Writing
Quality of a Study's Quantitative Data Analysis and Report of Results

Question Description

Help me study for my Writing class. I’m stuck and don’t understand.

Using this research article that starts on page 3 of the pdf complete the following in 2-3 pages, APA graduate level, original work as I will check it, 3-4 references to support any opinions you have in your writing. ProQuestDocuments-2015-02-19.pdf

Read the article above and evaluating the quality of the research effort following the Criteria for Evaluating the Quality of a Study's Quantitative Data Analysis and Report of Results which are:

1.  States the statistical analyses used to answer the research questions.

2.  Indicates how the data collected from the instruments were scored.

3.  Indicates the computer program used so you know how the statistics were calculated.

4.  Reports descriptive analyses so you know a summary of the sample's responses to each major variable.

5.  Reports inferential statistics to address the comparison and relationship hypotheses.

6.  Uses an alpha level of .05 or less. If not, the author explains why not so you understand why he or she is taking a greater risk of incorrectly finding a significant result.

7.  Reports the value of the statistic, the associated p value, and the effect size so you can make your own conclusions about a research question.

8.  Provides clearly formed tables and figures so you can interpret the information provided.

9.  Provides results that answer the research questions and address the hypotheses.


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_______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ Report Information from ProQuest February 19 2015 09:59 _______________________________________________________________ 19 February 2015 ProQuest Table of contents 1. The Performance of Female Entrepreneurs: Credit, Training and the Moderating Effect of Attitude towards Risk-Taking........................................................................................................................................ 1 Bibliography...................................................................................................................................................... 10 19 February 2015 ii ProQuest Document 1 of 1 The Performance of Female Entrepreneurs: Credit, Training and the Moderating Effect of Attitude towards Risk-Taking Author: Ekpe, Isidore; Razak, Razil Che; Mat, Norsiah Binti ProQuest document link Abstract: The objective of this study was to examine the moderating effect of attitude towards risk-taking on the relationship between credit and training, and women entrepreneurs' performance. Entrepreneurship performance is considered a vital link to an overall economic growth of a nation through its positive impact on economic development in terms of job creation and innovations especially at the grassroots. However, despite their crucial role in the economy, entrepreneurs especially women lack micro-finance services such as credit and training for their businesses due to their low income, low educational attainment, societal discriminations and lack of government's support, mostly in developing countries. Important as credit and training may be to entrepreneurial performance, the attitude of the business entrepreneur towards risk-taking plays a vital role in the utilization of the acquired resources for business performance. A quantitative research method (survey) was used to solicit responses from women entrepreneurs in Nigeria. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics, Pearson Correlation and hierarchical regression analyses. The results indicated that training had significant influence on women entrepreneurs 'performance in Nigeria. Attitude towards risk-taking (ability to expand) moderated the relationship between training and women entrepreneurs ' performance. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT] Links: Find article in full-text Full text: Headnote The objective of this study was to examine the moderating effect of attitude towards risk-taking on the relationship between credit and training, and women entrepreneurs' performance. Entrepreneurship performance is considered a vital link to an overall economic growth of a nation through its positive impact on economic development in terms of job creation and innovations especially at the grassroots. However, despite their crucial role in the economy, entrepreneurs especially women lack micro-finance services such as credit and training for their businesses due to their low income, low educational attainment, societal discriminations and lack of government's support, mostly in developing countries. Important as credit and training may be to entrepreneurial performance, the attitude of the business entrepreneur towards risk-taking plays a vital role in the utilization of the acquired resources for business performance. A quantitative research method (survey) was used to solicit responses from women entrepreneurs in Nigeria. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics, Pearson Correlation and hierarchical regression analyses. The results indicated that training had significant influence on women entrepreneurs 'performance in Nigeria. Attitude towards risk-taking (ability to expand) moderated the relationship between training and women entrepreneurs ' performance. Introduction Women entrepreneurs face peculiar challenges in an attempt to achieve success (Hatcher, Teijesen and Planck, 2007) and women entrepreneurs in less developed countries face much more barriers to formal economic participation than those in advanced economies (Allen, Elam, Langowitz and Dean, 2008). Such barriers include lack of education and training, limited access to capital and limited choice of industry. In Nigeria especially, most women entrepreneurs do not have adequate formal education, basic literacy skills or training, and market knowledge for successful business performance (Akanji, 2006; Ibru, 2009). Limited education invariably provided limited social networks for women entrepreneurs in Nigeria. Availability of social capital should have provided more access to information and resources for the women. It has been 19 February 2015 Page 1 of 10 ProQuest observed that most women entrepreneurs in Nigeria possess primary and/or secondary school education; yet skill training and tertiary education has positive relationship with women entrepreneurs' performance (Kuzilwa, 2005). Gender-related discriminations in the distribution of social wealth such as education and health could be one of the causes of low education of women in Nigeria. This is the situation in most developing countries (Porter and Nagarajan, 2005; Roomi and Parrot, 2008). Aside education and training, another critical issue to women entrepreneurs in Nigeria is lack of business capital and credit. Competition from bigger firms and unfavourable external business environment are also a cause of concern for women entrepreneurs in Nigeria (Ojo, 2009; Iheduru, 2002). Lack of capital and credit due to lack of savings (occasioned by unemployment), collaterals and family demands forces women entrepreneurs into less lucrative ventures such as retailing (Akanji, 2006). Credit and training are some of the micro-finance factors needed by women entrepreneurs, mostly in developing countries, for enterprise performance. Micro-finance occupies a central position in the development of microenterprises in any economy; and it has received a world-wide acceptance as one of the leading strategies for fighting poverty globally (Eversole, 2009) because its impact is much felt in the informal sector as a tool for grassroots development (Morduch,1999; Roomi and Parrot, 2008; Rushad, 2004). Again, Carter and Shaw (2006) stated that 70% of the world's poor are women and 88% of micro-finance institutions' clients are women; hence the need for micro-finance to generate entrepreneurship and reduce poverty among women. People, especially women, embark on entrepreneurial activity so as to tap opportunities in the market; and mostly out of necessity in most developing economies. It is also to gain satisfaction as business owners, profit to support families, and to produce goods and services to the society (Harrison and Mason, 2007). However; Hatcher et al. (2007) had a contrary opinion to the issue of entrepreneurial activity as a necessity. To them, women see their entrepreneurial activities as opportunities, rather than a necessity, which could be actualized through micro-finance. There is a growing recognition that entrepreneurship could significantly contribute to economic development of women (Ibru, 2009) as well as improve the economies of developing countries. Thus, it is arguable that promoting entrepreneurship among women is an effective way to revitalize an ailing economy. Among other types of business venture, however, women enterprises are a leading sector in contributing to economic and social development of poor women due to their distinct characteristics (Iheduru, 2002). Despite the crucial role of women entrepreneurs in economic development of their families and their countries; it is, however, discovered from the literature that women entrepreneurs do not have adequate credit and training to pursue their business profits. This led to their low business performance than their male counterparts, for example in UK and USA (Carter and Shaw, 2006), though they have significantly higher rates of informal economic participation than their male counterparts (Allen et al., 2008). Importance of credit and training aside; women entrepreneurs' ability to achieve good business performance depends on their attitude towards risk-taking (Shane, 2003). Entrepreneurship theory (Shane, 2003) stated that entrepreneur's ability to discover and exploit opportunity for entrepreneurial activity differs between individuals and depends on individual's attitude towards risk-taking. For instance, a risk-averse individual is less likely to exploit entrepreneurial opportunity (Shane, 2003). As such, a person may not search for or discover entrepreneurial opportunity if he/she has a negative attitude towards risk-taking. In the same vein, an individual may have an innovative business or service idea, and great likelihood to access micro-finance but may not utilize such advantage if he/she fears risk. Behavioural theories such as the Theory of Planned Behaviour, specifically the Intention Theory (Ajzen, 1991) concluded that attitude towards behaviour leads to intention which eventually leads to actual behaviour. Other supporting behavioural theorists (e.g Crisp and Turner, 2007) found that attitude and behavioural intention are positively related. Many studies abound on