WRITING IN THE FORMAL THIRD PERSON STYLE, writing homework help

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Writing in the Formal Third Person Style

The capstone study is a formal document and must follow traditional conventions accepted in formal writing including:

  • Do not use personal pronouns, such as I, us, you, etc. Use the third-person.
  • Do not use contractions such as don’t, shouldn’t, didn’t, etc.
  • Use abbreviations sparingly. Commonly-accepted abbreviations are Mr., Mrs., etc. You may also abbreviate discipline-specific titles such as “The Global War on Terror” (GWOT). The proper convention is to spell out the title completely on first use followed by the appropriate abbreviation in parentheses. You may use the abbreviation alone and sans parentheses thereafter..
  • Avoid clichés and colloquialisms, such as: crystal-clear, out-of-the-box, etc.
  • Write in the active voice (see “Web Resources” in your classroom for a PowerPoint presentation on this topic).

COMMON WRITING CONCERNS

Restrictive/Nonrestrictive

Nonrestrictive modifiers require commas. Nonrestrictive modifiers do not change the meaning of a sentence if they are omitted. The opposite holds true for a restrictive modifier.

Restrictive: All the books that were stolen in the night were never accounted for. (Implies some books remained in-stock).

Nonrestrictive: All of the books, stolen that night, were never accounted for. (Implies no books remained on-hand).

For a more detailed discussion of grammar and punctuation (150 + pp)

Spelling Errors and Proof-reading

Remember that while Microsoft Word and most other major word-processing programs contain a spell-checking function and a function which identifies, and can correct, some grammatical errors, they do not identify all such errors. If a word is incorrect within a sentence but is spelled correctly, it will not be identified as a problem. For example, consider the words, “not and knot.” You must proofread your work manually as well as electronically in order to ensure a quality product.

A free utility you may find useful for proofing is “ReadPlease.” This is a software program into which you upload a document. ReadPlease then reads it back to you as you listen.

Do not forget your research effort is oriented from the general to the specific.

Literature Review Section

This section contains only peer reviewed research that is related to your particular topic. I want to make it very clear, you should choose a topic that has many peer reviewed research articles for you to use. Do not choose something abstract where you cannot find anything. This is VERY important. It is very important that you check this out in advance using the online library. You have to make sure of this or you will struggle with the class. Peer reviewed research articles are those that appear in criminal justice or public policy related journal articles that have passed a rigorous review process to validate the research contained in the article. The review process for these journals involves forwarding the research study to several researchers associated with the journal and these researchers review the study for reliability and validity, bias, proper research policies and procedures, ethical treatment of research subjects, ethical practices of the researchers, etc. If all of these and other criteria are met, the study can then be published in that journal. I encourage you to ask the library for help if you are still confused. The AMU library staff are very helpful in this area. Most journals on the inside cover describe the submission process for researchers. This is where if you see what is described above, the article has been peer reviewed. This process is what sets peer reviewed articles apart from those found in magazines, agency publications, books, etc.

These journals can be found in the library. If trying to find these online, instead of the inside cover, you need to go to the journal's web site and review their submission process to determine if it meets the criteria. On occasion a government document may be included in this section if, and only if, it is the premier publication on the topic.

This section is expected to be very thorough and substantial.

