The mosques are mostly built by private donations and run by neighborhood committees. Their structure, size, and comfort levels reflect the status of the community. Therefore in poor communities one will find a shack with tin roof and in rich parts of the city an air-conditioned mosque. Mosques cannot be adorned with statuary or paintings and there is no furniture except a simple ground covering. Every mosque has a row of water taps for compulsory washing of face, hands, and feet before the prayer. Shoes are not allowed in the mosque-proper because people sit and perform prayers on the floor covered by a rush mat or a carpet.
The earliest mosque in Islam is in Mecca, Saudi Arabia but its form and function is unique to it. The mosque which became the model for all the mosques in the world is Prophet’s Mosque in Medina, also in Saudi Arabia. That mosque was a modest rectangular structure, made of mud walls with date palm trunks serving as roof beams. The roof was made of palm fronds covered by mud. The mosque also had a small open yard. There was no attempt to adorn it with verses from Quran or make it monumental in any sense of the word. Every mosque built since then essentially has the same lay out. As far as architectural style goes Muslims adopted the materials and styles of construction prevalent where they lived. The two most distinct features of a mosque dome and minarets (towers) were borrowed from Byzantine.Reference:
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