SOCW 6361 Walden University Social Science Paper

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SOCW 6361

Walden University

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A primary competency for advocacy is communicating with legislators about the social problems and policies you want to change. This means you will need to be well versed in both the social problems that connect with you and the polices that exist to address them.

In Week 2, you identified a social problem. You have since worked to narrow your focus and, separately, considered how policies play a major role in the functions of social work agencies and organizations. For the Assignment this week, you start to bring all these pieces together. First, you develop an issue statement to concisely capture your selected social problem through appropriate facts and questions that solicit a response. Then you identify a state or local policy that currently works to address your selected social problem and resolve your issue statement.

To Prepare:

  • Review the Issue Statement Sample document in the Learning Resources this week.
  • Search for and select at least one scholarly article that deepens your understanding of—or narrows the context for—your social problem.
  • Search for and select at least one source that explores the population(s) impacted by your selected social problem. This can be a news article or other popular media—for example, you might select a source where someone details their personal story for how they were impacted by the social problem.
  • Search for and select at least one local or state policy that works to address your selected social problem for the affected populations.
    • Use the Legislative Proposal Assessment from the Council on Social Work Education resource in the Learning Resources this week. This worksheet does not have to be submitted for your Assignment, but it is a useful tool to help you search for, select, and evaluate a policy.

By Day 7

Submit a 3- to 5-page paper, addressing the following:

  • Issue Statement: Create a 1-paragraph issue statement that hooks your audience and concisely communicates the imperative to address your selected social problem. Include the following:
    • In 1 paragraph, define your social problem and the population impacted by it.
    • In 1–2 paragraphs, explain your critical reasons for why the public and decision makers, as well as social workers, need to advocate for change.
    • In 1–2 paragraphs, describe what happens in communities if your goal to alleviate the problem is realized.
  • Policy Review: Summarize your selected policy, its relationships to the social problem, and the expected results. Then address the following:
    • Is your selected policy dictated by local or state statute—or a combination thereof?
    • How does the policy address your issue statement? Or what is missing?
    • What are the different sections, or components, of the policy?
    • How long has the current policy been in place?
    • Who supports and who opposes the policy?
    • What changes, or amendments, have been made to the policy?
    • Explain how this policy affects clients you might see in a clinical setting and why, as a clinical social worker, it would be important to advocate for change.

