Television and Citizenship, communications homework help

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Question Description

Answer 3 out of the 4 questions. Please do not use a particular author or concept in more than one answer. Each answer should be 3 pages long.

1) Marie Gillespie’s article reported on an Integrated Multidisciplinary Media Analysis of the impact of the news coverage of the war in Iraq on forms of multicultural citizenship in the UK. How did news coverage of the war impact multicultural citizenship in the UK? Make reference to what Gillespie terms the “governmentality perspective” and the “constructivist perspective” in your discussion. Use the “governmentality perspective” and the “constructivist perspective” to analyze the media coverage of current national security issues. Please use one media example from the lecture and one of your choice that was not discussed in lecture or the reading.

2) Shaheed Nick Mohammed offers the concept of “transgressive hybridity” to analyze the television program All-American Muslim. Define the concept and discuss how Mohammed used the concept to analyze the show. According to Mohammed, how did transgressive hybridity open up possibilities for the inclusion of Muslims in America, and how were these transgression’s limited in their capacity to open up possibilities. Drawing from one of the student presentations (other than the one you presented in) identify an example of transgressive hybridity and discuss how it might open possibilities for multicultural citizenship and how it might be limited in doing so.

3) There is much talk about how the Internet has expanded access to an increasingly diverse range of audiovisual programming with significant implications for expanding multicultural citizenship. What two authors that we read in class do you think make the strongest case for questioning or qualifying these assertions. Please draw from one of the student presentations (other than the one you presented in) to exemplify your points.

4. Choose one author from the readings in class that best engages the issues of citizenship and television that are most important to you. What central concept does this author elaborate that has prompted you to think differently about these issues of importance? Use this author’s concept to critique the concepts of two other authors we read in class. Use one television example from a student presentation (other than the one you presented in) to exemplify your points.

