Humanities
Need answers for 8 questions

Question Description

I don’t understand this Philosophy question and need help to study.

Hello!

I need answer for this questions but you need to read the pdf file to get the answers. please make sure that you read it very carefully. 

QUESTION 3.docx 

Reading part : 

The_mismeasure_of_man.pdf 

Outlaw and Glymour.pdf 

thank you 

Unformatted Attachment Preview

Save and Submit QUESTION 1 1. Glymour argues that the factor-analytic studies Hernstein and Murray use in The Bell Curve to support their claim that general intelligence is responsible for variance on IQ tests are flawed because there is no proof of the correctness of any factor-analytic procedure in identifying causal structures. True False 4 points QUESTION 2 1. According to Lucius T. Outlaw, a review of the history of the concept of race demonstrates that the concept provides access to which of the following characteristics of humankind: a. self-evident characeristics b. obvious characteristics c. ontologically given characteristics d. all of the above e. none of the above f. a&c 4 points QUESTION 3 1. Glymour rejects Hernstein and Murray's conclusion that public education cannot help the United States to overcome its problems. True False 4 points QUESTION 4 1. Outlaw argues that the concept of race has its origins in scientific discovery. True False 4 points QUESTION 5 1. Outlaw argues that the concept of "race" in the late twentieth century referred to a group of persons who are genetically homogenous. True False 4 points QUESTION 6 1. Glymour points out that social statistics produced and used a variety of procedures for searching for appropriate hypotheses, and for testing the reliability of those procedures. True False 4 points QUESTION 7 1. Since there is no scientific basis for race, Outlaw argues, comparative analyses of racial characteristics, such as intelligence, are insignificant for social policy. True False 4 points QUESTION 8 1. Glymour argues that the methods of searching for causal hypotheses that have developed in social statistics are reliable in any set of conditions that may arise in the domains to which they are applied. True False BY STEPHEN JAY GOULD IN NORTON PAPERBACK EVER SINCE DARWIN Reflections in Natural History THE PANDA'S THUMB More Reflections in Natural History THE MISMEASURE OF MAN Revised and Expanded HEN'S TEETH AND HORSE'S TOES Further Reflections in Natural History THE FLAMINGO'S SMILE Reflections in Natural History AN URCHIN IN THE STORM Essays about Books and Ideas ILLUMINATIONS A Bestiary (with R. W. Purcell) WONDERFUL LIFE The Burgess Shale and the Nature of History BULLY FOR BRONTOSAURUS Reflections in Natural History FINDERS, KEEPERS Treasures amd Oddities of Natural History Collectors from Peter the Great to Louis Agassiz (with R. W. Purcell) THE MISMEASURE OF MAN T o the m e m o r y o f G r a m m y and Papa Joe, who came, struggled, and prospered, Mr. G o d d a r d notwithstanding. Contents Acknowledgments 15 Introduction to the Revised and Expanded Edition: Thoughts at Age Fifteen 19 T h e f r a m e of The Mismeasure of Man, 1 9 W h y r e v i s e The Mismeasure of Man a f t e r fifteen y e a r s ? , 26 R e a s o n s , history a n d revision of The Mismeasure of Man, 36 2. American Polygeny and Craniometry before Darwin: Blacks andlndians as Separate, Inferior Species Cfolj A shared context of culture, 63 P r e e v o l u t i o n a r y styles o f scientific r a c i s m : m o n o g e n i s m a n d polygenism, 71 Louis A g a s s i z — A m e r i c a ' s theorist of polygeny, 74 Samuel George Morton—empiricist of polygeny, 82 The case of Indian inferiority: C r a n i a A m e r i c a n a The case of the Egyptian catacombs: C r a n i a A e g y p t i a c a The case of the shifting black mean The final tabulation of 1849 62 CONTENTS IO Conclusions T h e A m e r i c a n s c h o o l a n d slavery, 101 3. Measuring Heads: Paul Br oca and the Heyday ofCraniology / -4f^"yi T h e allure of numbers, 105 Introduction Francis Galton—apostle of quantification A curtain-raiser with a moral: numbers do not