the-horizon communication and data relay ability to integrate the system into future networked digital environments; electronic warfare and cyber payloads to increase non-kinetic capabilities; and change detection radar and moving target indicators to assist warfighters in battlespace awareness and force application.” Although the L-variants of the Intrepid Tiger II system are currently configured for communications electronic attack missions, the FY2017 budget includes funding for a penetrating-attack, counter-radar-capable Intrepid Tiger 33 2016-12-07 10:41 PM Credit: U.S. Navy The Journal of Electronic Defense | March 2017 34 increasing the capaEW capability EW capabilities of the US military with all the capabilities we’re bringing to the table right now.” MODELING, SIMULATION AND TRAINING Modeling and simulation tools are an important part of the Marine Corps’ plans to implement effective EMW systems, as well as to train operators in their use. As Lieutenant Colonel Kawada says, “Training is a holistic effort that all too often is the piece that gets cut first in the POM process, yet it probably has the biggest impact. If you have small dollars to apply to a problem, it’s far more sensible to train people to use their equipment more effectively and efficiently than buying them new equipment that they don’t know how to use and you can’t fund.” In that regard, Kawada says Live Virtual Constructive (LVC) modeling and simulation is “really taking hold across the entire Marine Corps, everything from training aircrews, different commanders, etc., but I think more tailored now to what we do here in the information environment. That live virtual world is really the way we need to go in order to help develop our capabilities to help discover what our gaps are so we know what requirements we need to build to, as well as, once we have a new or existing requirement, to really understand how that interacts with the rest of the EMS in a denied and contested environment. It’s one thing to build a single system and test against it, but it’s another thing to build a system and then put another system with it in a system-of-systems concept in a multisystem integrated capability.” Although Kawada observes that traditionally the Marine Corps has largely tested in a one-vs.-one scenario, future operations will need to ensure that the entire system works together as a total capability. “We can go down a lot of different rabbit holes, but in planning for the future, everything will be distributed just as our Marine Corps operating concept dictates, it will be networked, and it will be collaborative, so understanding how the entire system works will be very important. This kind of testing is very difficult to do in an open-air environment, and the way to get that is through LVC environments where you can do that large-scale piece and determine within a mission scenario if your capabilities will actually work in a contested and denied environment. That is really the only way you can get at it for that large fight.” The Marine Corps Warfighting Lab is a big part of implementing the Service’s Marine Corps Operating Concept (MOC). Says LtCol John Kolb, Cyber/EW Branch Head, Science and Technology Division, Marine Corps Warfighting Lab (MCWL), “The Marine Corps is poised to gain significant increases in capability with respect to Tactical Cyber and Electronic Warfare within the MAGTF. The MCWL and Combat Development Command at large is using the Marine Corps Operating Concept as a roadmap to ensure that our experimentation and capability development are aligned with the Marine Corps’ vision for a 21st Century expeditionary force-in-readiness. Some are programmatic, material solutions, and some are structural, organizational and personnel changes.” MCWL conducts concept-based experimentation to inform the requirements for Doctrine, Organization, Training, Materiel, Leadership and Education, Per- communications that MCWL can also leverage for training.” FIDELITY OF SIMULATIONS 35 W MO hav e VE e D! Moving forward, and to meet the requirements of far more complex and sophisticated EMS environments, the capabilities of modeling and simulation systems will also have to advance dramatically. Says Kawada, “The fidelity piece is crucial as we work through our distributed system-of-systems approach and need to provide realistic fidelity in the models to accurately represent degraded and contested environments. It’s a very difficult challenge because how do you model and display effects – not only enemy effects on us, but our effects on the enemy, and how do we display that to the other observers or participants in that virtual constructive simulation, as well?” Kawada says the solution will require multiple steps and cooperative development effort with other Services. “We’re working very closely with the Navy on their initiative and projects with the Naval Warfare Development Command (NWDC), who have gone a long way in developing high-fidelity models to be able to simulate those types of events. It’s particularly important to partner with them because we are, after all, ultimately a naval force, operating from the ship and relying on the Navy for a lot of our reachback. But, the key point is the models not only must inform our capabilities with equipment, but they must inform a lot of other things in the sense of what are the sustainment needs, what are the logistical backend things that we need, what are the other pieces that are just as important as the actual force-onforce activities? If you don’t have them as well, you won’t be successful.” Although Lieutenant Colonel Kawada acknowledges, “we can always use more money,” he says, “right now, as far as the Marine Corps goes, we’re prioritizing EW and Information Warfare in the proper context for a balanced force. You show your priorities in where you put your money, manpower and time, and thus far, when you look at the Marine Corps MEF 2025, we’ve shown that we’re willing to put our investment where we need to in EW.” At CD&I, Kawada says the key is to “make sure our requirement is properly determined and written. If we do that, the proper capabilities will follow to support the overall vision of the Marine Corps. A lot has to do with timing, and we always like to accelerate development and fielding of our capabilities, so that’s where I think more money would help accelerate things, but we’re currently adequately funded according to the planned glide slope and with the goals supporting the requirements we’ve generated.” a The Journal of Electronic Defense | March 2017 sonnel and Facilities (DOTMLPF) solutions, and as Kolb notes, “Because some of these capabilities are nascent and don’t have the current structure to experiment, MCWL has had to be creative to experiment with those concepts.” MCWL’s current evolution of LVC, Sea Dragon 25, will provide RF and EW training to 3rd Battalion, 5th Marines on EW concepts and employment during their combat readiness evaluation, as well as other exercises when they deploy to the Pacific area. In coordination with DARPA and the transition office, MCWL is also conducting command training and experimentation ...
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