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# Assignment: Evaluating Significance of Findings

Part of your task as a scholar-practitioner is to act as a critical consumer of research and ask informed questions of published material. Sometimes, claims are made that do not match the results of the analysis. Unfortunately, this is why statistics is sometimes unfairly associated with telling lies. These misalignments might not be solely attributable to statistical nonsense, but also “user error.” One of the greatest areas of user error is within the practice of hypothesis testing and interpreting statistical significance. As you continue to consume research, be sure and read everything with a critical eye and call out statements that do not match the results.

For this Assignment, you will examine statistical significance and meaningfulness based on sample statements.

**To prepare for this Assignment:**

- Review the Week 5 Scenarios found in this week’s Learning Resources and select two of the four scenarios for this Assignment.

**For this Assignment:**

Critically evaluate the two scenarios you selected based upon the following points:

- Critically evaluate the sample size.
- Critically evaluate the statements for meaningfulness.
- Critically evaluate the statements for statistical significance.
- Based on your evaluation, provide an explanation of the implications for social change.

Use proper APA format and citations, and referencing.

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Needed pdf file to write assigment

Week 5 Scenarios 1. The p-value was slightly above conventional threshold, but was described as “rapidly approaching significance” (i.e., p =.06). An independent samples t test was used to determine whether student satisfaction levels in a quantitative reasoning course differed between the traditional classroom and on-line environments. The samples consisted of students in four face-to-face classes at a traditional state university (n = 65) and four online classes offered at the same university (n = 69). Students reported their level of satisfaction on a fivepoint scale, with higher values indicating higher levels of satisfaction. Since the study was exploratory in nature, levels of significance were relaxed to the .10 level. The test was significant t(132) = 1.8, p = .074, wherein students in the face-to-face class reported lower levels of satisfaction (M = 3.39, SD = 1.8) than did those in the online sections (M = 3.89, SD = 1.4). We therefore conclude that on average, students in online quantitative reasoning classes have higher levels of satisfaction. The results of this study are significant because they provide educators with evidence of what medium works better in producing quantitatively knowledgeable practitioners.

2. A results report that does not find any effect and also has small sample size (possibly no effect detected due to lack of power). A one-way analysis of variance was used to test whether a relationship exists between educational attainment and race. The dependent variable of education was measured as number of years of education completed. The race factor had three attributes of European American (n = 36), African American (n = 23) and Hispanic (n = 18). Descriptive statistics indicate that on average, European Americans have higher levels of education (M = 16.4, SD = 4.6), with African Americans slightly trailing (M = 15.5, SD = 6.8) and Hispanics having on average lower levels of educational attainment (M = 13.3, SD = 6.1). The ANOVA was not significant F (2,74) = 1.789, p = .175, indicating there are no differences in educational attainment across these three races in the population. The results of this study are significant because they shed light on the current social conversation about inequality.

3. Statistical significance is found in a study, but the effect in reality is very small (i.e., there was a very minor difference in attitude between men and women). Were the results meaningful? An independent samples t test was conducted to determine whether differences exist between men and women on cultural competency scores. The samples consisted of 663 women and 650 men taken from a convenience sample of public, private, and non-profit organizations. Each participant was administered an instrument that measured his or her current levels of cultural competency. The © 2016 Laureate Education, Inc. Page 2 of 2 cultural competency score ranges from 0 to 10, with higher scores indicating higher levels of cultural competency. The descriptive statistics indicate women have higher levels of cultural competency (M = 9.2, SD = 3.2) than men (M = 8.9, SD = 2.1). The results were significant t (1311) = 2.0, p <.05, indicating that women are more culturally competent than are men. These results tell us that gender-specific interventions targeted toward men may assist in bolstering cultural competency.

4. A study has results that seem fine, but there is no clear association to social
change. What is missing?
A correlation test was conducted to determine whether a relationship exists
between level of income and job satisfaction. The sample consisted of 432
employees equally represented across public, private, and non-profit sectors. The
results of the test demonstrate a strong positive correlation between the two
variables, r =.87, p < .01, showing that as level of income increases, job
satisfaction increases as well.

## Final Answer

Thank you.

Running head: Significance of Findings

1

Significance of Findings:

Name:

Institution affiliation:

Date:

Significance of Findings

2

Evaluation of scenario 1 & 4.

Scenario 1

Sample size Evaluation.

In most cases sample size required depends on the objective of the research, the research

question and finally resources available for research despite the argument by scholars that there

is no standard sample size.

Since the outcome or results of any research depends on sample size, when a sample is

not representative enough an error will occur. The margin by which the statistics is from

population parameter caused by the sample not being an precise representation of the population

from which it was obtained is the sampling error.

With face-to-face classes (n=65) & online classes having (n=69) is an indication that the

representativeness of the sample size was good since in a standard class usually averages about

(n=50). Therefore, we can conclude that the representation of both the traditional students & the

online students in the survey was satisfactory.

meaningfulness of the statements.

Based on the findings one can concluded that the levels of satisfaction on average for

students in online classes are higher. This finding is of importance to educators since they offer

insight into what works best for students. However, this is still having divergent views depending

on the circumstances and environment of imparting the knowledge. While it is true that the

current generation are more aligned towards digital or modern technology, the traditional

classroom perceived as outdated & teacher-dependent is of essence when tackling technical

mathematical computations which require guidance. Thus, the satisfaction in this case can be

aligned to convenience and at the expense of performance of the students.

Significance of Findings

3

Statistical Significance.

The findings of the descriptive statistical analysis indicate that the results were significant

at p = 0.074 and t (132) = 1.8, with students in online classes having higher levels of satisfaction

(M = 3.89, SD = 1.4) as compared to those in the traditional state university class who had low

levels of satisfaction (M = 3.39, SD = 1.8). This led to the conclusion that averagely, levels of

satisfaction for students in online classes are higher (Hurley, Denegar & Hertel, 2011).

Statistical significance tells us how certain one is that a relationship or difference exist.

To just claim that a relationship or difference exists leaves findings inconclusive. It is essential to

evaluate the strength of a significant relationship. Depending on size of the sample, Significant

relationships can either be weak/strong, small/large.

The findings of this research are thus statistically significant because sample size is large

in both ...