guarantee truth M a s t e r s o f c r a n i o m e t r y : P a u l B r o c a a n d his s c h o o l , The great circle route Selecting characters Averting anomalies BIG-BRAINED GERMANS SMALL-BRAINED MEN OF EMINENCE LARGE-BRAINED CRIMINALS FLAWS IN A PATTERN OF INCREASE THROUGH TIME Front and back THE CRANIAL INDEX THE CASE OF THE FORAMEN MAGNUM Women's brains Postscript, 140 4. Measuring Bodies: Two Case Studies on the Apishness of Undesirables T h e a p e i n all o f us: r e c a p i t u l a t i o n , j^C^ 142 T h e ape in some of us: criminal anthropology, 151 Atavism and criminality Animals and savages as born criminals The stigmata: anatomical, physiological, and social Lombroso's retreat The influence of criminal anthropology Coda Epilogue, 173 114 CONTENTS II 5. The Hereditarian Theory of IQ: An American ij6 Invention A l f r e d Binet and the original purposes of the Binet scale, 176 Binet flirts with craniometry Binet's scale and the birth of IQ The dismantling of Binet's intentions in America H . H . G o d d a r d a n d the m e n a c e o f t h e f e e b l e - m i n d e d , 18& Intelligence as a Mendelian gene GODDARD IDENTIFIES THE MORON A UNILINEAR SCALE OF INTELLIGENCE BREAKING THE SCALE INTO MENDELIAN COMPARTMENTS THE PROPER CARE AND FEEDING (BUT NOT BREEDING) OF MORONS Preventing the immigration and propagation of morons Goddard recants L e w i s M . T e r m a n a n d the mass m a r k e t i n g o f i n n a t e I Q , 204 Mass testing and the Stanford-Binet Terman's technocracy of innateness Fossil IQ's of past geniuses Terman on group differences Terman recants R. M. Yerkes and the A r m y Mental Tests: IQ comes of age, 222 Psychology's great leap forward Results of the army tests A critique of the Army Mental Tests THE CONTENT OF THE TESTS INADEQUATE CONDITIONS DUBIOUS AND PERVERSE PROCEEDINGS: A PERSONAL TESTIMONY FINAGLING THE SUMMARY STATISTICS: THE PROBLEM OF ZERO VALUES FINAGLING THE SUMMARY STATISTICS: GETTING AROUND OBVIOUS CORRELATIONS WITH ENVIRONMENT Political impact of the army data CAN DEMOCRACY SURVIVE AN AVERAGE MENTAL AGE OF THIRTEEN? CONTENTS THE ARMY TESTS AND AGITATION TO RESTRICT IMMIGRATION I BRIGHAM'S MONOGRAPH ON AMERICAN INTELLIGENCE THE TRIUMPH OF RESTRICTION ON IMMIGRATION BRIGHAM RECANTS The Real Error of Cyril Burt: Factor Analysis and the Reification T h e case o f Sir C y r i l B u r t , of Intelligence 264 C o r r e l a t i o n , c a u s e , a n d f a c t o r analysis, 269 Correlation and cause Correlation in more than two dimensions Factor analysis and its goals The error of reification Rotation and the nonnecessity of principal components Charles S p e a r m a n and general intelligence, 286 The two-factor theory The method of tetrad differences Spearman's g and the great instauration of psychology Spearman's g and the theoretical justification of IQ Spearman's reification of g Spearman on the inheritance of g Cyril B u r t a n d the hereditarian synthesis, The source of Burt's 303 uncompromising hereditarianism BURT'S INITIAL "PROOF" OF INNATENESS LATER ARGUMENTS BURT'S BLINDNESS BURT'S POLITICAL USE OF INNATENESS Burt's extension of Spearman's theory Burt on the reification of factors Burt and the political uses of g L . L . T h u r s t o n e a n d the v e c t o r s o f m i n d , Thurstone's critique and reconstruction The egalitarian interpretation Spearman and Burt react of PMA's 326 2 64 CONTENTS 13 Oblique axes and second-order g Thurstone on the uses of factor analysis Epilogue: A r t h u r Jensen and the resurrection of S p e a r m a n ' s g, A final t h o u g h t , 347 350 7 . A Positive Conclusion 357 D e b u n k i n g a s positive s c i e n c e , Learning by debunking, 351 352 Biology and h u m a n nature, 354 365 Epilogue Critique The Bell Curvv. of The Bell Curve 367 Disingenuoumess of content Disingenuousness^of Disingenuousness argument ofprogram G h o s t s o f B e l l C u r v e s pasX 379 Three Centuries' Perspectives on Race and Racism \. A g e - o l d fallacies o f t h i n k i n g a n d s t i n k i n g ^ Racial g e o m e t r y , 367 39 1 391 401 T h e m o r a l state o f T a h i t