Unformatted Attachment Preview

European Journal of Cultural Studies http://ecs.sagepub.com Security, media and multicultural citizenship: A collaborative ethnography Marie Gillespie European Journal of Cultural Studies 2007; 10; 275 DOI: 10.1177/1367549407080731 The online version of this article can be found at: http://ecs.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/10/3/275 Published by: http://www.sagepublications.com Additional services and information for European Journal of Cultural Studies can be found at: Email Alerts: http://ecs.sagepub.com/cgi/alerts Subscriptions: http://ecs.sagepub.com/subscriptions Reprints: http://www.sagepub.com/journalsReprints.nav Permissions: http://www.sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav Citations http://ecs.sagepub.com/cgi/content/refs/10/3/275 Downloaded from http://ecs.sagepub.com at UNIV CALIFORNIA SAN DIEGO on November 25, 2008 DFTH KQKNDORDO@HMD  I NDTCQHMS@NKQNR E H M S Q N C T B S H N M  #OPYRIGHT ¥  3!'% 0UBLICATIONS ,OS !NGELES ,ONDON .EW $ELHI AND 3INGAPORE 6OL  n   $/)  WWWSAGEPUBLICATIONSCOM 3ECURITY MEDIA AND MULTICULTURAL CITIZENSHIP ! COLLABORATIVE ETHNOGRAPHY -ARIE 'ILLESPIE /PEN 5NIVERSITY @ARSQ@BS 4HIS SPECIAL ISSUE REPORTS ON A COLLABORATIVE 5+ RESEARCH PROJECT WHICH EXAMINED HOW NEW SECURITY CHALLENGES ARE CONSTITUTED IN THE INTERSECTING RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN POLITICAL AND MILITARY ACTORS NEWS PRODUCERS NEWS REPRESENTATIONS AND DISCOURSES AND NEWS AUDIENCES 4HIS ARTICLE INTRODUCES THE ETHNOGRAPHIC REPORTS WHICH FOLLOW AND DESCRIBES THE THEORETICAL PREMISES AND METHODOLOGICAL STRATEGIES OF THE RESEARCH )T OUTLINES AN INNOVATIVE MULTI DISCIPLINARY METHODOLOGY n @)NTEGRATED -ULTIDISCIPLINARY -EDIA !NALYSIS n WHICH INTEGRATES #OLLABORATIVE -EDIA %THNOGRAPHY A NOVEL METHOD IN ITSELF WITH INSTITUTIONAL AND TEXTUAL ANALYSIS 4HIS COMBINATION OF MUTUALLY INFORMING APPROACHES AFFORDS UNIQUE INSIGHTS INTO SOCIAL AND CULTURAL PROCESSES 4HE RESEARCH PROCESS BEGAN WITH EXPLORATIONS OF HOW PUBLIC KNOWLEDGE AND UNDERSTANDING OF SECURITY ISSUES RELATE TO AND ARE SHAPED BY EVERYDAY CULTURES OF MEDIA PRACTICE THE SUBJECT OF THE FOLLOWING REPORTS #OMBINED WITH THE FINDINGS OF RESEARCHERS INVESTIGATING THE PERCEPTIONS AND WORKING PRACTICES OF SECURITY POLICY AND MEDIA PROFESSIONALS AND OTHERS WORKING ON THE TEXTUAL ANALYSIS OF SALIENT NEWS BROADCASTS OUR STUDY REACHES THREE MAIN CONCLUSIONS &IRST THAT RITUALIZED INTERACTIONS BETWEEN POLICYMAKERS JOURNALISTS AND @CITIZEN AUDIENCES CONSTITUTE THE MEDIAnSECURITY NEXUS AS A @BATTLESPACE OF MUTUAL DISRESPECT AND SUSPICION 3ECOND THAT THIS EXACERBATES THE MARGINALIZATION AND RACIALIZATION OF MANY ETHNIC MINORITY GROUPS BUT IN PARTICULAR "RITISH -USLIMS WHO FACE DECLINING PROSPECTS FOR MULTICULTURAL CITIZENSHIP 4HIRD THAT SECURITY POLICYMAKERS MUST STRUGGLE TO FIND PUBLIC LEGITIMACY IN VIEW OF THE GROWING SCEPTICISM AND HOSTILITY OF NATIONAL AND DIASPORIC NEWS MEDIA AND AUDIENCES JDXVNQCR CITIZENSHIP COLLABORATIVE ETHNOGRAPHY )RAQ 7AR  MULTICULTURALISM NEWS MEDIA CULTURES RACIALIZATION SECURITY @7AR ON 4ERROR )NTRODUCTION /UR RESEARCH PROJECT @3HIFTING 3ECURITIES .EWS #ULTURES BEFORE AND AFTER THE )RAQ 7AR  FORMED PART OF A RESEARCH PROGRAMME FUNDED BY THE 5+S %CONOMIC AND 3OCIAL 2ESEARCH #OUNCIL %32# ON THE THEME  HMSQNCTBSHNM Downloaded from http://ecs.sagepub.com at