micro-finance and women entrepreneurship growth, success and household income (Akanji, 2006; Carter and Shaw, 2006; Eversole, 2009; Gatewood et al., 2004; Harrison and Mason, 2007; Ibru, 19 February 2015 Page 2 of 10 ProQuest 2009) but limited studies are available on the effect of credit and training on women entrepreneurs' performance with attitude as a moderating variable. For example, Vob and Muller (2009) studied entrepreneurial attitude and entrepreneurial behaviour. Though Ajzen (1991), Crisp and Turner (2007) measured attitude as a moderating variable; however their study related to intention and self perception; not between micro-finance and performance. Hence, there is the need for more research in this area, and this study provides such a research. Therefore, the objective of this study is to examine the effect of credit and training on women entrepreneurs' performance; moderated by attitude towards risk-taking. Literature Review Credit Women entrepreneurs have limited physical, social and technological capital which forces them into microenterprises and the need for micro-finance (Brana, 2008; Carter and Shaw, 2006). Lack of these resources led them to start under-funded enterprises which have negative impact on their business performance in the long run (Brana, 2008; Gatewood, Brush, Carter, Green and Hart, 2004). Women's lack of capital at the start-up and growth stages is due to low household income (Allen, 2000) and so they require start-up and working capital from micro-finance institutions (Carter and Shaw, 2006). Women clients do not have physical capital as collaterals demanded by conventional banks (I.F.C, 2007) but could use social capital demanded by microfinance institutions (Brau and Woller, 2004). Hence, they need credit for their businesses. Credit or loan is very necessary for new and growing enterprises. Riding (2006) stated that higher percentage of enterprises especially in Canada mostly seek external finance than use personal savings. Much dependence on credit by entrepreneurs, especially women, is due to their inability to raise capital through personal savings (Brana, 2008). The problem is much pronounced in developing countries due to unemployment and gender discrimination in high-paid jobs (Brana, 2008; Carter and Shaw, 2006). However, Gatewood et al. (2004) contended that women use more of personal savings than credit, to start and grow their enterprises. Salman (2009) also argued that loan is not usually good for business start-up but for growing or existing enterprises due to inability of the new business to pay back the loan at the initial business stage. While Kamani (2007) contended that credit does not lead to women's improved welfare rather the government should create jobs for the women. These arguments aside, numerous evidences abound in the literature that credit has positive impact on enterprise performance. For instance, previous studies found that credit had positive impact on enterprise profit in Nigeria, Canada, Nicaragua and Croatia respectively (Ojo, 2009; Wycklam and Wedley, 2003; Martin, 1999; I.F.A.D, 2006). We therefore hypothesize that: HI: Credit is positively related to women entrepreneurs' performance. Training This is a vital micro-finance institutions' service. Education and/or training produce prior experience which leads to preparedness for entrepreneurial activity (Shane, 2003). But women entrepreneurs, mostly in developing countries, lack such prior business experience due to lack of former paid employment (Brana, 2008). Literature asserted that women who were in paid employment were more likely to be engaged in entrepreneurships (Allen et al; 2008; Carter and Shaw, 2006). However, unemployment in developing countries have hindered most women from participating in paid employments; hence the need for the provision of training service to entrepreneurs by micro-finance institutions. Women have less confidence, less entrepreneurial and management skills (Brana, 2008) and so require training. It is also reported that few women have ever moved their enterprise into formal sector due to inappropriate training (Braw and Woller, 2004). There is the need for training because only few micro-finance institutions provide formal business training to their clients as they assume that all clients are already entrepreneurs in business (Ibru, 2009). Arguing for the importance of training as a non-credit aspect of micro-finance, Harrison and Mason (2007) advocated for training for women entrepreneurs. Therefore, training is a vital micro-finance service required by women entrepreneurs especially in developing economies. Training produces the required skill needed for business start-up or improvement 19 February 2015 Page 3 of 10 ProQuest (Kickul et al., 2007; Kuzilwa, 2005) and women entrepreneurs need to possess adequate skills, acquired through education and training, for entrepreneurial success (Reavley and Lituchy, 2008). Again, Robinson and Malach (2004) emphasized the importance of practical business training and education in small businesses in USA; while Ying (2008) emphasized entrepreneurial education to University students in Malaysia. There are also suggestions from literature of the need to study credit jointly with training on entrepreneurship performance (Ibru, 2009; Kuzilwa, 2005; Tazul, 2007) because women entrepreneurs in high-income countries