i — a n d o f D a r w i n , Bibliography 425 Index 433 Acknowledgments GENES MAY BE SELFISH in a l i m i t e d m e t a p h o r i c a l s e n s e , b u t t h e r e c a n b e n o g e n e f o r selfishness w h e n I h a v e s o m a n y f r i e n d s a n d colleagues willing to offer their aid. I thank Ashley M o n t a g u , not only f o r his specific s u g g e s t i o n s , b u t also f o r l e a d i n g t h e f i g h t a g a i n s t scientific r a c i s m f o r s o m a n y y e a r s w i t h o u t b e c o m i n g c y n i c a l a b o u t h u m a n possibilities. S e v e r a l c o l l e a g u e s w h o h a v e w r i t t e n , o r a r e w r i t i n g , t h e i r o w n b o o k s o n b i o l o g i c a l d e t e r m i n i s m willingly s h a r e d t h e i r i n f o r m a t i o n a n d e v e n let m e u s e t h e i r o w n f i n d i n g s , s o m e times before they could publish them themselves: G. Allen, A. Chase, S. Chorover, L. Kamin, R. Lewontin. Others heard of m y e f f o r t s a n d , w i t h o u t solicitation, s e n t m a t e r i a l a n d s u g g e s t i o n s that enriched the b o o k greatly: M. Leitenberg, S. Selden. L. Meszoly p r e p a r e d t h e o r i g i n a l illustrations i n C h a p t e r 6 . P e r h a p s K r o p o t k i n w a s r i g h t a f t e r all; I shall r e m a i n w i t h t h e h o p e f u l . A note on references: In place of conventional footnotes, I h a v e u s e d t h e s y s t e m o f r e f e r e n c e s u n i v e r s a l l y f o u n d i n scientific literat u r e — n a m e of a u t h o r a n d year of publication, cited in parentneses a f t e r t h e r e l e v a n t p a s s a g e o f text. ( I t e m s a r e t h e n listed b y a u t h o r and by year for any o n e author in the bibliography.) I know that m a n y r e a d e r s m a y b e d i s c o n c e r t e d a t f i r s t ; t h e t e x t will s e e m clutt e r e d t o m a n y . Y e t , I a m c o n f i d e n t t h a t e v e r y o n e will b e g i n t o " r e a d t h r o u g h " t h e citations a f t e r a f e w p a g e s o f e x p e r i e n c e , a n d will then discover that they d o not interrupt the f l o w o f prose. T o m e , t h e a d v a n t a g e s o f this s y s t e m f a r o u t w e i g h a n y aesthetic d e f i c i t — no m o r e flipping back and forth from text to end-notes (no p u b lisher will set t h e m all a t t h e b o t t o m o f t h e p a g e a n y m o r e ) , o n l y t o f i n d that a t a n t a l i z i n g little n u m b e r y i e l d s n o j u i c y tidbit o f subsid- i6 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS iary i n f o r m a t i o n , b u t o n l y a d r y b i b l i o g r a p h i c c i t a t i o n ; * i m m e d i a t e access t o t h e t w o essential bits o f i n f o r m a t i o n f o r a n y historical i n q u i r y — w h o a n d w h e n . I b e l i e v e that this s y s t e m o f r e f e r e n c i n g i s o n e o f the f e w p o t e n t i a l c o n t r i b u t i o n s that scientists, n o r m a l l y n o t a v e r y literate lot, m i g h t s u p p l y t o o t h e r f i e l d s o f w r i t t e n s c h o l a r ship. A n o t e on title: I h o p e that an a p p a r e n t l y sexist title will be t a k e n in t h e i n t e n d e d s p i r i t — n o t o n l y as a play on P r o t a g o r a s ' f a m o u s a p h o r i s m , b u t also a s a c o m m e n t a r y o n t h e p r o c e d u r e s o f biological determinists discussed in the book. T h e y did, i n d e e d , s t u d y " m a n " (that is, w h i t e E u r o p e a n m a l e s ) , r e g a r d i n g this g r o u p as a s t a n d a r d a n d e v e r y b o d y else as s o m e t h i n g to be m e a s u r e d u n f a v o r a b l y a g a i n s t it. T h a t t h e y m i s m e a s u r e d " m a n " u n d e r s c o r e s t h e d o u b l e fallacy. * T h e relatively small number of truly informational footnotes can then be placed at the bottom of the page, where they belong. T H E MISMEASURE OF MAN Introduction to the Revised and Expanded Edition Thoughts at Age Fifteen The frame of The Mismeasure of Man T h e o r i g i n a l title f o r The Mismeasure of Man w o u l d h a v e h