PSYCH 101 Developmental Psychology the Study of Human Growth Discussion

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Name: Chapter 9 Text Assignment Please type your name at the top of the document. Please type your answers in Red and save your completed document on your computer. Then, submit the completed assignment as per the instructions outlined on Canvas. The intent of the text assignment is to provide you an opportunity to process the information from the chapter on a deeper level such that you can better understand and remember the material for your upcoming exam. Therefore, it is to your advantage to include as much detail as is necessary to truly master the material in preparation for the exam. In line with that objective, I would like you to construct answer each of the following questions: 1. What is developmental psychology? 2. What is the difference between continuous and discontinuous development? 3. What two major types of research designs are used in developmental psychology and how do cohort effects apply? 4. Describe fetal development from fertilization to birth, including the developmental process for the baby, related information for the mother, and the dangers of teratogens to the baby’s development. 5. Describe puberty including key terms that apply. 6. Describe climacteric and any relevant key terms. 7. Describe the process of aging and why it occurs. 8. Based on Piaget’s theory of Cognitive Development compare and contrast how a 7 year old may think about the world differently than that of her 12 year old sister. (You will need to know the stages and the corresponding abilities, as well as all related key terms for the exam.) Life Span Development Chapters 9 Developmental Psychology • Interdisciplinary • Womb to Tomb • Developmental Domains – Physical: Changes in the body brain, senses, motor skills, and health – Cognitive: Learning, memory, attention, language, thinking, and reasoning – Psychosocial/Socioemotional: emotions, personality, and social relationships Two Types of Research Designs • Cohort Effects Developmental Progression • Lifespan development • Normative Development – Comparative research done across peers of the same age group – Identify developmental milestones and establish normative ages at which skills and abilities generally emerge – Universal development occurs within all individuals across cultures – Not all milestones are universal and some may have cross cultural variations The Great Debates • Continuous vs. Discontinuous (Stages) • Nature vs. Nurture – Tabula Rasa vs. Natural Maturation – Full Experience vs. Critical Periods • Genie (Page 229) – Interactionist Perspective – Biopsychosocial Model • The Role of Gender • The Role of Culture - Individualistic vs. Collectivist • Stability vs. Change Fertilization • Ovum released monthly at menstruation – Receptive for 24 hours after ovulation – Emits chemical signals like GPS to Sperm • Intercourse – Sperm live almost a week in cervix and uterus – Few hour journey to fallopian tube to meet ovum – Several hundred million sperm ejected, but only 200 to 300 find ovum as target • Fertilization – One sperm burrows into ovum – Ovum wall changes and shuts out other sperm – Sperm and Ovum meld into one cell and begin process of myosis – Usually takes place in fallopian tube – Now called a zygote Germinal • • • • • • • Cell mass not fully attached to uterine wall First cell division within 36 hours Cell divides every 12 to 15 hours 3 day trip down fallopian tube to uterus When it hits the uterus it becomes a blastocyst by shedding outer wall and differentiates into layers to prepare for implantation Blastocyst develops tentacles that burrow into wall Placenta forms at landing site to provide nutrients to baby Embryonic • • • • • • • • • • • • Six weeks long Ends about 8 weeks after fertilization Most fast paced period of development All major organs constructed at embryonic stage 3rd week after fertilization circulatory systems develops and heart starts to beat Rudiments of nervous system appear 21 to 24 days after fertilization neural tube develops that will later become the brain and spinal cord 26 day arm buds 28 day legs 37 day feet 41 day elbows, wrist curves, precursor of fingers Week 8 size of thumb with all internal organs in place Fetal • • • • • • 9 – 12 weeks eyebrows, fingernails, and hair follicles Most time is spent allowing neurons to migrate, interconnect, and myelinate Weight gain 6 months fetus shows consciousness, hears, avoids light, and can breathe Age of viability – 22 weeks 25 weeks 50% survival rate Principles of Prenatal Development • Proximal Distal Sequence – Development is from the inside out • Cephalocaudal Sequence – Development occurs from head to tail • Mass to Specific – Gross to Fine, Large to Small Teratogens • Any substance that crosses the placental barrier that can harm the baby • Can affect developing brain throughout pregnancy • Damage is unpredictable depending upon fetus and maternal vulnerabilities • Varied metabolization within mothers • Varying genetic vulnerability between babies • Do not know threshold for teratogens • Sensitive periods • Time at which the baby is most vulnerable to a specific teratogenic effect • Most likely to cause structural damage during embryonic stage • Developmental disorders are increased when exposed to teratogens during second and third trimesters Smoking • 1 out of 9 pregnant women smoke • Even six cigarettes a day can cause damage • Consequences: • • • • Underweight babies Premature babies Infant Mortality Increased risk of cognitive and behavioral problems Alcohol • Fetal Alcohol Syndrome • • • • • • Below average birth weight Small cranium Facial abnormalities Developmental disorders MR, seizures, hyperactivity Highest risk – binge drinking, > 4 drinks per day • Minor case is fetal alcohol spectrum disorder • Alcohol crosses placenta and effects stress response system • > five drinks per week raises risk of still birth • 1% of U.S. babies Early Childhood Brain Development • Growth • By age 2 – 75% of adult brain • Neurons • • • • Axons Dendrites Synapse Myelin Sheath • Myelination • Corresponds to physical functioning • Continues to early 20s Brain Development • Synaptic and Dendritic Connections • Synaptic Pruning Motor Development • Reflexes • Sucking, Rooting, Grasping • Voluntary Movement Sensory Development • • • • • Touch • Extra Sensitive • Pain Receptors Smell • Fully Developed at Birth • Breastmilk Hearing • In utero, ossicles harden into bones • Hearing and Fetal learning • Mother’s voice, stories, music Vision • Poorly Developed • Six months - 20/100 • 2 Years – Normal adult vision Perception • Looking Chamber • Habituation • Preferences • Complex to simple • Faces to Non Faces Adolescence • Puberty • Growth Spurt • Menarche • Spermarche Adulthood • Menopause • Social Pressures • Male Climacteric • Primary Aging (Gradual Declines) • Programmed Theory • Damage Theory • Secondary Aging • Disease, Disuse, Neglect • 110 to 120 years Psychosexual Theory of Development • Sigmund Freud • Personality develops during early childhood in a discontinuous fashion • Theory proposes erogenous