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End of Program Assessment Manual for Graduate Students American Public University System Charles Town, West Virginia, January 2017 Edition TABLE OF CONTENTS Contents TABLE OF CONTENTS ................................................................................................................................ i Introduction ............................................................................................................................................. 1 EOP Assessment Alternatives ................................................................................................................ 1 Grades ..................................................................................................................................................... 2 Important Notes ..................................................................................................................................... 2 Chapter I: Master of Arts Comprehensive Final Examination .............................................................. 4 Beginning the Comprehensive Exam .................................................................................................... 4 Comprehensive Exam Course ................................................................................................................ 4 Taking the Exam ................................................................................................................................. 5 Notes: .................................................................................................................................................. 6 Proctoring ................................................................................................................................................ 7 Chapter II: Master's Capstone: Thesis Option ....................................................................................... 9 Beginning the Thesis Project ................................................................................................................. 9 Thesis Proposal ................................................................................................................................. 10 Preparing the Thesis ............................................................................................................................ 11 Notes: ................................................................................................................................................ 11 Approval of Thesis............................................................................................................................. 12 Submission of Final Thesis .............................................................................................................. 12 Unsuccessful Capstone Attempts ....................................................................................................... 13 Second Readers................................................................................................................................ 13 Chapter III: Master's Capstone: Creative/Applied Project .................................................................. 15 Beginning the Creative/Applied Project .............................................................................................. 15 i Creative/Applied Project Proposal ................................................................................................... 15 Completing the Creative/Applied Project ............................................................................................ 16 Notes: ................................................................................................................................................ 16 Approval of Creative/Applied Project ............................................................................................... 17 Submission of Creative/Applied Project Report ............................................................................. 17 Unsuccessful Capstone Attempts ....................................................................................................... 18 Second Readers................................................................................................................................ 18 Chapter IV: Master's Capstone: Practicum and Critical Reflection Paper ......................................... 20 Beginning the Practicum and Critical Reflection Paper ..................................................................... 20 Practicum Proposal ........................................................................................................................... 20 Completing the Practicum ................................................................................................................... 21 Notes: ................................................................................................................................................ 21 Approval of the Practicum and Critical Reflection Paper ............................................................... 22 Submission of Critical Reflection Paper .......................................................................................... 23 Unsuccessful Capstone Attempts ....................................................................................................... 23 Second Readers................................................................................................................................ 24 Chapter V: Master's Capstone: Portfolio and Critical Reflection Paper Option ................................. 25 Beginning the Portfolio Option ............................................................................................................. 25 Portfolio and Critical Reflection Paper ............................................................................................ 25 Completing the Capstone .................................................................................................................... 26 Notes: ................................................................................................................................................ 26 Approval of the Portfolio and Critical Reflection Paper .................................................................. 27 Submission of Critical Reflection Paper .......................................................................................... 27 Unsuccessful Capstone Attempts ....................................................................................................... 28 Second Readers................................................................................................................................ 29 Chapter VI: The Responsible Conduct of Research ............................................................................ 30 ii Academic Dishonesty ........................................................................................................................... 30 For Comprehensive Exam Assessments ......................................................................................... 30 For Capstone and Portfolio Assessments ....................................................................................... 30 Institutional Review Board ................................................................................................................... 31 Failure to Secure IRB approval ........................................................................................................ 31 Chapter VII: University Declarations and APUS Library Registration ................................................. 32 1. Declarations ..................................................................................................................................... 32 2. Textual Components ........................................................................................................................ 33 Academic Style Manual Conformity ................................................................................................. 33 3. Images and Tables ........................................................................................................................... 34 Image Insert/Formats....................................................................................................................... 34 4. Video or Audio .................................................................................................................................. 35 5. URLs/Web Addresses ...................................................................................................................... 35 6. Submission to the APUS Library ...................................................................................................... 35 7. Passed with Distinction (a.k.a. PWD) .............................................................................................. 35 Chapter VIII: Scholarly Research/Copyright Conduct ......................................................................... 37 1. Copyright ........................................................................................................................................... 37 Copyrighting Your Research ............................................................................................................. 37 Fair Use Exemptions and Citation Responsibility ........................................................................... 38 Copyright Permission ........................................................................................................................ 38 2. University Research Policies ........................................................................................................... 39 3. Institutional Review Board............................................................................................................... 