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1 Final Project Milestone 1: Identification of a Social Problem NAME Walden University SOCW 6361: Social Policy: Analysis and Advocacy December 12th, 2021 2 Introduction Food security can be defined as the condition in which people cannot access enough food for their daily consumption. These can be caused by natural disasters such as drought and conflicts. It can lead to psychological effects such as anger on the victims. The populations vulnerable to this social problem are at the lowest point in the income circulation, especially those who lack jobs and the disabled. People earning low incomes cannot afford food hence go hungry and thirsty. Food insecurity mainly affects groups such as people living in remote areas, small children who live in poor conditions, African Americans living in the United States, and other parts of the world. People from Latin are also vulnerable to social problems. Historical background of food insecurity It is reported that in 1970 there was an eruption of food crisis. That is after the president of the United States of America realized that hunger was highly increasing among the residents of the United States. That is also after the Second World War, where different approaches in agriculture commenced. After the rising prices of oil in the 1970s, Henry (US secretary) is believed to be the one who named food security. He worked under President Richard Nixon, realizing the emanating global challenge and pandemic caused by inadequate food within the region. In the 1960s, hunger cases in the United States became more profound. In 1980 the president of the United States of America introduced a task force called food assistance as they tried to bring to halt this pandemic. That invented the use of vocabularies such as poverty and unemployment. Those food insecurity programs endorsed by the United States marked the onset of realization and fight against food insecurity (Washington, 2019). Change in population faced by food insecurity Food security impacted a lot of negative effects on the population that faced this global issue. Food insecurity led to a change in the mode of living of these people affected. It reduced 3 the standards of living of these people. That is because the people suffered psychological hunger, stress, and malnutrition. Among children, it led to a high increase in malnutrition-related diseases. The diseases erupted and were widespread between children and different Communities, leading to modalities. These food-related diseases such as marasmus became a growing threat in the lives of young children. Lack of food also leads to migration of these populations affected. It also led to agricultural businesses' implementation to cater to their needs. This population used fertilizers and seeds to grow crops that would sustain them, I.e., and They became farmers. It also led to the growth of ill conditions like diabetes and hypertension (PayneSturges et al., 2018). Food insecurity incompatibility with social work values Decision problem known as food insecurity causes major social workers' values failure. That is because the social problem is the major cause of the vulnerable population in society. It is logical that when someone does not take enough food to sustain their living, the weekend I've been weak and unable to participate in social works. Food insecurity can also lead to the eruption of criminal activities such as theft of goods and robbery. The criminals involved in these activities are people trying to get their daily Bread after going several hungry nights. That hinders social values and ethics in society. To work, they need to take food which is necessary for energy-giving frequently. Once this food becomes scarce and inadequate, it will lead to incapable people lacking the necessary labor for use in social works. These criminal cases prove that food insecurity leads to a decline in social values and ethics. Steps to identify suitable policy Essential steps are needed to develop policies that will help overcome these social problems of food insecurity. Every community member needs to be educated on the importance 4 of not wasting food. Education is critical and essential in ensuring that food insecurity is eliminated. The following steps are necessary when developing the policies; educating the community on food security causes, effects, and dangers. Some regulations to ensure that no food is wasted need to be installed. Incorporating different people and the government to manage food insecurity is another step in developing the policy. The government needs to lessen the policies for everyone to make them fair to everyone. Issuing seeds and fertilizer to different Farmers and encouraging them to practice farming on a different type of crop is another step in making these policies. The policy needs to be amended as part of the government's regulations so that everyone has to follow them to the latter (Loopstra et al., 2019). 5 Reference Washington, K. N. (2019). Using a rule-driven race equity reform approach to mitigate the effects of America's history of racism on food insecurity. Professional agricultural workers journal, 7(3). Payne-Sturges, D. C., Tjaden, A., Caldeira, K. M., Vincent, K. B., & Arria, A. M. (2018). Student hunger on campus: Food insecurity among college students and implications for academic institutions. American Journal of Health Promotion, 32(2), 349-354. Loopstra, R., Reeves, A., & Tarasuk, V. (2019). The rise of hunger among low-income households: an analysis of the risks of food insecurity between 2004 and 2016 in a population-based study of UK adults. J Epidemiol Community Health, 73(7), 668-673. 1 Practicing Policy Review name Walden University SOCW 6361: Social Policy: Analysis and Advocacy December 19th, 2021 Food Insecurity The policy seeks to solve food insecurity. Food insecurity occurs when people cannot access enough food for their daily consumption. The US government has developed programs to solve food insecurity (Washington, 2019). Areas in the Policy that Indicated the Social Problem Malnutrition among children. Children below ten have suffered from Kwashiokor because they cannot access enough proteins. When children have malnutrition, their immunities become weak hence contracting diseases faster. Some lactating mothers from low economy class cannot afford a balanced diet, so their children will not have enough nutrients. Hunger is another area. Children will suffer from marasmus when they do not eat sufficient nutrients. When people do not have the food, they prefer to migrate to other places to access food, even by getting it from donations. As a social worker, I should be concerned with