zones, or pleasure centers that drive development at any given age Psychosexual Theory of Development Erik Erikson Psychosocial Theory of Development • Lifespan Development • Stage Theory • Psychosocial Crisis experienced at each stage of life • Resolution based on social interactions • No fixation, but development in future stages is influenced by resolution of previous stage Psychosocial Theory of Development Cognitive Development • Jean Piaget: • Innate process of mental growth • Qualitative changes over time • Stages of Cognitive Development Schema Assimilation Accommodation Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development Sensorimotor • 0 - 2 years of age • Learning through senses and motor activity • Accomplishments: • Early Language Development • Object Permanence Preoperational • • • • 4 – 7 years of age Operations = Mental Processes Preoperational = Cannot Reverse Mental Processes Characteristics: • Language Explosion • Egocentricism • Animism Concrete Operational • 7 – 11 • Perform operations on concrete objects or concepts • Accomplishments: • Conservation • Understanding that certain physical attributes remain unchanged when outward appearance is altered Formal Operations • 11+ • Can apply operations on concrete and abstract concepts • Accomplishments: • Hypothetical thinking • Systematic Formulation • Testing Concepts • Logical Arguments • Limitations: • Imaginary Audience • Personal Fable • “You wouldn’t understand.” • Uniqueness, Invulnerability, and Immortality Criticisms of Piaget • Underestimated Cultural Influences • All Kpelle men are rice farmers. Mr. Smith is not a rice farmer. Is he a Kpelle man? • I don’t know the man. I have not laid eyes on the man myself. • Cultural Value: Personal Knowledge • Underestimated Abilities (Ages) Meltzoff & Moore (1977, 1985, 1994) Baillargeon (2000, 2008) Heinz Dilemma In Europe, a woman was near death from a special kind of cancer. There was one drug that doctors thought might save her. It was a form of radium that a druggist in the same town had recently discovered. The drug was expensive to make, but the druggist was charging ten times what the drug cost him to make him. He paid $200 for the radium and charges $2,000 for a small dose. The sick woman’s husband, Heinz went to everyone he knew to borrow the money to buy the drug. He could only gather $1,000. He went to the druggist, and told his story, but the druggist declined to sell the drug for a discounted price. Kohlber’s Theory of Moral Development Kohlberg’s Moral Development • Lawrence Kohlberg (1964, 1984) • Model of Moral Development • Reasoning was more important than right or wrong • Stages of moral development are universal and invariant • Stages of Moral Development • Preconventional (Self-Centered) • Rewards, punishments, exchange of favors • Stage 1 (Punishment-Obedience) • Stage 2 (Instrumental-Exchange) • Conventional (Other-Centered) • Compliance, societal rules and value • Stage 3 (Good-Child) • Stage 4 (Law and Order) • Postconventional (Abstract Principles) • Personal standards of right and wrong, universal morality • Stage 5 (Social-Contract) • Stage 6 (Universal Ethics) Attachment • Konrad Lorenz (1935) – Goslings – Imprinting • Harry Harlow (1958) – Monkeys – Contact Comfort Attachment Theory • John Bowlby (1969, 1973, 1980) – Primary attachment figure is essential – Attachment Response is evolutionary • Internal State • Dangers in External World – – – – Emerges in first year of life Social Referencing Internal Working Model Proximity seeking behavior occurs at any age Mary Ainsworth, Strange Situation (1967,1978) Attachment Styles • Mary Ainsworth (1967,1978) – Strange Situation • Attachment Styles – Securely Attached – Insecurely Attached • Avoidant • Anxious Ambivalent • Disorganized Self Concept • Red Dot Experiment (Amsterdam, 1972) • Toddlers begin to develop understanding of self at 18 months of age • Sharing becomes challenging at 24 months • By 4 children display a great deal of autonomy and independence • Development of a positive self-concept is important to healthy development. • Children with a positive self-concept tend to be more confident, do better in school, act more independently, and are more willing to try new activities (Maccoby, 1980; Ferrer & Fugate, 2003). Diana Baumrind’s Parenting Styles Temperment • Precursor to personality • Innate traits that influence how one thinks, behaves, and reacts with the environment. • Easy vs. Difficult • Children with easy temperaments demonstrate positive emotions, adapt well to change, and are capable of regulating their emotions. • Conversely, children with difficult temperaments demonstrate negative emotions and have difficulty adapting to change and regulating their emotions. • Difficult children are much more likely to challenge parents, teachers, and other caregivers (Thomas, 1984). • Therefore, it’s possible that easy children (i.e., social, adaptable, and easy to soothe) tend to elicit warm and responsive parenting, while demanding, irritable, withdrawn children evoke irritation in their parents or cause their parents to withdraw (Sanson & Rothbart, 1995). Cognitive Development • Theory of Mind • Cognitive Empathy • Develops in toddlerhood • Increases in adolescence Gender Development • Sex • Biology • Gender • Sociocultural Meanings • Gender Roles • Behavioral Expectations • Gender Schemas • Modeling • Rewards and Punishments • Androgyny Gender Development Holland’s Personality Job-Fit Theory Death and Dying • Understanding Death • Permanence • Universality • Nonfunctionality • Elisabeth Kubler Ross • Stages of Death 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Denial Anger Bargaining Depression Acceptance • Thanatology – Study of death and dying • Right to Die • Hospice Movement 4:23 1 < Assignment Details PSYCH 101 - General Psychology #3801 - Fall 2021 Description Please watch the following videos demonstrating Piagetian tasks to demonstrate cognitive development: Kala conservation Cole conservation Points Possible: 10 Points Learning Objectives: • Compare and contrast theories as they relate to specific areas of psychology including learning, memory, personality, social interactions, cognitive processes, motivation and emotion, psychopathology, and other related psychological constructs. • Examine and describe the components of contemporary behavioral, social learning, cognitive, psychodynamic, psychobiological and sociocultural perspectives. Instructions: Individual Post: After watching the videos above create an entry whereby you compare and contrast the cognitive development of Cole and Kala. Based on the lecture videos and the Conservation demonstration videos, what types of skills do each of the children respectively have? Please discuss at least two separate skills or cognitive tasks, and post two images from the internet that represent those skills along with an explanation of the skill, and an assessment of the ability of both Cole and Kala with regard to that specific task. For example: View Discussion 7 000 Dashboard Calendar To Do Notifications Inbox
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Explanation & Answer

