PSY 210: Mind, Brain and Behavior, Chapter 9, 10, 11 and 12 help

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EXAM 3 Study Guide: PSY 210: Mind, Brain and Behavior This study guide is an outline of the material that we have covered in class. . You can use it to organize and guide your studying. Remember for the tests utilize the book and the class notes for studying. The Visual System – Chapter 9 • Describe how transduction works in the visual system • • What are the sensory receptors in the visual system o How do they convert wavelengths of light to neural impulses o Where are they located in the eye o What are the different types? And what are their different roles? • Describe the fovea. What aspects of vision is it important for? • What is meant by a “receptive field” o What might a receptive field look like to a visual sensory receptor in the eye? o Describe how the receptive field becomes more complex as we progress through the visual system from the eyes to the cerebral cortex • Describe the nature of the crossing of visual information from the eye to the brain • Identify and describe the major brain regions that make up the visual system that we discussed? o Lateral Geniculate Nucleus o Striate Cortex/V1 --- retinopic organization, orientation selectivity o Dorsal Stream regions –the “how” pathway o Ventral stream regions –the “what” pathway • Describe Hubel & Wiesel’s experiment that won them the Nobel prize. • Describe Visual Agnosia.What is normal about vision and abnormal in this condition? What area(s) of the brain tend to be damaged in this condition? • Describe Optic Ataxia.What is normal about vision and abnormal in this condition? What area(s) of the brain tend to be damaged in this condition? EXAM 3 Study Guide: PSY 210: Mind, Brain and Behavior Hearing, Language and Music –Chapter 10 • The soundwave is the medium of audition. Describe the important physical properties of a soundwave that are important for audition. • Describe the physical properties that are important for language and music • What are some of the ways Language and Music are treated as special by our auditory perceptual system? • Describe the structure of the parts of the ear and explain each part’s role in audition o The outer ear o The middle ear o The inner ear • Describe transduction in the auditory system. o What is the organ within the inner ear most responsible for transduction o How does this organ work ▪ Oval window ▪ Functions of hair cells ▪ Basilar membrane ▪ Tonotopic representation • Primary Auditory Cortex (A1) o Tonotopic representation • Lateralization within the Auditory system • Language Processing: what are the major brain regions that are important for music that we discussed. What are their roles? What is the evidence? o Broca’s vs. Wernicke’s area o Broca’s vs. Wernicke’s aphasia • Music Processing: how does music processing differ from that of language processing in the brain? • Describe Amusia. What does this condition suggest about the way music perception is implemented in the brain? EXAM 3 Study Guide: PSY 210: Mind, Brain and Behavior Movement –Chapter 11 • Motor neurons innervate muscle fibers. o What does this mean? o For a body part to move or articulate in a very precise manner, what has to be true about the ratio of muscle fibers to neurons? • Describe what is meant by the hierarchy of movement. o How is movement hierarchical? o Give an example. o How does this hierarchy map on the way the different parts of the nervous system helps to carry out movement? • Describe the anatomy of the motor system from the bottom up o What is the role of the spinal cord in our automatic reflexes? Its role in voluntary movement o Forebrain’s role in voluntary movement o Brainstem? o Motor Cortex? o Somatosensory cortex? o Premotor Cortex? o Prefrontal Cortex? o Basal Ganglia and Cerebellum? • Describe the organization of the motor cortex and somatosensory cortex? o The topographic organization of the body on the brain • Parkinson’s Disease o Symptoms o Causes o What area of the brain is affected? o What does the nature of Parkinson’s tell us about the role of the subtantia nigra/dopamine plays in movement? EXAM 3 Study Guide: PSY 210: Mind, Brain and Behavior Motivated Behavior and Emotion –Chapter 12 • What are examples of regulatory behaviors and non-regulatory behaviors? • What is the role of the hypothalamus in motivated behavior? How does its function relate to that of the pituitary gland • Describe the James-Lange Theory of Emotion and evidence in favor of this theory • What is the role of the amygdala in emotional expression • Describe Kluver-Bucy syndrome • Describe patient S.M. • What is the role of the orbitofrontal cortex in emotional/value-based decision making? • What happens to an individual if they have damage to the orbitofrontal cortex? ...
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Running head: CHAPTER 9 AND 10

1

PSY 210: Mind, Brain and Behavior : Chapter 9, 10, 11 and 12
Student’s Name
Institutional Affiliation

CHAPTER 9 AND 10

2
PSY 210: Mind, Brain and Behavior
The Visual System – Chapter 9
Question 1

Transduction is a stimulus alerting events in which a physical stimulus is transformed
into an action potential through transmission along axons in the direction of the CNS where its
integration takes place.
Question 2
The sensory receptors in the visual system are photoreceptors (the cones and the rods).
They are located in the retina, and manage the conversion by changing the form of pigments to
cause a cascade of chemical reactions in the photoreceptors. The cones are responsible for high
levels of light while rods are active during low levels of light.
Question 3
The fovea is a minor depression found in the retina with high visual acuity that provides
the clearest vision.
Question 4
The receptive field is the particular region of the sensory space where a stimulus modifies
the firing of a respective neuron. It looks like a visual field and, they become more complex
because of the kind of reaction started by a small spot of light centered on them from the simple
ON and OFF centers to the more complex ON-OFF centers.
Question 5
The image goes through transduction into neural impulses and then moved via the optic
nerve to the remaining parts of the brain for processing.