the problem because death cases have been reported in the past. The amount of labor will reduce due to death. When I don’t take food, I become weak and cannot deliver well in my social work. When infants lose their mothers, they suffer because they cannot breastfeed. Children who do not get enough time to breastfeed have low IQ or slow learners. I’d say that such children will take longer to grasp basic skills than others. Problem not Directly Identified in the Policy Criminal cases: The number of criminal cases increases when people lack food to survive. There are times when the only option is stealing for some individuals not to starve. The policy seeks to improve the food supply and prevent criminal activities. The Population Impacted by the Problem Children will be the highest beneficiaries of the policy because the government will bring reforms to solve food insecurity. They will eat food with sufficient nutrients and grow healthy with solid immunities. Farmers will also benefit from the policy because they will receive subsidies from the government. The government is educating farmers on the importance of planning their farming activities to eliminate food insecurity. Food insecurity mainly hits people with low income yet large families ( Loopstra, Reeves & Tarasuk, 2019). The more mouths to feed, the more food required; therefore, a small payment would be insufficient. People who are not affected have income that can cater to all their meals, hence feeding all family members. Children will get enough nutrients and will hardly contract diseases. Farmers who plan ahead of time will always have food and never suffer from hunger due to food shortages. The Population is Taken into Consideration The government has made efforts to educate people on the importance of food security, ways to prevent food wastage, causes and problems of food insecurity. Education is the best way to enlighten community members to eliminate food insecurity. Children will be given food rich in nutrients needed by their bodies. Farmers will receive fertilizers that the government subsidizes. The government will introduce new crops and give them seeds to have a variety of crops. Summary of the Excerpt from the Policy Food insecurity programs’ introduction began when the government realized food insecurity. Children are not able to get enough nutrients due to food insecurity. Social workers will not have the energy to do work when they starve. The government has lessened policies and come up with reforms to help children and farmers. Strengths Farmers will produce more products that will feed many families. Many families will not starve when food is in surplus. Food prices will reduce when there is a considerable surplus. Hoarding of food will be eliminated, creating a fair field for all sellers. Children will hardly get sick when they eat enough food with all the nutrients because their immunities are strong. The exemption is built by the food one eats; therefore, parents should feed their children healthy food. Limitation There are campus students that starve because they cannot afford food. The policy does not give much attention to campus students, adults, and children. Dying among campus students has led to depression among some individuals (Payne-Sturges, Tjaden, Caldeira, Vincent & Aria, 2018). Change Food would be very affordable even for low-income households to eat a diet rich in nutrients. The government should provide food for campus students, not starve. References Loopstra, R., Reeves, A., & Tarasuk, V. (2019). The rise of hunger among low-income households: an analysis of the risks of food insecurity between 2004 and 2016 in a population-based study of UK adults. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 73(7), 668–673. https://doi.org/10.1136/jech-2018-211194 Payne-Sturges, D. C., Tjaden, A., Caldeira, K. M., Vincent, K. B., & Arria, A. M. (2018). Student Hunger on Campus: Food Insecurity Among College Students and Implications for Academic Institutions. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF HEALTH PROMOTION, 32(2), 349–354. https://doi.org/10.1177/0890117117719620 Washington, K.N. (2019).Using a rule-driven race equity reform approach to mitigate the effects of America’s history on racism and food insecurity. Professional agricultural workers journal,7(3). SPECIALIZED PRACTICE CURRICULAR GUIDE for MACRO SOCIAL WORK PRACTICE 2015 EPAS Curricular Guide Resource Series SPECIALIZED PRACTICE CURRICULAR GUIDE for MACRO SOCIAL WORK PRACTICE SPECIALIZED PRACTICE CURRICULAR GUIDE for MACRO SOCIAL WORK PRACTICE 2015 EPAS Curricular Guide Resource Series Council on Social Work Education Alexandria, Virginia Copyright © 2018, Council on Social Work Education Published in the United States by the Council on Social Work Education, Inc. All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted in any manner whatsoever without the prior written permission of the publisher. ISBN 978-0-87293-188-6 Council on Social Work Education 1701 Duke Street, Suite 200 Alexandria, VA 22314-3457 www.cswe.org Acknowledgments This document was developed through a collaborative partnership with the Council on Social Work Education (CSWE) and the Special Commission to Advance Macro Practice (SC) and with the generous support of the Fund for Social Policy Education and Practice (FSPEP). Additional support was provided by the following partner organizations: the Association for Community Organization and Social Administration (ACOSA), Influencing Social Policy (ISP), and the Network for Social Work Management (NSWM). COORDINATING COMMITTEE CHAIRS FOCUS AREA TEAM LEADERS Darlyne Bailey Bryn Mawr College Bruce D. Friedman (Administration/Management) California State University, Bakersfield Capella University Terry Mizrahi Hunter College, CUNY Sunny Harris Rome (Policy) George Mason University Jo Ann Regan Council on Social Work Education Tracy Soska (Community) University of Pittsburgh Adrienne Walters Council on Social Work Education v vi SPECIALIZED PRACTICE CURRICULAR GUIDE FOR MACRO SOCIAL WORK PRACTICE TEAM LEADERSHIP CONSULTANTS Mimi Abramovitz (Policy) Hunter College, CUNY Kimberly Richards The People's Institute for Survival and Beyond Michálle E. Mor Barack (Administration/Management) University of Southern California Shane Brady (Community) University of Oklahoma Amy Cohen-Callow (Administration/Management) University of Maryland Linda Plitt Donaldson (Policy) Catholic University of America Karen Hopkins (Administration/Management) University of Maryland Joyce James Joyce James Consulting LLC THE NATIONAL TASK FORCE BY FOCUS AREAS ADMINISTRATION/MANAGEMENT FOCUS AREA TEAM MEMBERS Cyndi Amato University of New England Randy J Baxter Spring Arbor