UNIV CALIFORNIA SAN DIEGO on November 25, 2008 D T Q N O D @ M  I N T Q M @ K  N E  B T KS T Q @ K  R S T C H D R      .EW #HALLENGES TO 3ECURITY %32# AWARD NUMBER nn &ULL PROJECT DETAILS CAN BE FOUND AT WWWMEDIATINGSECURITYCOM 4HE @3HIFT ING 3ECURITIES PROJECT BUILT UPON PREVIOUS ANALYSIS OF NEWS COVERAGE OF THE  3EPTEMBER  ATTACKS IN THE 53! AND RECEPTION OF THE COVERAGE AMONG TRANSNATIONAL AUDIENCES IN THE 5+ IN THE THREE MONTHS FOLLOWING THESE EVENTS 'ILLESPIE A /&#/-   4HAT SNAPSHOT STUDY WAS EXTENDED IN THIS PROJECT WHICH TRACKED @SHIFTING SECURITIES AMONG DIVERSE AUDIENCE GROUPS OVER  MONTHS !PRIL  TO -ARCH  WHILE INVESTIGATING TEXTUAL AND INSTITUTIONAL DIMENSIONS OF MEDIA PRODUCTION 4HIS ARTICLE INTRODUCES SELECTED REPORTS BY ETHNOGRAPHIC RESEARCHERS ON THE ARTICULATIONS OF SECURITY ISSUES MEDIA USES AND PERCEPTIONS AND RELATED SOCIAL CULTURAL AND POLITICAL CONCERNS AMONG DIVERSE AUDIENCES IN THE 5+ PARTICULARLY MINORITY ETHNIC AND RELIGIOUS GROUPS 4HE FOCUS OF THIS ARTICLE IS ON THE METHODOLOGICAL AND THEORETICAL UNDERPINNINGS OF THE RESEARCH ! KEY AIM OF THE STUDY WAS TO PIONEER )NTEGRATED -ULTIDISCIPLINARY -EDIA !NALYSIS )--! AS AN EMPIRICAL APPROACH TO THE STUDY OF MEDIATED POLITICAL AND POLICY COMMUNICATION USING AN INTEGRATED METHODOLOGICAL DESIGN WHICH ARTICULATES ANALYSES OF MEDIA PRODUCTION MEDIA TEXTS AND MEDIA RECEPTION 4HE EVENTS AND ISSUES ADDRESSED HERE n THE INTERSECTIONS OF NATIONAL INTERNATIONAL LOCAL AND GLOBAL SECURITY POLICY AND ITS IMPACTS QUESTIONS OF POLITICAL AUTHORITY AND LEGITIMACY CITIZENSHIP SOCIAL COHESION CULTURAL DIVERSITY AND INTEGRATION n ARE OF GREAT AND WIDE INTEREST &OR US AS RESEARCHERS HOWEVER THE THEORETICAL AND PRACTICAL INTEGRATION OF A MULTIDISCIPLINARY METHOD APPLICABLE IN PRINCIPLE TO ANY TOPIC OF POLITICS AND PUBLIC AFFAIRS HAS BEEN OF PARAMOUNT SIGNIFICANCE (OW RESEARCH IS CONDUCTED MUST BE CONNECTED TO WHAT THE RESEARCH FINDS 4HREE RESEARCH TEAMS @3TRANDS WORKED TO A CO ORDINATED TIMETABLE REGULARLY UPDATING ONE ANOTHER ON RESEARCH FINDINGS AND RE CALIBRATING APPROACHES TO MAXIMIZE CONSISTENCY AND MUTUAL ILLUMINATION 3TRAND ! DEVELOPED THE METHODOLOGY OF @COLLABORATIVE MEDIA ETHNOGRAPHY PION EERED IN THE  3EPTEMBER PROJECT ! MIX OF INTERVIEWS AND PARTICIPANT OBSERVATION ENABLED US TO EXAMINE DIVERSE GROUPS CULTURES OF NEWS MEDIA PRACTICE IN DEPTH AND DETAIL OVER TIME AND ACROSS PLACES 4HE INITIAL AIM WAS TO ANALYSE THE IMPACT OF THE )RAQ 7AR  ON CONCEPTS AND PERCEP TIONS OF SECURITY IN 5+ CIVIL SOCIETY IN THE CONTEXT OF THE INCREASING DIVERSITY OF NATIONAL AND TRANSNATIONAL NEWS SOURCES AND AUDIENCES AND GROWING CONCERNS ABOUT SOCIAL COHESION AND MULTICULTURAL CITIZENSHIP %THNOGRAPHY AS DISTINCT FROM INTERVIEW METHODS LETS US TRACK DIFFERENCES BETWEEN WHAT PEOPLE SAY AND WHAT THEY DO AND GIVES CLUES AS TO WHY THEY MIGHT SPEAK AND ACT AS THEY DO 4HE MAJORITY OF INTERVIEWEES WERE KNOWN TO INTERVIEW ERS FROM PREVIOUS QUALITATIVE SOCIAL RESEARCH PROJECTS ANDOR OTHER SOCIAL RELATIONS RESEARCHERS DEPLOYED A VARIETY OF METHODS TO ELICIT SPONTANEOUS SELF REVEALING SPEECH AND TO OBSERVE EVERYDAY MEDIA PRACTICES "ETWEEN 3EPTEMBER  AND -ARCH  SEMI STRUCTURED INDIVIDUAL AND GROUP INTERVIEWS OF UP TO TWO HOURS WERE CARRIED OUT WITH  PEOPLE IN CITIES Downloaded from http://ecs.sagepub.com at UNIV CALIFORNIA SAN DIEGO on November 25, 2008 F H K K D R OH D   D C H SN Q  R  H