39 Appendices ............................................................................................................................................ 41 Appendix 1: Master’s Theses............................................................................................................... 41 Appendix 2: Master’s Creative/Applied Projects ................................................................................ 43 Appendix 3: Master’s Practicum and Critical Reflection Papers ....................................................... 45 iii Appendix 4: Title Page (Required format for all capstone projects.)................................................. 47 Appendix 5: Sample of Copyright Page (Required format for all capstone projects.) ...................... 48 Appendix 6: Sample of Dedication Page (Optional) ........................................................................... 49 Appendix 7: Sample of Acknowledgments Page (Optional) ............................................................... 50 Appendix 8: Sample of Abstract of the Thesis (Required format for all capstone projects.) ........... 51 Appendix 9: Sample of a Table of Contents ....................................................................................... 52 Appendix 10: Sample of List of Tables................................................................................................ 54 Appendix 11: Sample of List of Figures .............................................................................................. 55 Appendix 12: Sample of Permission to Quote or Reproduce Copyrighted Material Letter ............. 56 Appendix 13: Sample of Practicum Organizational Consent Form ................................................... 57 Appendix 14: Critical Reflection Method Required for Completion of Practicum Paper ................. 58 Appendix 15: Sample of IRB Approval Letter ..................................................................................... 59 Appendix 16: Portfolio and Critical Reflection Paper ......................................................................... 60 iv Introduction This manual establishes the guidelines for completion of all graduate-level end of program (EOP) graduation requirements. The intended audience for this manual is all members of the American Public University System (APUS) academic community, including students and faculty. While it is intended to be a comprehensive overview of the general EOP requirements for APUS, students and faculty must follow any additional specific guidelines within their schools. Information regarding school-specific guidelines should be available from your supervisory professor or your program’s director. APUS, including American Military University (AMU) and American Public University (APU), offers several options for assessing graduate program learning outcomes. These end of program assessments are designed to ensure APUS students have successfully met their program objectives, and each is designed to serve a different purpose. EOP Assessment Alternatives EOP assessment alternatives vary by degree program and include the following: • Comprehensive Exam • Capstone, which includes the following variations (availability varies by degree program): o Research thesis o Creative/applied project o Practicum with critical reflection/integration paper o Portfolio option with critical reflection paper The Programs offer the comprehensive exam to provide a formal assessment of the program content; this type of assessment is best suited for students who finish their formal academic training with the completion of the Master of Arts/Master of Science program. In programs offering the capstone thesis option, this type of research study best suits students who anticipate seeking further professional training, such as a doctorate or a Ph.D. Many programs in the humanities, social sciences, and STEM fields offer the creative/applied project as a way to integrate theory with professional practice and demonstrate mastery in the field. Some professional disciplines, such as business, may consider the practicum as the best option to integrate experiential learning into the curriculum. Finally, various programs will find the portfolio option appropriate as a way of 1 showcasing learning for future employers and synthesizing skills learned in the degree program. Note: Master’s students in the School of Education and other externally-accredited fields may have a different set of requirements regarding end of program assessment. Students should adhere to the requirements outlined in their programs. Students are advised to work with their academic advisors to ensure that they take the correct courses during their degree and to enroll in the correct program version for their assessment preference, if available. Please be advised that some programs have only one EOP assessment option. Grades Students must receive a B- (80%) or better on their comprehensive exam or their capstone paper/project in order to graduate. Any capstone project/paper awarded a Pass With Distinction must be reviewed and approved by the Program Director, Dean, and the office of Graduate Studies before being included in the Digital Commons. Important Notes • • • The EOP assessment is meant to be a culminating experience, and as such, each student should expect to demonstrate not only that they possess a thorough knowledge of their discipline’s literature, but also that they have achieved all of the graduate studies learning outcomes. The EOP is a unique exercise. A student’s GPA is not a factor in how well they will perform in their end of program assessment. Success depends on the student entering the experience fully prepared and dedicated to completing the EOP in the allotted timeframe. All students are expected to adhere to the conventions of standard English grammar and/or formal academic writing. Students who are struggling with their ability to communicate clearly in writing are strongly encouraged to complete COLL501 or the ClearPath COLL500 Graduate Writing modules early in their graduate studies. See also the graduate resources in the APUS Library at Writing@APUS. After being checked with a plagiarism detection tool and graded by the faculty supervising the project and upon being approved by the program directors and school dean, all capstone projects must be submitted to the APUS Library for archiving by the program director. The capstone and critical reflection papers submitted must be a “clean” version of the paper. All spelling, grammar, citations, etc. must be correct and appropriate. Instructor feedback comments should not appear in the final version submitted to the library. 2 • • Theses that receive a grade of Passed with distinction may be eligible for inclusion in the DigitalCommons@APUS repository. For more on the Digital Commons, see http://digitalcommons.apus.edu/faq.html. Critical reflection papers, while eligible for the grade of Passed with distinction, may not be eligible to be placed in DigitalCommons@APUS due to the personalized information that may be contained within the papers. APUS takes academic dishonesty very seriously. Any evidence of plagiarism will result in the student’s work being rejected, and the student will fail the EOP exercise. Engaging in academic dishonesty and/or plagiarism will directly threaten the ability of the student to graduate from APUS. 3 Chapter I: Master of Arts Comprehensive Final Examination Note: Please check your academic plan to see if this option is available in your program. The master's comprehensive examination provides an opportunity for students to • • • demonstrate they have mastered the research skills and substantive content expected in their field of study; demonstrate they have familiarity with major schools of thought and principal published works in the field; and culminate their graduate student experience as they complete their master's program and either continue or begin work in their chosen profession. Beginning the Comprehensive Exam The examination is tailored specifically to each graduate program and must be the last course master’s degree students take from APUS. Thus, it can only be taken after the student has completed all of their course work. It cannot be taken concurrently with course work. Students must successfully complete this requirement before the award of a degree. Students must apply for graduation and have a minimum GPA of 3.0 in order to be able to register for the course. Comprehensive Exam Course The separate comprehensive examination course (eight or sixteen weeks depending upon the program) prepares graduate students for the comprehensive examination in their area of study. The purpose of the course is to provide a review of key concepts, theories and knowledge, and skill sets. Some classes provide weekly assignments and discussions, while others provide pointers regarding which materials to review and how to prepare for the exam. As part of the course, students may be asked to consult texts, journal articles, print and media reports, and documentaries used in their classes. Collaboration with other students enrolled in the course is also an essential component. Comprehensive exam courses require students to submit answers to practice exam questions in order to become familiar with the types of questions that may be asked during the exam. Regardless of which approach the course takes, students are expected to participate fully in all course activities and must meet all assigned deadlines. Students who do not complete required course activities leading up to the exam will not be allowed to take it. Students who fail the comprehensive exam and who have submitted all course practice questions may be eligible to re-register for a second attempt at passing the comprehensive exam. Any new regis ...
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Tutor Answer

