Significant Contributions to Public Health - Part II, health and medicine homework help

timer Asked: Jun 19th, 2017
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Question description

This is a continuation of your final project, which you started in Week 3. This last piece involves an analysis of how your individual’s contribution from the past continues to contribute to today’s public health system and how it might guide future work within the industry. As you recall, in week 3, you researched an individual and their contribution to community and public health. To begin, you need to review the feedback given to you from Week 3. Then, make the necessary revisions to Part I of this project. Then, you will be adding the second half to your project.

Follow this outline to help formulate your paper or presentation:

ACTION: Make sure you review all the feedback from your Week 3 (Part I) assignment and apply any necessary revisions. Your week 3 assignment should have included each of the following elements:

  • GRADED ELEMENT : Describe your selected person’s experience
  • GRADED ELEMENT : Analyze the climate of the time period in terms of political, socioeconomic, environmental and technological context in which this person worked.
  • GRADED ELEMENT : Examine the personal beliefs of your person that prompted this work.
  • GRADED ELEMENT : Examine how this individual overcame any adversities to succeed in his/her task.
  • GRADED ELEMENT : Describe the final outcome of this individual’s contribution to community and/or public health.
  • GRADED ELEMENT : Explain what his/her contribution did for overall community and/or public health at the time.
  • GRADED ELEMENT : Explain why this contribution was so important at that particular point in history.

ACTION: Think about the individual’s contribution to community/public health

  • GRADED ELEMENT : Analyze the impact of your individual’s contribution on today’s public health system.
    • HELP: You are asking “what happened as a result of this contribution at the national and community level?” For example, some elements you could address include:
      • did it change attitudes
      • did it change protocols and policies
      • did behavior change result
      • did it add/eliminate laws
  • GRADED ELEMENT : Analyze how this contribution is still relevant today
    • HELP: Was this contribution only applicable at the time it occurred, or is it still applied today? Why or why not? Explain your response
  • GRADED ELEMENT : Examine how this contribution could support or be expanded for future community and public health benefits
    • HELP: Using solid critical thinking, look at the historical value of the contribution and examine how it could be used for the future (is it applicable to another health issue, can it lead to more policy change, could it promote advocacy work or public health laws, etc.)

You have a choice of which format you wish to present your findings:

Format 1: Written Paper

  • Must be at least 6 pages in length (not including title and reference pages) and formatted according to APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center.
  • Must include a separate title page with the following:
    • Title of paper
    • Students name
    • Course name and number
    • Instructor’s name
    • Date submitted
  • Must use at least eight scholarly sources (one of those may be the course text).
  • Must document all sources in APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center.
  • Must include a separate reference page that is formatted according to APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center.