CHAPTER 9 AND 10

3
Question 6

Lateral Geniculate Nucleus receives a main sensory input from the retina. Striate
Cortex/V1is responsible for projection to the LGN while the Dorsal Stream regions guide actions
and recognize the position of objects in space. Finally, the ventral stream regions are responsible
for object recognition and representation.
Question 7
Hubel and Wiesel recorded sounds from neurons in the visual cortex of a cat by moving a
bright line across the retina. They noticed that the neurons only fired when the line was in a
specific point on the retina. Secondly, they noticed that the activity of such neurons altered
dependent on the orientation of the line. Finally, at times, the neurons only fired at a time when
the line was on a specific bearing.
Question 8
Visual agnosia is a disorder that impairs the in recognition of objects in visual
presentation. Perception is abnormal while sense remains normal in this condition.
Question 9
Optic ataxia refers to a higher order deficit in getting to visual objectives that takes place
with posterior parietal cortex (PPC) lesions. It involves a normal proprioceptive, primary motor,
and visual functions but abnormal visuo-motor.

CHAPTER 9 AND 10

4
Hearing, Language and Music –Chapter 10
Question 1

The three main physical properties of soundwaves that are significant for audition are and
timber, pitch and frequency, and amplitude and loudness. Timber refers to purity and tone
quality. Frequency is the rate of vibrations while sensation it causes is the pitch and amplitude is
the strength of the wave.
Question 2
The three important physical properties are pitch, frequency, and intensity. Sound
intensity is the power that sound waves carry per unit area. Sound frequency refers to the is the
rate of sound vibrations, while the pitch is the resulting sensation from the frequency.
Question 3
Language and music are treated specially by the auditory perceptual system because they
are heard as sensations that are private and internal. They are experienced directly without
mediation.
Question 4
The three parts of the ear are the inner, middle, and outer ear. The outer ear transmits
sound to the ear drum. The middle ear has ossicles that form a chain that conducts the sound
vibrations from the eardrum to the inner ear. The inner ear converts sound pressure patterns into
electrochemical impulses.
Question 5
Corti is the organ in the inner ear responsible for transduction. The oval window leads
vibrations that contact it through the three ossicles then into the inner ear. The hair cells are
responsible for the detection of the sound and transmission to the brain through auditory nerves.

CHAPTER 9 AND 10

5

The basiliar membrane functions as an analyzer of the frequency spectrum. Finally, tonotopic
representation refers to the place in the brain where sounds of diverse frequencies are processed.
Question 6
Laterarization enables even distribution in the hearing of a sound between the two normal
ears.
Question 7
Broca’s and Wernicke’s areas are found in the cortical and are responsible for the
production and comprehension of music. They are located in the left inferior frontal gyrus and
left posterior superior temporal gyrus respectively.
People with Wernicke's aphasia are do not know that the words they produce are not
correct while people with Broca’s aphasia know what they are saying but are not able to produce
accurate words/sentence.
Question 8
Language is processed using a bundle of nerve fibers known as the arcuate fasciculus while
music is processed by the use of inferior frontal gyrus and dorsolateral frontal cortex.
Question 9
Amusia is the incapacity to recognize tones of music or to reproduce the same. It suggests
that musical implementation takes place through the frontotemporal connectivity that enables
conscious access to pitch information encoded in the auditory cortex.

CHAPTER 9 AND 10

6
Movement: Chapter 11



Innervation is mainly described as the provision of nerve stimuli to a muscle. The
innervation of each type of muscle is normally regulated by the nervous system that is
responsible for its function. The autonomic nervous system is responsible for innervating
the involuntary muscles while the peripheral nervous system is responsible for
innervating the voluntary muscles. More specifically, the Alpha motor neurons are
responsible for innervating extrafusal muscle fibers, which form the primary forcegenerating part of a muscle.
The ratio of muscle fibers to nerves is normally associated with a muscle’s specific
movement function where gross motor skills or less complex movements are associated
with higher ratio of muscle fibers to motor neurons and fine motor skills, or complex
movements are associated with lower ration of muscle fibers to motor neurons (Costanzo,
2017).



The neurons responsible for movement control in the nervous system are normally
organized in a hierarchical fashion with each level in the hierarchy representing a specific
task in motor control as indicated in the figure below.

CHAPTER 9 AND 10

7

In order to commence a specific movement such as picking up an object or writing a note, a
general intention is normally generated at the highest level of the motor control hierarchy. The
highest level comprises of various regions of the brain including those involved in emotions,
memory and motivation. The highest hierarchical neurons transmit information, the command
neurons, to the middle level regions of the motor contr...

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Anonymous
Good stuff. Would use again.

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