View attached explanation and answer. Let me know if you have any questions.

This image was chosen because it depicts cognition errors in line with “intuitive substage”
considering that the kids in this image understands that their images are being reflected in the
water but somehow cannot explain why this is taking place. Kala demonstrated cognition
error known as centration by focusing all her attention on a single aspect or dimension by
failing to recognize that the number of coins in the two rows were the same even after her
mother decided to spread the ones on one of the rows. Consequently, she depicted another
cognition error known as irreversibility after she failed to understand that the volume of the
two different objects made of clay were the same even after her mother transformed one of
the balls from a circle shape to a cylindrical shape. This shows that Kala has mental difficulty
in reversing a sequence of events. These two cognition errors are an indication that kids are
dependent on visual representations.

This second image depicts Piaget's theory of moral reasoning in line with conscious
development considering that the kid in this image clings to an older person due fear of being
judged or misunderstood. Cole expressed moral reasoning by being hesitant to explain to the
audience about his toy for fear of being judged. This shows that children learn morality best
by having to deal with others in groups. Cole’s experience in this case forced him to conform
to the surrounding environment’s norms in line with what is right or wrong actively rather
than passively. His actions shows that conscience development expands as kids start to
represent moral values while thinking of themselves as moral beings and thus, they tend to
develop a “moral self” by which they think of themselves as individuals who feels
uncomfortable when other people misbehave, who desires to do the right thing and who feels
guilty after misbehaving.

Aoberg799. (2014). Cole conservation.
Aoberg799. (2014). Kala conservation.
Rathus, S. A. (2016). Childhood and adolescence: Voyages in development. Cengage

1. What is developmental psychology?

Very useful material for studying!


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