o n o r e d m y h e r o C h a r l e s D a r w i n f o r t h e w o n d e r f u l l y incisive s t a t e m e n t that h e m a d e a b o u t b i o l o g i c a l d e t e r m i n i s m t o c l i m a x his d e n u n c i a t i o n o f slavery in the Voyage of the Beagle. I w a n t e d to call this b o o k Great Is Our Sin—from D a r w i n ' s line, cited as an e p i g r a p h on my title p a g e : " I f t h e m i s e r y o f o u r p o o r b e c a u s e d n o t b y the laws o f n a t u r e , b u t b y o u r institutions, g r e a t i s o u r sin." I d i d n o t follow my initial i n c l i n a t i o n — a n d I am s u r e that I m a d e t h e r i g h t d e c i s i o n — b e c a u s e I k n e w d a m n e d well that m y w o r k w o u l d t h e n b e m i s s h e l v e d t o o b l i v i o n i n t h e r e l i g i o n section o f m a n y b o o k s t o r e s (as my v o l u m e of e v o l u t i o n a r y essays, The Flamingo's Smile, e n d e d up in t h e o r n i t h o l o g y division of a g r e a t B o s t o n institution that shall r e m a i n n a m e l e s s ) . T h i n g s c a n always be w o r s e . I o n c e , i n a n e q u a l l y p r e s t i g i o u s B o s t o n e m p o r i u m , f o u n d a c o p y o f that 1960s u n d e r g r a d u a t e m a n i f e s t o The Student as Nigger on a s h e l f marked "Race Relations." My friend Harry K e m e l m a n , author of t h e m a r v e l o u s m y s t e r y series f e a t u r i n g t h e o l o g i c a l sleuth D a v i d S m a l l , told me that his first e n t r y in t h e series—Friday the Rabbi. . .— o n c e a p p e a r e d in a list of c h i l d r e n ' s titles as " F r e d d y the Rabbit. . . ." B u t tables d o t u r n occasionally. M y b u d d y A l a n D e r s h o w i t z told me that a w o m a n successfully a c q u i r e d his Chutzpah by telling the 20 THE MISMEASURE OF MAN b o o k s t o r e c l e r k : "I w a n t a c o p y of that b o o k w h o s e title I can't p r o n o u n c e b y t h e a u t h o r w h o s e n a m e I can't r e m e m b e r . " I e v e n t u a l l y d e c i d e d on The Mismeasure of Man b e c a u s e t h e ess e n c e o f m y b o o k , i n a p a r a d o x i c a l w a y that c o n f e r r e d s t a y i n g p o w e r o v e r t h e s e fifteen y e a r s since initial p u b l i c a t i o n , lies in its limitation of s c o p e . The Mismeasure of Man is n o t f u n d a m e n t a l l y a b o u t the g e n e r a l m o r a l t u r p i t u d e o f fallacious biological a r g u m e n t s i n social settings (as m y o r i g i n a l a n d b r o a d e r title f r o m D a r w i n w o u l d h a v e i m p l i e d ) . I t i s n o t e v e n a b o u t t h e full r a n g e o f p h o n y a r g u m e n t s f o r t h e g e n e t i c basis of h u m a n inequalities. The Mismeasure of Man treats one particular form of quantified c l a i m a b o u t t h e r a n k i n g of h u m a n g r o u p s : t h e a r g u m e n t that i n t e l l i g e n c e c a n b e m e a n i n g f u l l y a b s t r a c t e d as a single n u m b e r c a p a b l e of r a n k i n g all p e o p l e on a l i n e a r scale o f intrinsic a n d u n a l t e r a b l e m e n t a l w o r t h . F o r t u n a t e l y — a n d I m a d e m y d e c i s i o n o n p u r p o s e — t h i s limited subject e m b o d i e s t h e d e e p e s t ( a n d m o s t c o m m o n ) p h i l o s o p h i c a l e r r o r , w i t h the m o s t f u n d a m e n t a l a n d f a r - r a n g i n g social i m p a c t , f o r the e n t i r e t r o u b l i n g subject o f n a t u r e a n d n u r t u r e , o r t h e g e n e t i c c o n t r i b u t i o n t o h u m a n social o r g a n i z a t i o n . If I h a v e l e a r n e d o n e t h i n g as a m o n t h l y essayist f o r m o r e t h a n t w e n t y y e a r s , I h a v e c o m e t o u n d e r s t a n d the p o w e r o f t r e a t i n g g e n eralities by p a r t i c u l a r s . It is no use w r i t i n g a b o o k on " t h e m e a n i n g of l i f e " ( t h o u g h w e all l o n g t o k n o w t h e a n s w e r s t o s u c h g r e a t q u e s t i o n s , w h i l e r i g h t l y s u s p e c t i n g that t r u e solutions