M S QN C T B S H N M ACROSS THE 5+ AND THE 2EPUBLIC OF )RELAND 7E GATHERED MUCH COMPARATIVE DATA ACROSS TIME n MANY PEOPLE WERE INTERVIEWED SEVERAL TIMES EG BOTH BEFORE AND AFTER THE ,ONDON BOMBINGS OF  *ULY  n AS WELL AS ACROSS DIFFERENT PLACES AND SOCIAL SPACES )NTERVIEWS WERE MAINLY CONDUCTED IN %NGLISH BUT SOMETIMES IN TWO OR EVEN THREE LANGUAGES !RABIC 5RDU 0UNJABI (INDI 3YLHETI "ENGALI &RENCH  )NTERVIEW DATA WAS SUPPLEMENTED WITH CO VIEWING AND OBSERVATIONAL DATA SEE REPORTS AND PRELIMINARY ANALYSES ON WEBSITE  !T SEVERAL POINTS IN THE COURSE OF THE RESEARCH IMAGES STILL AND MOVING WERE USED TO PROMPT RESPONSES AND TO TEST HYPOTHESES ABOUT THE RELATIVE SIGNIFICANCE OF IMAGES OVER VERBAL OR WRITTEN NARRATIVES OF EVENTS IN SHAPING RESPONSES 4HESE IMAGES WERE SELECTED ON THE BASIS OF INPUT FROM 3TRANDS " AND # 3TRAND " CONDUCTED TEXTUAL AND DISCOURSE ANALYSIS OF NEWS PROGRAMMES )T EXAMINED THE CONTENT OF MAINSTREAM %NGLISH LANGUAGE TELEVISION AND INTERNET NEWS COVERAGE OF SELECTED @SECURITY SALIENT NEWS EVENTS AND ANALYSED PATTERNS IN THE FRAMING OF POST #OLD 7AR DISCOURSES OF NATIONAL AND INTERNATIONAL AS WELL AS SOCIAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL SECURITY (OSKINS AND /,OUGHLIN   3TRAND # CONDUCTED INTERVIEWS AND FOCUS GROUPS WITH SECURITY AND MEDIA PROFESSIONALS IN ORDER TO DRAW OUT THEIR UNDERSTANDINGS OF THEIR ROLES IN THE DEVELOPMENT EXECUTION MEDIA MANAGEMENT AND REPORTING OF SECUR ITY POLICY HENCE TO EXAMINE THE ACTUAL AND PERCEIVED INFLUENCE OF SECURITY PRACTITIONERS INCLUDING MILITARY PERSONNEL AS WELL AS DIVERSE @EXPERTS ON THE CONTENT OF NEWS PROGRAMMES AND ON THE SECURING OF PUBLIC LEGITIMACY FOR SECURITY POLICY AND AS IT EMERGED THEIR PERCEPTIONS OF THE DANGER TO THE LIVES OF MILITARY PERSONNEL ENSUING FROM NEGATIVE REPORTING -ICHALSKI AND 'OW   &INDINGS FROM EACH OF THE THREE STRANDS OF RESEARCH FED INTO THE OTHERS ON AN ONGOING CO ORDINATED BASIS VIA VIRTUAL AND @REAL LIFE PROJECT MEET INGS WEBSITE POSTINGS AND EMAILS 7HEN 3TRAND ! RESEARCHERS NOTED THAT @CITIZEN AUDIENCE GROUPS WERE DISTURBED BY A CERTAIN FEATURE OF COVERAGE OR WHEN 3TRAND # RESEARCHERS NOTED THAT SECURITY PROFESSIONALS WERE CONCERNED THAT CERTAIN IMAGES CARRIED MESSAGES WHICH THREATENED THE LEGITIMACY OF THEIR POLICIES OTHER RESEARCHERS WERE ASKED TO EXPLORE THESE POINTS ,IKEWISE 3TRAND " RESEARCHERS ASKED THE ETHNOGRAPHERS TO TEST HYPOTHESES CONCERNING RELATIONS BETWEEN NEWS PRESENTATION FORMATS AND PERCEPTIONS OF SECURITY ISSUES !N EXAMPLE OF SUCH MUTUAL AGENDA SHAPING IS PRESENTED IN THE @)NTEGRATED -ULTIDISCIPLINARY -EDIA !NALYSIS CASE STUDY SUBSECTION BELOW 4HIS SPECIAL ISSUE OF %*#3 PRESENTS REPORTS FROM 3TRAND ! 4HE MAJORITY OF 3TRAND ! INTERVIEWEES ARE MEMBERS OF ETHNIC MINORITIES IN THE 5+ AND MOST ARE -USLIMS (OWEVER THE STUDY WAS EVENTS LED NOT STRUCTURED AROUND ETHNICITY %THNICITY POLITICS SECURITY CULTURE AND CITIZENSHIP WERE NOT TREATED AS A PRIORI CONCEPTS 2ATHER THE AIM WAS TO SEE HOW PARTICULAR EVENTS ACTIVATED AND MOBILIZED THESE CATEGORIES AND TO ASSESS THEIR DYNAMIC INTERPLAY IN PEOPLES TALK Downloaded from http://ecs.sagepub.com at UNIV CALIFORNIA SAN DIEGO on November 25, 2008  D T Q N O D @ M  I N T Q M @ K  N E  B T KS T Q @ K  R S T C H D R     4HE SECOND PART OF THIS INTRODUCTION @4HEORETICAL FRAMINGS PRESENTS THEORETICAL ISSUES )T ARGUES THAT LEGITIMACY IS THE CRUCIAL CONCEPT