BSN 355 Nightingale College Hand Hygiene and COVID 19 Pandemic Paper

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Health Medical

BSN 355

Nightingale College School of Nursing

BSN

Description

The capstone project is a large scale project where students choose a topic that relates to nursing, where they are working, or where they would like to work. The results of the project will be presented in the last semester of the BSN program in the last capstone course.

BSN 355 is where you will choose a project topic and write a proposal. There are several components used in the course that you will be expected to fill out and combine as part of your capstone. Remember this is just the start of your project. You will need to work on your capstone project in the second and third semester in order to be successful.

Directions:
Using the information already compiled in previous assignments, create a proposal of at least 8 pages (not including the Title page and Reference page) which includes:
A Title Page including a Title for your Project
A Literature Review supporting the Need for the Project
At least 5 or more peer reviewed articles supporting the proposal
Objectives and strategies for achievement of the Capstone project
Background for the proposal including supportive resources indicated throughout the course e.g. budgeting, outcomes, evaluations.
Formatting using APA style. APA 7th edition format of the American Psychological Association
(APA) is the official style used by Nightingale College. This style and format used to cite sources can be referenced from http://www.apastyle.org

Write the paper using APA style and upload to this drop box by the due date. Please review the rubric used to give feedback for more information.

Attached is the PICOT format image which should be kept in mind when completing the assignment and a sample provided to use of how the paper should be formatted and the included information. I am attaching the original draft which is on handwashing in the elementary school setting.

The objective portion should include the S.M.A.R.T goal format for the assigned topic.