d o n o t exist!). B u t a n essay on " t h e m e a n i n g of 0.400 h i t t i n g in b a s e b a l l " can r e a c h a g e n u i n e conclusion with surprisingly extensive relevance to such b r o a d topics a s t h e n a t u r e o f t r e n d s , the m e a n i n g o f e x c e l l e n c e , a n d e v e n (believe i t n o r not) t h e c o n s t i t u t i o n o f n a t u r a l reality. Y o u h a v e t o s n e a k u p o n g e n e r a l i t i e s , n o t assault t h e m h e a d - o n . O n e o f m y f a v o r i t e lines, f r o m G . K . C h e s t e r t o n , p r o c l a i m s : " A r t i s limitation; the e s s e n c e o f e v e r y p i c t u r e i s t h e f r a m e . " ( M y c h o s e n title d i d g e t m e i n t o s o m e t r o u b l e , b u t I m a k e n o a p o l o g i e s a n d r e l i s h e d all t h e discussion. The Mismeasure of Man is a n i n t e n d e d d o u b l e e n t e n d r e , n o t a vestige o f u n t h i n k i n g s e x i s m . M y title p a r o d i e s P r o t a g o r a s ' s f a m o u s a p h o r i s m a b o u t all p e o p l e , a n d also n o t e s t h e reality of a truly sexist past that r e g a r d e d m a l e s as standards for humanity and therefore tended to mismeasure men, w h i l e i g n o r i n g w o m e n . I stated this r a t i o n a l e u p f r o n t , i n t h e o r i g i nal p r e f a c e — s o I c o u l d always use u n t h i n k i n g criticism as a test to REVISED AND EXPANDED EDITION 21 see w h o liked t o m o u t h o f f w i t h o u t r e a d i n g the b o o k f i r s t — l i k e M r . D o l e criticizing t h e v i o l e n c e i n m o v i e s h e has n e v e r s e e n , a n d w o u l d n o t e v e n d e i g n t o w a t c h . [ I d o n ' t , o f c o u r s e , m i n d criticism o f the title b a s e d o n d i s a g r e e m e n t with m y stated rationale.] I n a n y case, m y title a l l o w e d m y c o l l e a g u e C a r o l T a v r i s t o p a r o d y m y p a r o d y a s a n a m e f o r h e r m a r v e l o u s b o o k The Mismeasure of Woman—and I am at least m i g h t i l y g l a d f o r that.*) The Mismeasure of Man r e s i d e s in a t h r e e f o l d f r a m e , a set of limitations that a l l o w e d m e t o c o n t a i n o n e o f t h e largest o f all intellectual subjects w i t h i n a c o h e r e n t a n d r e a s o n a b l e c o m p r e h e n s i v e n a r r a t i v e a n d analysis. 1. I restricted my t r e a t m e n t of biological d e t e r m i n i s m to the m o s t historically p r o m i n e n t (and r e v e a l i n g l y fallacious) f o r m o f quantified a r g u m e n t about mentality: the theory of a measurable, g e n e t i c a l l y f i x e d , a n d u n i t a r y i n t e l l i g e n c e . A s I w r o t e i n the I n t r o d u c t i o n to link the p s e u d o s c i e n t i f i c claim with its social utility: This book, then, is about the abstraction of intelligence as a single entity, its location within the brain, its quantification as one number for each individual, and the use of these numbers to rank people in a single series of worthiness, invariably to find that oppressed and disadvantaged g r o u p s — races, classes, or sexes—are innately inferior and deserve their status. In short, this book is about the Mismeasure of Man. T h i s p a r t of the f r a m e also e x p l a i n s w h a t I left o u t . I h a v e , f o r e x a m p l e , o f t e n b e e n a s k e d w h y I o m i t t e d so influential a m o v e m e n t as p h r e n o l o g y in my account of quantified theories for mental funct i o n i n g . B u t p h r e n o l o g y i s p h i l o s o p h i c a l l y c o n t r a r y t o t h e subject o f *A linguist friend did correctly anticipate the one curious problem that my title would entail. For some reason (and I have done this mysel ...
Student has agreed that all tutoring, explanations, and answers provided by the tutor will be used to help in the learning process and in accordance with Studypool's honor code & terms of service.

This question has not been answered.

Create a free account to get help with this and any other question!

Similar Questions
Related Tags