FOR UNDER STANDING AND ASSESSING THE MEDIATED RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN POLICYMAKERS AND PUBLICS AND THE HEALTH OR OTHERWISE OF DEMOCRATIC PROCESSES OF DE LIBERATION AND PARTICIPATORY CITIZENSHIP IN MULTICULTURAL SOCIETIES @4OP DOWN GOVERNMENTALITY AND SECURITY POLICY ORIENTED APPROACHES CAN AND SHOULD BE COMBINED WITH @BOTTOM UP SOCIALLY BASED CULTURALLY INFORMED CONSTRUCTIONIST APPROACHES TO THE EVERYDAY POLITICS OF SECURITY !NTHROPOLOGICAL AND #ULTURAL 3TUDIES APPROACHES HAVE MUCH TO OFFER 3ECURITY 3TUDIES IN 0OLITICS AND )NTERNATIONAL 2ELATIONS 3OME OF THE MOST GENERAL FINDINGS OF THE PROJECT ARE ALSO OUTLINED HERE 4HE THIRD PART @-ETHODOLOGY COLLABORATIVE MEDIA ETHNOGRAPHY WITHIN )--! ADDRESSES METHODOLOGICAL ISSUES IN MORE DETAIL IN PARTICULAR ISSUES RELAT ING TO OUR SAMPLE AND THE SOCIAL PROFILE OF OUR INTERLOCUTORS 4HE FOURTH PART @4HE ARTICLES INTRODUCES THE INDIVIDUAL ARTICLES WHICH FOLLOW 4HEORETICAL FRAMINGS 3ECURITY DEMOCRACY AND CITIZENSHIP A GOVERNMENTALITY PERSPECTIVE  4HE DECISION BY THE 53! AND 5+ GOVERNMENTS TO GO TO WAR ON )RAQ IN  CREATED DEEP RIFTS IN PUBLIC OPINION ACROSS THE WORLD )N THE 5+ IT RUPTURED LONG ESTABLISHED RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN POLITICIANS JOURNALISTS AND PUBLICS /NE MILLION PROTESTERS IN ,ONDON ON  &EBRUARY  n ONE OF THE BIGGEST DEMONSTRATIONS EVER TO TAKE PLACE IN THE 5+ n DID NOT DISSUADE 0RIME -IN ISTER "LAIR AND 0RESIDENT "USH FROM THEIR CHOSEN COURSE 4HE IMPLICATIONS OF OUR FINDINGS FOR POLITICAL LEGITIMACY ARE DISCUSSED IN DETAIL ELSEWHERE 'ILLESPIE B  'OVERNMENTS DEPEND ON PUBLIC TRUST BUT FOR THE 5+ GOVERNMENT TRUST IS IN INCREASINGLY SHORT SUPPLY NOT LEAST BECAUSE OF THE WAY IT PRESENTED THE CASE FOR WAR AND THE DISASTROUS CONSEQUENCES SINCE FOR THE PEOPLE OF )RAQ AND FOR GLOBAL SECURITY 'OW  0OWER #OMMISSION   4HE FRAGILE LEGITIMACY OF THE )RAQ 7AR HAS EXPOSED SOME OF THE INHERENT WEAKNESSES OF SECURITY POLICIES GENERATED BY THE 53!5+ DECLARED @GLOBAL WAR ON TERROR FOLLOWING  #ONTRARY TO WIDESPREAD ASSUMPTIONS  DID NOT RADICALLY CHANGE THE RATIONALE OF SECURITY POLICY BUT ACCELERATED THE ADOPTION OF A NEW PREVENTATIVE PARADIGM WHICH HAD BEEN EMERG ING DURING THE S 4RANSNATIONAL SECURITY THREATS SUCH AS TERRORISM PANDEMICS AND ENVIRONMENTAL CATASTROPHE ALONGSIDE PATTERNS OF GLOBAL MIGRATION HAD TRIGGERED NEW PARADIGMS OF GOVERNANCE BASED ON ATTEMPTS TO REGULATE RISKY FLOWS n FLOWS OF MIGRANTS MICROBES DIRTY MONEY AND NUCLEAR MATERIALS "AUMAN   #OOPER  3ASSEN   4HIS ALTERED THE CALCULUS OF RISK FOR GOVERNMENTS FROM A MEASURABLE PROBABILISTIC CONCEPTION OF RISK TO NOTIONS OF CATASTROPHIC RISK IN WHICH UNKNOWN THREATS EMERGE IN UNFORESEEABLE WAYS )N THE FACE OF GLOBAL Downloaded from http://ecs.sagepub.com at UNIV CALIFORNIA SAN DIEGO on November 25, 2008 F H K K D R OH D   D C H SN Q  R  H M S QN C T B S H N M WARMING TERRORISM HEALTH PANDEMICS AND FINANCIAL CONTAGION A NEW GENERATION OF POLICIES WAS ADOPTED BASED ON PRINCIPLES OF PREVENTION PRECAUTION AND PRE EMPTION 4HIS NEW CONCEPTION OF RISK AND AN EVER EXPANDING CONCEPTION OF SECURITY HAVE SERVED THE INTERESTS OF GOVERNMENTS AND MEDIA THOUGH THEIR DISADVANTAGES HAVE BY NOW BECOME APPARENT 'OVERNMENTS INCREASINGLY @SELL SECURITY AS A VIRTUAL COMMODITY TO CITIZENS ALTHOUGH IN THE 5+ AT LEAST THIS STRATEGY HAS ONLY LED TO GROWING SCEPTICISM AND CYNICISM ,IKE WISE THE  MEDIA INDUSTRY REQUIRES CONSTANTLY RENEWED THREATS RISKS AND INSECURITIES TO SUSTAIN ITSELF "UT ITS CREDIBILITY IS EQUALLY IN DOUBT AS SENSATIONAL IMAGES APPEAR TO DRIVE THE NEWS AGENDA IMMEDIACY RULES OVER CONTENT @BREAKING RUMOUR AND SPECULATION REPLACE FACTS AND EVIDENCE AND THE & FORMULA PREVAILS @FIRST FASTEST BUT FLAWED 'OWING   )T WOULD BE A MISTAKE TO DISMISS THE SERIOUSNESS OF REAL THREATS AND RISKS 'OVERNMENTS HAVE TO RESPOND TO THEM THEIR FIRST DUTY IS TO ENSURE THE SECURITY OF THEIR CITIZENS 4HE MOUNTING CONCERN ABOUT UNPREDICTABLE UN QUANTIFIABLE AND POTENTIALLY CATASTROPHIC RISKS IS WELL KNOWN "ECK    4AYLOR 'OOBY AND :INN   %NVIRONMENTAL ECONOMIC TER RORIST AND OTHER RISKS ARE BOTH INTERCONNECTED AND ALSO FOREVER @EMERGENT REQUIRING A STATE OF ALERTNESS AND VIGILANCE FROM POLITICIANS MEDIA AND PUBLICS .ATIONAL POLITICAL SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC INFRASTRUCTURES ARE RECOG NIZED TO BE TOO COMPLEX AND FRAGILE TO BE PROTECTED IN THE FACE OF UNEXPECTED DISRUPTION 4HE RESULT IS A PERMANENT @WAR AGAINST CONTINGENCY $ILLON    7ARS TODAY MUST PLAY MUCH MORE BY THE RULES OF POLITICS MARKETS AND MEDIA @WARMAKING MUST CAPITALIZE ON MARKET RELATIONS EXPLOIT DEMO CRATIC POLITICAL FORMS AND MANAGE INDEPENDENT MEDIA ;x= 4HE BEST WAY OF CHARACTERIZING THE NEW MODE OF WAR AS A WHOLE IS THEREFORE GLOBAL SURVEILLANCE WARFARE 3HAW  n ;ORIGINAL EMPHASIS=  !S THIS GLOBAL SURVEILLANCE TURNS WAR AND TERRORISM INTO MEDIA SPECTACLE AND AUDIENCES INTO SPECTATORS OF MASS CIVILIAN DEATHS WHAT BECOMES OF INFORMED CITIZEN PARTICIPATION IN DELIBERATIVE DEMOCRATIC COMMUNICATIVE PROCESSES 'OVERNMENTALITY PERSPECTIVES ARE USEFUL IN HIGHLIGHTING THE OPERATIONS OF POLITICAL POWER AND SHIFTS IN THE STRATEGIC GOALS OF SECURITY POLICY /UR )--! RESEARCH APPROACH DEMONSTRATES HOW NEWS MEDIA REINFORCE THIS NEW CALCULUS OF RISK AND THREAT 4HE DISCOURSE AND TEXTUAL ANALYSIS STRAND OF OUR PROJECT 3TRAND " FOUND TWO KINDS OF LOGIC WITHIN MEDIA PRODUCTION WHICH REFLECT THE NEW LOGIC OF SECURITY AND OF EMERGENCE AND CATASTROPHIC RISK &IRST WHAT (OSKINS AND /,OUGHLIN  CALL THE @MODULATION OF TERROR CONTAINS FEAR AND AMPLIFIES THREATS "REAKING NEWS STORIES ARE ACCOMMODATED INTO PRE EXISTING NARRATIVES BY DEPLOYING MEDIA @TEMPLATES FROM PAST EVENTS FOR EXAMPLE REPORTING OF THE *ULY  ,ONDON BOMBINGS REPEATEDLY INVOKED THE @SPIRIT OF THE "LITZ n THE LEGENDARY COURAGE OF ,ONDONERS DURING 'ERMAN BOMBARDMENT IN THE 3ECOND 7ORLD 7AR 3UCH TEMPLATES FRAME SUDDEN UNEXPECTED EVENTS TO RENDER THEM INTELLIGIBLE Downloaded from http://ecs.sagepub.com at UNIV CALIFORNIA SAN DIEGO on November 25, 2008  D T Q N O D @ M  I N T Q M @ K  N E  B T KS T Q @ K  R S T C H D R     FOR JOURNALISTS AND AUDIENCES ALIKE 9ET IF THIS CONTAINS FEARS TELEVISION NEWS ALSO AMPLIFIES THREATS FOR INSTANCE THROUGH THE TELEVISUAL QUALITIES OF ROLLING  NEWS BROADCASTS 4HE SPLIT SCREENS JUXTAPOSITION OF MUL TIPLE STORIES SCROLLING HEADLINES AND RAPID CUTS PRODUCE A SENSE OF A WORLD OF INTERCONNECTED INSECURITIES 4HE CONTRADICTORY DYNAMIC OF THIS @MODU LATION OF TERROR BY NEWS PRODUCERS IS MATCHED BY 3TRAND !S FINDINGS ABOUT HOW AUDIENCES MANAGE ANXIETIES OFTEN TRIGGERED BY NEWS MEDIA THAT FEED INTO A SENSE OF PROLIFERATING INSECURITIES #RUCIALLY AUDIENCES MODULATE THEIR OWN NEWS VIEWING BY TURNING OFF AND DISENGAGING THEN TURNING ON AND RE ENGAGING #ONTRARY TO MUCH CURRENT COMMENT AND RESEARCH THE CITIZENS AND AUDIENCES WE WORKED WITH ARE FAR FROM DISENGAGED FROM THE POLITICAL PROCESS "UT THE PSYCHIC AND SOCIAL DEMANDS OF MANAGING INSECURITY MEAN THEIR ENGAGEMENTS ARE FLUID FLUCTUATING AND CONTINGENT ! SECOND MEDIA LOGIC AMPLIFYING NOTIONS OF EMERGENCE AND CATA STROPHIC RISK IS THE INTERACTING LOGIC OF REMEDIATION AND PREMEDIATION 'RUSIN   2EMEDIATION INVOLVES REPRODUCING AND RE APPROPRIATING NEWS MATERIALS FROM DIVERSE NEWS SOURCES TO CREATE A REPORT ! SALIENT EXAMPLE IS THE INCREASING USE OF !L *AZEERA FOOTAGE OR WEB IMAGES ON %UROPEAN NEWS MEDIA -OST %UROPEAN NEWS VIEWERS HAVE NEVER WATCHED THIS !RABIC CHANNEL BUT THE REMEDIATION OF ITS IMAGES OF TERRORISM AND THE WORDS OF TERRORISTS SUSTAINS THE SENSE OF PREVAILING THREAT AND EFFECTIVELY ASSOCIATES IT AS A CHANNEL @FOR TERRORISM 0REMEDIATION IN CONTRAST DOES NOT REPEAT BUT ANTICIPATES AND SPECULATES ABOUT FUTURE RISKS AND THREATS BEFORE THEY HAVE HAPPENED )N THIS WAY TODAYS  NEWS MEDIA ARE CONSTANTLY VIGILANT KEEPING PUBLIC FEARS ALIVE 3PECULATIVE DISCURSIVE CHAINS CONNECT THE @THREATS OF MIGRATION AND DIVERSITY TERRORISM TERRORISTS AND @THEIR MEDIA 4HIS CHAIN OF ASSOCIATIONS SIMPLIFIES ISSUES AND POLARIZES PEOPLE )N PARTICULAR IT REINFORCES A SENSE OF A @CLASH OF CIVILIZATIONS AND PRESENTS A -USLIMNON -USLIM DIVISION AS A THREAT TO THE NATION TO @%UROPE AND TO @THE 7EST )T PROJECTS AN UNENDING FUTURE OF INSECURITIES SUSTAINING THE GOVERNMENTAL LOGIC OF PRECAUTIONARY PRE EMPTION (OWEVER USEFUL AS IT IS SUCH A TOP DOWN ANALYSIS FROM A GOVERNMENTALITY PERSPECTIVE NEEDS TO BE ACCOMPANIED BY EMPIRICALLY BASED ANALYSIS FROM A CONSTRUCTIONIST PERSPECTIVE THAT EMPHASIZES PROCESSES OF SECURITIZATION -EDIATION SECURITIZATION RACIALIZATION A CONSTRUCTIVIST PERSPECTIVE  4HE @3HIFTING 3ECURITIES PROJECT ATTEMPTS TO RESEARCH NEWS AUDIENCES AS PUBLICS THAT IS TO EXAMINE WHETHER AND HOW CITIZENS MEDIA PRACTICES AND RESPONSES TO MEDIATED POLITICAL DISCOURSES ENABLE OR IMPEDE POLITICAL PARTICIPATION DEMOCRATIC DEBATE AND INCLUSIVE AND RESPECTFUL MULTICULTURAL CITIZENSHIP /UR FOCUS IS ON THE INTER SUBJECTIVE AND DIALOGIC PROCESSES OF MEDIATED COMMUNICATION THROUGH WHICH THE EVERYDAY POLITICS OF FEAR AND INSECURITY ARE NEGOTIATED CONTESTED AND ENACTED BY CITIZENS %THNOGRAPHIC AND CONSTRUCTIVIST APPROACHES AFFORD PEOPLE AS AUDIENCES AND PUBLICS Downloaded from http://ecs.sagepub.com at UNIV CALIFORNIA SAN DIEGO on November 25, 2008 F H K K D R OH D   D C H SN Q  R  H M S QN C T B S H N M VIEWERS AND CITIZENS AGENCY WITH CAPACITIES COMPETENCES AND CAPABILITIES n CRUCIALLY WITH @VOICE n IN WAYS THAT GOVERNMENTALITY APPROACHES DO NOT !ND VOICE AND VIEWPOINT INCLUSION AND EXCLUSION ARE FUNDAMENTAL TO THE DELIBERATIVE AND LEGITIMATING PROCESSES THAT TAKE PLACE VIA THE MEDIA .EWS @AUDIENCES ...
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Discussion 1: Security and Multicultural Citizenship- outline
Thesis Statement: The participation of the UK in the Iraq War shows drastic and
unsubstantiated means of dealing with threats which are backed by the media and lead to racial
prejudice.
I. Introduction
II. Effects of news coverage on the war
A. Governmentalist perspective
B. Constructivist perspective
III. Media coverage of current security issues
A. Governmentalist perspective
B. Constructivist perspective
IV. Conclusion