Unformatted Attachment Preview

1 Final Paper Student Name College Course Number & Name Instructor’s full name and credentials Date assignment is due 2 Final Paper [The introduction to the entire paper at least two fully formed paragraphs . (least 5 sentences) with at least two sources of reference and a fully stated purpose]Entire paper must be in 3rd person Capstone Proposal [What is your project question? What is the title of your project? in a minimum of 3 fully formed paragraphs (at least 5 sentences) with at least two sources of reference] Background [Briefly describe the problem or need. What do you hope to achieve by addressing this issue? Give a background of the problem. in a minimum of 3 fully formed paragraphs (at least 5 sentences) with at least two sources of reference] Objectives [At least 3 SMART goals for the project… in a minimum of 1 fully formed paragraphs (at least 5 sentences) with at least two sources of reference.] Literature Review [brief intro…… in a minimum of 1 fully formed paragraphs (at least 5 sentences) with at least two sources of reference.] Methods of Searching 3 [A literature review was conducted using both electronic and manual resources…………..] must be at least one fully formed paragraphs (at least 5 sentences in length). Project Proposal Topic [The project proposal ……….. must be at least one fully formed paragraphs (at least 5 sentences in length) with intext citations.] Review of the Literature [The literature review examined …………….. must be at least five fully formed paragraphs (at least 5 sentences in length) with intext citations.] Findings [The literature has shown that…………………………….must be at least two fully formed paragraphs (at least 5 sentences in length) with intext citations. ] Strategies [What will you actually do to address the objectives? What do will you do to create “improved outcomes”? must be at least three fully formed paragraphs (at least 5 sentences in length) with intext citations.] Budget [Write out what budget items you will need, describe the items, where will they come from? must be at least three fully formed paragraphs (at least 5 sentences in length) with intext citations.] 4 Evaluation [How will you evaluate this project? Will it improve patient outcomes/safety? must be at least three fully formed paragraphs (at least 5 sentences in length) with intext citations.] Conclusion [The conclusion to the entire paper is at least 3 fully formed paragraphs (at least 5 sentences) , summarizes at least 3 key points, and has at least two citation.] 5 References (All references in alphabetical order, most within the last 5 years, at least 12-15 references) Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Year). Title of the article. Name of the Periodical, volume(issue), #–#. https://doi.org/xxxx Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Copyright Year). Title of the book (7th ed.). Publisher. DOI or URL (hyperlink in black) Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Copyright Year). Title of the book chapter. In A. A. Editor & B. B. Editor (Eds.), Title of the book (2nd ed., pp. #–#). Publisher. DOI or URL (hyperlink in black) 1 Julian Sanchez Week: 6 Capstone Project Proposal BSN 355 Capstone Proposal Professor Cynthia Smith 2 Literature Review Handwashing is considered one of the most effective ways of averting the spread of pathogens that cause diseases such as dysentery, typhoid fever, cholera, stomach pain and cramps, and diarrhea disease. Washing hands with water alone is ineffective at minimizing contagion. In this regard, hand washing entails using soap and water, one of the most effective and low-cost ways to prevent pathogen transmission. Accordingly, recurrent handwashing with water and soap is a significant non-pharmaceutical intervention that has been supported the COVID-19 pandemic age (Marcenac et al., 2021). In addition to washing hands with water and soap, it is important to dry them because germs transfer much easier to and from wet hands. Hence appropriate handwashing practice with optimum frequency is a critical skill for a healthy life. The essence of this paper is to show a correlation between handwashing and how it promotes healthy hygiene in an elementary school setting. Methods of Searching While searching for information that best suits the subject under investigation, a literature review was conducted using manual and electronic resources. The manual sources used in the paper were obtained from the school library, while the electronic sources were obtained from the internet using Google Scholar, CINAL, and EBSCOhost databases. Google Scholar is a database that offers researchers a simple of broadly searching for scholarly literature on different topics. CINAL is a database for health sciences that covers literature linked with nursing and associated health. EBSCOhost is a database that offers high-quality content and technology for academic libraries such as discovery services, research databases, and academic journals for researchers, librarians, and students. 3 Project Proposal Topic The proposed proposal topic is the importance of hand hygiene in an elementary school setting (Fianko & Akosua Gawu, 2020). Almoslem et al. (2021) argue that appropriate handwashing practice with optimum frequency is vital for leading a healthy life. It is believed to be the most basic technique of protecting children, adults, and teens against infectious ailments. There is a progressive bourgeoning relationship between handwashing and risks connected with various diseases such as contagious diseases and foodborne diseases. To significantly reduce infirmary-acquired infections, handwashing is considered a crucial intervention. Review of the Literature Marcenac et al. (2021) claim non-routine handwashing is a leading risk factor linked with Head, Foot, and Mouth Diseases (HFMD) amongst kids in Asian countries and China. Handwashing is a proficient technique of preventing children and also reduces the use of antibiotics. Schools for the most appropriate places for supporting health education where learners can gain skills, knowledge, and confident behavior regarding handwashing and other hygienic practices. It has been established that most students in developing countries do not observe handwashing skills; hence most are affected by foodborne ailments. Embracing handwashing, a simple and worthwhile hand disinfection technique, is a great milestone that can motivate students to observe handwashing behavioral practices. Research has shown that by 2019, many schools were lacking basic handwashing facilities (Ghebreyesus, 2020). The World Health Organization and the United Nations Children's Funds (UNICEF) showed that approximately 820 million children could not access handwashing facilities in schools. Out of these figures, more than 350 million children schooled 4 from schools with water but no soap, while the remaining number attended schools without either water or soap for handwashing. The absence of handwashing facilities has been a major challenge for governments in the fight to control the spread of COVID-19. To ensure the safety of children in schools, schools should have the necessary handwashing facilities, particularly during the present COVID-19 pandemic, to reopen schools. Many schools in developing countries have disease prevalence linked with inadequate sanitation, water supply, and hygiene. Such schools record high rates of underlying health problems such as diarrhea disease and child malnutrition. Water-related diseases such as dysentery and diarrhea are considered a major threat to public health, particularly among developing countries (Fianko & Akosua Gawu, 2020). Handwashing with soap and water is critical to personal hygiene. Fianko and Akosua Gawu (2020) assert that Ghana has shown a major stride in ensuring accessibility to water by enhancing approximately 80% of water resources in the country. However, most Ghanaian schools do not have handwashing and sanitation facilities, putting the lives of many school children at risk of contaminating communicable diseases. Handwashing with water and soap is critical in the COVID-19 pandemic era. Marcenac et al. (2021) argue that in addition to that, it is vital to dry hands as well because microbes transfer easily with wet hands. Since the emergence of the COVID-19 pandemic, most American adults have improved their preference of using electrically powered hand dryers and shaking hands unlike paper towel (Marcenac et al., 2021). Most germs transfer easily from and to wet hands. Marcenac et al. (2021) aim to enlighten the public regarding appropriate hand washing with water and totally drying the hands. Findings 5 The literature shows that handwashing is a major challenge among developing countries. Hand washing is the most appropriate and inexpensive technique to combat the health problem. Hand washing should be done using soap and water. After washing the hands, they should be fully dried. Government should consider availing handwashing facilities in schools to ensure the safety hygiene of school-going children both in developed and developing countries. Conclusion Handwashing is critical to personal hygiene. It is an effective way of preventing the transmission of pathogens. To help combat the spread of COVID-9, handwashing plays a key role. Schools are advised to adopt handwashing practices to promote a healthy life among school-going children. Hand washing should be done using soap and water and afterward dried since microbes transfer easily with wet hands. 6 References Almoslem, M. M., Alshehri, T. A., Althumairi, A. A., Aljassim, M. T., Hassan, M. E., & Berekaa, M. M. (2021). Handwashing Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices among Students in Eastern Province Schools, Saudi Arabia. Journal of Environmental and Public Health, 2021. Fianko, J. R., & Akosua Gawu, J. (2020). Evaluation of hand hygiene behavior in primary schools in Ghana: a case study of the Ablekuma Central Municipality in the greater region of Ghana. Health Education Research, 35(5), 362-375. Ghebreyesus, T. A. (2020). Public health round-up. Bull World Health Organ, 98, 584-585. Marcenac, P., Kim, S., Molinari, N., Person, M., Frankson, R., Berendes, D., ... & GarciaWilliams, A. (2021). Knowledge, attitudes, and practices around hand drying in public bathrooms during the COVID-19 pandemic in the United States. American Journal of Infection Control.
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Explanation & Answer