Wilbet
School: Boston College

Hello Pal, i have completed the literature review, kindly check. Thank you.

Running Head: IMPACTS OF MARIJUANA LEGALIZATION ON DRUG CRIMES

How the Legalization of Marijuana Impacts Drug Crimes in the State of Colorado

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Running Head: IMPACTS OF MARIJUANA LEGALIZATION ON DRUG CRIMES

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Literature Review
Introduction
As of 2016, eight states in the United States legalized marijuana for recreational use. These
states include Colorado, Washington, Oregon, Alaska, the District of Columbia, California,
Nevada, Massachusetts, and Maine. Across various states, there is an increasing support for the
legalization of marijuana. Given the devastating effects of drugs on crime rates across the Unites
States, it is essential to assess how legalization of marijuana impacts drug crimes in the state of
Colorado. Several scholars have published their opinion regarding the controversial issue of
legalization of marijuana in some states. However, little studies have been carried out to assess the
impacts of the legalization of marijuana on drug-related crimes.
The Debate
Although the move by some states such as Colorado and Washington to legalize and
decriminalize the use of marijuana for recreational purposes has been welcome by some scholars,
some are of the opinion that such moves are in contrary to the societal expectations. Hence, the
main arguments and studies on this issue have been whether the adverse effects outweighs the
benefits. The debate over the legalization of marijuana involves two main opposing sides. Dills,
Goffard & Miron (2016) explain that those opposed to the legalization of marijuana argue that
legalization might impact crime. Opponents maintain that such drugs trigger various related crimes
via psychopharmacological and mechanisms. They point out that these substances have always
been linked with crime, social deviance, and other detrimental facets of the community.
On the other hand, Dills, Goffard & Miron (2016) further points out that those opposed to
legalization of marijuana argue that legalization decreases crime through redirecting cannabis

Running Head: IMPACTS OF MARIJUANA LEGALIZATION ON DRUG CRIMES

3

production and trade from the black market to legitimate settings. Nonetheless, Dills, Goffard &
Miron (2016) concludes that although the opponents and supporters of the state legislation
regarding the legalization of marijuana have different opinions regarding such initiatives, there is
little evidence to prove any claim by either of the opponents.
Influence of marijuana legalization on drug crimes
Some studies have revealed that the legalization of marijuana in the state of Colorado has
had no significant influence on crimes within the state. Other studies have shown that the
legalization of marijuana in the state of Colorado has had minimal impacts on drug crimes whereas
others have revealed that legalization has significantly impacted drug-related crimes in the state.
Consequently, several studies and papers have emphasized on the impacts of marijuana
legalization on the economy, crime, and public health. The present thesis primarily assesses the
impacts of marijuana legalization in the state of Colorado with a major focus on drug-related
crimes and the use of other related drugs. This is an aspect that has been astoundingly overlooked
until recently since most of the literature on the impacts of the legalization of marijuana have
emphasized on state and law enforcement budgets as well as public health. Some scholars assert
that the differences present in the results of these studies are mainly due to lack of sufficient data
on the issue as well as methodological differences. To properly assess the influence of marijuana
legalization on drug related crimes, it is important to evaluate in detail, the various methodologies
that have been applied to examine this issue as well as the various findings.
Dragone et al., (2017) examines the existing evidence on the legalization of marijuana
market across various states in the United States and its corresponding impact on crime. In their
analysis, Dragone et al., (2017) argue that there has been a considerable drop in crime as a result