Running head: DISCUSSION 1

1

Discussion 1: Security and Multicultural Citizenship
Name
Institution

DISCUSSION 1

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Discussion 1: Security and Multicultural Citizenship

United Kingdom’s invasion of Iraq in 2003 is a memorable event whereby combined
forces of the United States, United Kingdom, Australia, and Poland attacked and captured the
Iraqi capital, Baghdad. The invasion, which initiated the disarming of Iraq of weapons of mass
destruction, as well as the capture of Saddam and end of his support for terrorism, had extensive
media coverage. The effects of the war and the conduction of activities of the same led to
different opinions from multicultural citizens, specifically British Muslims regarding the ethical
considerations and security approach of the government towards the issue of race. The
participation of the UK in the Iraq War shows drastic and unsubstantiated means of dealing with
threats, which are backed by the media and lead to racial prejudice.
The news coverage of the war and the government actions communicated a lot about the
security strategies taken by the governments and amplified by the media. First and foremost, it is
evident that as a tool of propaganda, the media blows issues out of proportion hence tending to
justify some drastic actions taken by security forces. The “governmentality perspective,”
according to Marie Gillespie is the growing tendency of the governments and media to “sell
security as a virtual commodity to citizens” (Gillespie, 2007). This perspective is the tendency
by the governments and mainstream media to take advantage of security threats and advance
drastic measures in the name of combating the unforeseeable threats.
The coverage of the Iraqi War led to skepticism and criticism by multi-cultural citizens
who were advancing for a diplomatic approach to issues with Iraq. The demonstration in
London, which involved over a million demonstrators just before the U.S-led war commenced
showed a growing distrust in the government. The amplification of threats through the breaking
news served as a basis for justifying the attacks on Iraq. The witnessing of mass civilian deaths

DISCUSSION 1

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in the war whereby the vast majority were Muslims, a portion of which lives in the U.K led to
the questioning of the government motives in the Iraqi War.
The constructivist perspective refers to the mediatized reception of the security strategies
that the government adopts and the impact it has on the political participation and democratic
process, especially among the ethnic minorities. The mediatized reception of news and the
political discourse shape the public views of the governments in a way that the governmentalist
perspectives cannot. For instance, the reception and interpretation of mediatized messages allow
the audience to analyze and internalize the intentions of the governments in security strategies.
The constructivist perspective focuses on the media interpretation of the intended focus of the
security news as mediated by the transnational media (Norton-Taylor and Cobain, 2013).
The message behind ‘security news’ is that racialized minorities are a threat to security.
The effects of this implied communication by the media further widens the gap between
multicultural diversity inclusion and the racial prejudice common in handling security issues.
The view by British Muslims in the wake of the Iraq War and ever since is that the UK
government is obsessed with creating public fear (Gillespie, 2007). The use of this fear as a tool
to oppress Muslims and other racial minorities is a means seen as showing Islam in the light of
terrorism and as the security threat within the country.
The result of the mediation and securitization is that the minorities, especially the
Muslims are caught in a political and cultural fight to prove their loyalty and legitimacy in the
agenda of unity and peace. The events of the war combined with the securitization of threats
created a sense of insult and outrage which f...

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Tutor went the extra mile to help me with this essay. Citations were a bit shaky but I appreciated how well he handled APA styles and how ok he was to change them even though I didnt specify. Got a B+ which is believable and acceptable.

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