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Final Paper
Student Name
College
Course Number & Name
Instructor's full name and credentials
Date assignment is due

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Final Paper
There has been increasing attention from healthcare stakeholders such as regulatory
bodies, government, insurers, and patients due to an increase in the level of infection. This is due
to the magnitude of the problem based on the cost of treatment, mortality rate, and associated
mobility. Research shows that most of these are preventable. The medical world is experiencing
extraordinary advances in the study of infectious disease pathogenesis and the global expansion
of multi-drug resistance pathogens in healthcare settings (Sun et al., 2019). Through this,
stakeholders have invested in preventive measures to reduce the high health cost, mortality rate,
and rate of infections. Hand hygiene is now regarded as one of the most important prevention
strategies in infection control activities. With the increase in healthcare-associated infection and
pandemics, the severity of illnesses has increased while the treatment process has become more
complex. This has caused people and health professionals to reverse back to the basics of
infection prevention. There is also enough evidence that supports hand hygiene as a strategy in
reducing cross-transmission of infection. A good example of evidence-based practice is the case
of COVID-19. The virus has been spreading at an alarming rate. Through this, the World Health
Organization and countries introduced measures to prevent the spread of the virus. Handwashing
is considered one of the main approaches and received considerable attention during the
pandemic (Alzyood et al., 2020). Most health professions recommended the method since it acts
as a primary preventive measure that people can conduct independently. The paper will conduct
research on handwashing and the importance of hand hygiene in elementary school.
Capstone Proposal
The project question is on defining hand hygiene, identifying some healthcare-associated
infections and how they are transmitted, and providing evidence-based practices on how hand

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hygiene is important as a prevention measure. The project's title is Hand hygiene: back to
infection prevention and control basics. The paper will provide several instances where hand
hygiene has been used as a primary preventive strategy. The final paper will also provide details
from the literature review, identifying previous research in the field. There will also be a
discussion on handwashing initiatives such as Clean Care is Safer Care, an initiative by World
Health Organization (Rao et al., 2020).
Background
Hand washing's importance was conceptualized in the 19th century. Key people involved
in the conceptualization include Labarraque and Semmelweis. One of the major milestones was
in 1975 and 1985 when the CDC published guidelines on handwashing practices. During this
period, the CDC recommended using non-antimicrobial soaps and antimicrobial soap. In 2002,
the CDC recommended using alcohol-based hand rubs for decontamination.
The issue in elementary schools is based on the high level of absenteeism. According to research,
about 75% of school absences are attributed to illness. There is also a negative outcome in terms
of education and economic growth associated with illness. A good example is when a child falls
behind when sick when a teacher is absent. There are also instances where public schools can
miss funding due to absenteeism (Loos-Bartlett, 2017). Hands are the most common mode of
transmission. Therefore, hand hygiene can help address the issue of infectious diseases among
school-aged children. Management in elementary schools can use hand washing as a strategy to
reduce illness-related absences. Study shows that handwashing can help in reducing illnessrelated absence by 26%. Hand hygiene also impacts a subset of illnesses which is reduced by
32% (Lau et al., 2011). A study on hand sanitizer shows that it can help reduce illness-related
absenteeism in elementary school by 51%.

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While the need for hand cleanliness in school-aged children is evident, the function of teaching
in implementation is less so. It's u...


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