Running head: MARGARET HIGGINS SANGER: REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH Margaret Higgins Sanger: Reproductive Health Name Course Name And Number Instructor’s Name Date Submitted 1 MARGARET HIGGINS SANGER: REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH 2 Margaret Higgins Sanger: Reproductive Health Biography Margaret Higgins Sanger was born in 1879 to Anne Purcell and Michael Hennessey Higgins as Margaret Louise Higgins. Michael was an immigrant who had come to the United States when he was only 14 years and joined the army during the civil war when he was 15. Michael was an atheist freethinker and an advocate for women’s suffrage and the quest for free education. Anne, on the other hand, was a housewife and a mother of eleven children. She, however, had had eighteen pregnancies and had lost the other seven pregnancies. Margaret was the sixth of the surviving eleven children, and her youth was spent supporting her mother with the household chores and in bringing up her siblings (Fleury, 2015). She attended Claverack College and Hudson River Institute and later enrolled at White Plains hospital in 1900 with the support of her two elderly sisters. In 1902, Margaret abandoned her education and got married to William Sanger, an architect. Despite suffering from recurring active tubercular condition, she was able to bear three children. Social Activism The Sangers abandoned their home in Hastings-on-Hudson in 1911 for a new life in New York City after a fire blazed their home. Margaret started working in the east side slums as a visiting nurse. He husband continued as a house painter and an architect. Her father’s social activity, her mother’s struggle, and her husband’s leftist politics encouraged her to join the fray and advocate on modernist values of Pre-World War One. She went further ahead and acceded to the New York Socialist Party (Fleury, 2015). This allowed her to be part of the industrial workers of the world (1912) and Paterson silk strike (1913). It also gave her the platform to interact with other like-minded intellectuals, socialists, left-wing artists, and social activists. It MARGARET HIGGINS SANGER: REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH 3 was during this time that Margaret started writing about sex education. By the standard of the day, her papers were quite ‘naked’ and daring, and this led to an outrage by some of the conservative readers. Radical readers regarded her articles “What Every Mother Should Know” (1911-12) and “What Every Girl Should Know” (1912-13) items as very educative and praised her (Baker, 2011). This introduced her to the social activist world as a woman unafraid to challenge the existing norms and one of her standing. Current Climate Margaret found her footing in social advocacy during a political and social-economic volatile period. America was coming of age, and the American citizens were considering their standing in social and policy matters. The civil society was alive and influencing the political scenery in a major way. The society was patriarchal in a way, and women had little or no say on matters affecting the community (Fleury, 2015). The minority groups which was made up of mostly African-American were still struggling for their social and civil rights in an America that were still huge on colonial influence. Also, the society was bound by a religious bondage that spelled out gender roles, social roles, and interpersonal relationships. This made the society a reserved and hypocritical society that chooses to assume the reality of the problems they were experiencing. The women, for instance, lacked the power to influence change either through the constitution, politically, socially, and even family-wise. Abortion was forbidden, but it was prevalent in back-street makeshift clinics (Baker, 2011). Violence against women was prohibited, but it was a common vice in many households across the United States. Sexuality was a taboo topic to indulge in, and it was only discussed in the context of religious writings that required a woman to be the subject of a man with no power at all. It was a time of utter darkness to the female gender as they tried to fight their way up the social and political ladder while at the MARGARET HIGGINS SANGER: REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH 4 same time advocate for their rights as human beings deserving equal rights, treatment, access to social amenities, and contribution to the society. Personal Belief and Drive to Social Advocacy In her social campaign, she had the opportunity to meet women who had had the same experience as her mother of frequent childbirth, self-induced abortions, and miscarriages due to lack of proper knowledge. The 1873 federal Comstock law prohibited the access to contraceptive information on the grounds of obscenity. Therefore, it was tough for women to have access to information that would help them (Baker, 2011). Margaret felt that there was a need to fill this void by openly advocating for contraceptive information. She took the first step by writing honestly about this problem with the hope that women would read and learn about their options to conception and childbirth (Grant, 2014). Margaret believed it was the right of every woman to decide for herself when to get conceive and how many children to bear. She also felt that it was the right of every woman to have access to information that affects her health and using that information, make choices regarding her body. Barriers and Challenges Incised by the death of Sadie Sachs a woman who had tried a second abortion and the rescue of her niece, Margaret vowed to fight for the right of access to contraceptive information. She believed that for women to be liberated from the vices of abortion and frequent childbearing, they had to be a fundamental social change. Therefore, she set in motion a campaign that challenged censorship of contraceptive information by the government by using confrontable actions. This campaign came at a cost, and in 1913, she and her husband separated and finalized divorce in 1921(Grant, 2014). She, however, got married to a Mr. Noah H. Sleek in 1922. Her newsletter “the rebel woman” that used the slogan “no gods, no masters,” together with anarchist MARGARET HIGGINS SANGER: REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH 5 friends popularized the term ‘birth control,’ with the aim of creating awareness. Margaret publication was suppressed, and she was indicted for violating the postal obscenity laws. She fled America to England where she spent most of 1914 (Sanger, 2014). Her social struggled was marred with challenges, and it’s wasn’t much later did people appreciate her contribution to women empowerment. Contribution to the Society The first influence of Margaret’s works was her vocal and written drive to spread contraceptive information. She opens a pathway of information, through which women were able to learn about themselves, their rights, their problems, and their options. She also opened a gateway through which medical practitioners could practice their medical professional with ease and share information quickly. Through her action, women were able to seek help, seek qualified help, and promote contraceptive information. She helped reduce mortality and morbidity rates of women across the world as governments and men in particular found importance in protecting their women from unnecessary pain. Her sensitization campaign across the globe helped in the establishment of clinics that catered solely to women across the world (Bagge, 2013). These clinics were able to identify women problems and offer preferential treatment that would ensure the survival of the women. Margaret can also be attributed to being the pioneer of the current contraceptive drive that has taken different forms of ensuring that childbirth and women have the power of birth and that infant mortality and morbidity rates are low. She made an enormous contribution to the medical field and in the global empowerment of women as important beings in the society, in need of care. All in all, Margaret Higgins Sanger can be considered to be an important person in the women suffrage movement and in the civil right movement that was aimed at empowering the society to act against ignorant vices (Grant, 2014). Today, her MARGARET HIGGINS SANGER: REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH contributions continue to be felt in a greater way as more and more women take up the contraceptive initiative to protect themselves and ensure the economic stability of themselves and their country. 6 MARGARET HIGGINS SANGER: REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH References Bagge, P. (2013). Woman Rebel: The Margaret Sanger Story. Montreal: Drawn and Quarterly. Baker, J. (2011). Margaret Sanger: A Life of Passion. New York: Hill and Wang. Fleury, B. (2015). The Negro Project: Margaret Sanger’s Diabolical, Duplicitous, Dangerous, Disastrous and Deadly Plan for Black America. Pennsylvania: Dorrace Publishing. Grant, G. (2014). Killer Angel: A Biography of Planned Parenthood’s Margaret Sanger. New York: Steadfast Books & Press, Inc. Sanger, M. (2004). The Autography of Margaret Sanger. Mineola: Dover Publications. 7

Tutor Answer

Rice University



21st-Century Business Leadership




21st-century business leadership
Business leadership, as well as corporate operations, are gradually changing, and with
notable differences between the leadership and operational styles of the 20th and the 21st
century. In this case, both the beliefs and the practices of organizational leaders have
revolutionized as they seek to improve organization’s performance. At present, leaders play a
huge role in the success of the business particularly due to their influence on the
organizational culture, practices, business relations with the outside world, business growth,
as well as the relationship between the organization and the employees (Hicks, Price & Wren,
2004). Notably, many businesses rush to fire their leaders when a business is not performing
well under the belief that a new leader can create a wave of change that would ultimately
result in the organization’s improvement in performance. Businesses such as Amazon, 99
Cents Only, and Shun Fat Supermarket (SF Supermarket) in the United States rely heavily on
their leaders for their success. Although these leaders tend to have different ideologies on
their respective organizations’ leadership, a number of their views converge or at least relate,
which are among the reasons that their businesses have been excelling in the recent past. The
following sections will discuss the views of the leaders in these companies and make a
comparison in order to establish the challenges of the 21st-century leaders as well as the skills
needed in the current era for a business leader to excel.
Leaders’ views on leadership
Douglas Milton (Walmart)
Douglas Milton is the current CEO and president of Walmart, which is the largest
retailer in the world in terms of both revenues and company value. During Milton’s tenure,
the company has experienced a drastic growth and expansion as well as many changes that
have been attributed to his beliefs on present-day leadership. In a rec...

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