are better educated than those in low or middle income countries (Ibru, 2009); and skill training and tertiary education may lead to business opportunities and impact on entrepreneurship (Gatewood et al., 2004). Exploitation of entrepreneurial opportunity also depends on the entrepreneur's level of education, skills or knowledge acquired through training, experience and social network (Shane, 2003). Training was found to have positive impact on women's business growth in New Hampshire and Pennsylvania, U.S. A (Kickul et al., 2007), on women's business success in Canada (Reavley and Lituchy, 2008) and in Haiti, Kenya, Malawi and Nigeria (UNCDF/UNDP, 2003). We therefore hypothesize that: H2: Training is positively related to women entrepreneurs' performance. Attitude towards risk-taking Attitude to risk used in this study is supported by the Entrepreneurship Theory of Shane (2003), and Intention Theory of Ajzen (1991). For instance, Entrepreneurship Theory states that an entrepreneur's ability to identify and tap the opportunity provided by the external environment (financial, economic, legal and socio-cultural) to improve his/her business differs between individuals and depends on individual's willingness and ability to engage in risky activity. The theory consists of opportunity discovery, evaluation of the opportunity and the decision to exploit the opportunity. Others elements of the theory include entrepreneurship, business operation and performance. The Theory of Planned behaviour of Ajzen (1991) also discussed entrepreneur's attitude. Estates that behavioural intentions are the most vital determinants of behaviour; and that attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived control converge to predict behavioural intentions. Attitude was defined as one's beliefs about the consequences of performing the behaviour and one's evaluation of the possible consequences of performing the behaviour. Crisp and Turner (2007) stated that attitude and behavioural intention are positively related. Attitude towards the behaviour leads to intention which eventually leads to actual behaviour (Ajzen, 1991). We therefore hypothesize that: H3: Attitude towards risk-taking moderates the effect of credit and training on women entrepreneurs' performance. Methodology Survey Procedures A quantitative research method (survey) was used to collect data from women entrepreneurs. A total of 280 questionnaires were distributed to the clients of three homogenous micro-finance banks in the north, east and west regions of Nigeria. From the returned questionnaires, 161 were usable after data cleaning. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics (mean and standard deviation), correlation analysis and hierarchical regression analysis. Measures In line with established literature, credit was measured in terms of loan size, use of loan and loan repayment (e.g Kuzilwa, 2005; Lakwo, 2007; Peter, 2001). Training was measured in terms of skill acquisition and management training (e.g Ibru, 2009; Kuzilwa, 2005). Attitude was measured in terms of willingness and ability to engage in risky activity (e.g. Shane, 2003). While women entrepreneurs' performance was measured in terms of net profit, output, investment and number of employees (e.g Kuzilwa, 2005; Reavley and Lituchy, 2008). All the measures were tapped on a 7-point scale. The conceptual framework for this study is shown in Figure 1. The moderator-interaction effects were determined in line with the procedure suggested by Baron and Kenny (1986). A moderator-interaction effect would occur if a relation is substantially reduced instead of being 19 February 2015 Page 4 of 10 ProQuest reversed (Baron and Kenny, 1986). Again, a moderator hypothesis is supported if the interaction or the product of a predictor variable and the moderator is significant when the predictor and the moderator were being controlled (Baron and Kenny, 1986). Results Data cleaning The data used were free from errors. For instance, outliers were detected by comparing the Mahalanobis distance (D2) or chi-square value of each respondent with the critical or table chi-square value, using the number of predictor variables as the degrees of freedom, p <0.001 (Hair et al., 2010). Extreme observations in a sufficient number of variables in multivariate and univariate detections were deleted (Hair et al., 2010). Normality was handled through skewness and kurtosis. Observations with Z-score above or below the critical value of 1.96, p = 0.05 were deleted (Hair et al., 2010). Linearity was detected through the Pearson Correlation matrix as shown in Table 1, and all predictors correlated with the criterion variable. The output of the hierarchical regression analysis indicated that the error term (as indicated by Durbin Watson statistics) were all within the recommended range of 1.50-2.50. There was no case of multicollinearity as the collinearity statistics of the regression output indicated Tolerance >0.10, Variance Inflationary Factor <10 and Condition index <30 in most cases (Hair et al., 2010). Homoscedasticity (equality of variance) was verified through an examination of the residuals of the regression output which showed no clear relationship between the residual and the predicted values (Coakes and Steed, 2003). Goodness of measures The principal compone ...
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