Running Head: IMPACTS OF MARIJUANA LEGALIZATION ON DRUG CRIMES

4

of the legalization of marijuana. In their study in the states of Washington and Oregon, they
found that legalization of recreational marijuana resulted in a significant reduction in crimes such
as theft, burglary, assault, robbery with violence and rape. In their methodology, Dragone et al.,
(2007) collectively applied, county-level difference-in-differences as well as spatial regression
discontinuity designs. Their analysis reveals that the legalization of recreational marijuana led to
a substantial decrease in rape and theft crimes on the Washington side of the border for the
period 2013 to 2014 comparative to the Oregon side and comparative to the pre-legalization
period of 2010 to 2012. For instance, in the case of rape, Dragone et al., (2007) found that the
reduction was 4.2 offenses per 100,000 inhabitants in the state of Washington, which represented
approximately 30% of the rates for the period 2010 to 2012. The study also found that for thefts,
the reduction was 105.6 offenses per 100,000 inhabitants within the state, which represented
nearly 20% of the rates for the same period. They also found that the legalization of the use
marijuana reduced the consumption of other drugs across the two states.
According to a 2016 report by the Drug Policy Alliance, the total number of police arrests
for driving under the influence (DUI), comprising both alcohol and other substances, has reduced
in the states of Colorado and Washington. According to the report, the total number of driving
under the influence citations reported by Colorado State Patrol fell by 18%, from 5,546 in 2014
to 4,546 in 2015, the initial year after the lawful sales of cannabis. The study further found that
there was 8% decline in the state of Washington for the same period (Drug Policy Alliance,
2016, p. 6). But, the report cautions that it is too early to understand the grounds for this drop
because some researchers assert that some individuals use cannabis as an alternative to other
drugs like alcohol and cocaine that are more evidently associated with driving impairment. The
report further notes that a tiny number of all the driving under the influence arrests in both

Running Head: IMPACTS OF MARIJUANA LEGALIZATION ON DRUG CRIMES

5

Colorado and Washington constituted cannabis as the only substance. Furthermore, the DPA
report also notes that in both states, the post-legalization traffic fatality rate continues to be
statistically consistent with pre-legalization rates. The report also found that there are no clear
increases in traffic fatalities that have happened post-legalization and that decriminalization has
not caused more severe road conditions (Drug Policy Alliance, 2016, p. 6).
However, Dills, Goffard & Miron (2016) argue that the legalization of marijuana has had
very minimal impact on drug-related crimes in the state of Colorado. In their study, “Dose of
reality: the effect of state marijuana legalization” Dill, Goffard & Miron (2016) examines the
impact decriminalization on the use of marijuana, crime rates and health outcomes in the states
of Colorado, Washington, Alaska, and Oregon. In their analysis of the monthly crime rates for
reported violent crimes and property crimes in Denver, Colorado pre-legalization, and postlegalization, the study shows that both metrics remain fundamentally unchanged after 2012 and
2014. Dill, Goffard & Miron (2016) maintains that there were no clear significant deviations
from their examination of the cyclical crime pattern. The study also notes that other cities within
the state echo these findings. Dill, Goffard & Miron (2016) further report that the monthly crime
data for Fort Collins illustrate that there were no increases in violent property or violent crimes
post-legalization.
Rogers & Moss (2016) argues that legalization of marijuana has had beneficial impacts
on the states of Colorado. In their argument, they cite that according to the Colorado Bureau of
Investigation, the state of Colorado has experienced a significant decrease in the number of
reported crimes since the state legalized the recreational use of marijuana. From their findings,
Colorado experienced about 3.1 percent drop in property related crimes. On the same note, their
study indicates that the two years after the state legalized the use of marijuana, there has been a

Running Head: IMPACTS OF MARIJUANA LEGALIZATION ON DRUG CRIMES

6

12. 8% decrease in homicide. They further cite that Denver, Colorado, the center of legal
marijuana sales recorded a 1% decline in “assaults, murders, burglaries, rapes, and other violent
crimes during the first three months of 2014 when compared with the same period in 2013”
(Rogers & Moss, 2016)
A study by Hall and Linskey (2016) examines the public health impacts of legalizing
recreational marijuana in the US. Their study focuses on the harmful effects of legalization of
marijuana resulting from drug-related crimes. They emphasize that some of the major indicators
of marijuana-associated injuries that need to be observed involve: motor-crash fatalities and
harms; emergency department presentations; presentations to addiction treatment facilities; and
the frequency of systematic marijuana use among adolescents in mental health facilities and the
c...

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Anonymous
awesome work thanks

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