University Nancy A. Morrow (Field Education) Bryn Mawr College Maria Beam Oakland University Mary Ohmer (Community) University of Pittsburgh Diane R Bessel Daemen College Suzanne Pritzker (Policy) University of Houston Lois A. Bosch University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign Amy Tauati (Field Education) Azusa Pacific University Larry Breitenstein Slippery Rock University Jennifer Zelnick (Community) Touro College James R Carter Wright State University PROJECT MANAGER KB Bonner Bryn Mawr College PRODUCTION MANAGER Julian Goldhagen Hunter College, CUNY Lisa Clifton Asbury University Valerie Cuffee George Mason University Thomas P. Felke Florida Gulf Coast University Jodi Jacobson Frey University of Maryland Baltimore Lauri Goldkind Fordham University Acknowledgments Baorong Guo University of Missouri-St. Louis Jennifer R. Jewell Salisbury University Lisa Hawash Portland State University Theresa Kreif University of Hawai'i at Manoa Andrea L. Jones University of North Carolina Wilmington Diane Loeffler University of Kentucky Benjamin Lough University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Eva Moya University of Texas at El Paso Maureen MacNamara Appalachian State University Nancy Morrow Bryn Mawr College Jose A Ramos Jr. California State University Northridge Barry Rosenberg Washington University in St. Louis Amy Murphy-Nugen Western Carolina University René D. Olate The Ohio State University Emmerentie Oliphant Stephen F. Austin State University Stephen W. Stoeffler Kutztown University of Pennsylvania Amy Tauati Azusa Pacific University Tonya VanDeinse University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Jimmy Young California State University San Marcos Sherron Wilkes Miles College COMMUNITY FOCUS AREA TEAM MEMBERS Gautam N. Yadama Boston College Brooke Blaalid University of South Dakota POLICY FOCUS AREA TEAM MEMBERS Mary E. Daly Mansfield University Eli Bartle California State University Northridge Chris Fike Saginaw Valley State University Carly Burton Simmons University Colleen Fisher University of Minnesota Pamela Chiang Eastern Connecticut State University Scott Harding University of Connecticut Michel A. Coconis Union Institute & University Tamara K. Hicks Johnson C. Smith University Sheila Crowley Virginia Commonwealth University Cheryl A. Hyde Temple University Fredi Giesler University of Wisconsin – Oshkosh vii viii SPECIALIZED PRACTICE CURRICULAR GUIDE FOR MACRO SOCIAL WORK PRACTICE Jing Guo University of Hawaii at Manoa ADDITIONAL CONTRIBUTORS Peter A. Kindle University of South Dakota Jennifer Hughes Wright State University Melinda Lewis University of Kansas Gisele Ferretto University of Maryland, Baltimore Isabel Logan Eastern Connecticut State University Angela Jachelski University of Maryland, Baltimore Diane R. Martell Rhode Island College Maria Rodriguez Hunter College Heather A. McCabe Indiana University Cathy McElderry Southeast Missouri State University Donna McIntosh Siena College FUND FOR SOCIAL POLICY EDUCATION AND PRACTICE Patricia A. White Executive Director Molly W. Metzger Washington University in St. Louis COUNCIL ON SOCIAL WORK EDUCATION Jill E. Murray Southern University at New Orleans Darla Spence Coffey President and CEO Mary Nienow University of Wisconsin-Eau Claire Jo Ann Coe Regan Vice President of Education Jason Ostrander Sacred Heart University Andrea Bediako Associate Director, Education Initiatives and Research Carolyn G. Peabody Stony Brook University Linda S. Schmidt Western Michigan University Adrienne Walters Program Associate, Education Initiatives and Research Stephen Monroe Tomczak Southern Connecticut State University Elizabeth Simon Publications Manager LaTamera Woodley Tennessee Department of Human Services Mary Kurfess Consultant Contents Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . v Preface: Competency-Based Education . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xv Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xix Introduction to the Competencies: Underlying Assumptions Common to Macro-Level Practice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xxvii Competency 1 Demonstrate Ethical and Professional Behavior . . . . . . . . . 1 Appendix 1A: Case Vignette: College Counseling Center . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Appendix 1B: Small Group Discussion: Administrative Dilemma . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Appendix 1C: Supervision in the Organizational Context . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 Appendix 1D: Community Practice Ethics Case Studies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 Appendix 1E: Identifying Your Leadership and Supervisory Style . . . . . . . . . . . 19 Appendix 1F: Case Study: Organizational Culture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 Appendix 1G: Reflecting on Advocacy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 Appendix 1H: Advocate’s Autobiography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 Appendix 1I: Values Inventory for Policy Practice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 Appendix 1J: Exploring Ethical Dilemmas From Field Internship . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 ix x SPECIALIZED PRACTICE CURRICULAR GUIDE FOR MACRO SOCIAL WORK PRACTICE Competency 2 Engage Diversity and Difference in Practice . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 Appendix 2A: Cultural Self-Identification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 Appendix 2B: Power Exercise . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 Appendix 2C: Privilege and Policy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 Appendix 2D: Case Study: Spotlight on Youth Organizing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 Appendix 2E: Engaging Diversity in Management and Administration: Comprehensive Paper Assignment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 Appendix 2F: Preparing to Engage With a New Organization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 Appendix 2G: Social Work Pioneers of Color Biographical Sketch . . . . . . . . . . . 54 Competency 3  Advance Human Rights and Social, Economic, and Environmental Justice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 Appendix 3A: Human Rights as a Frame for Policy Practice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67 Appendix 3B: Theories of Justice: Class Debate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 Appendix 3C: Human Rights Policy Critique . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 Competency 4  Engage in Practice-informed Research and Research-informed Practice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 Appendix 4A: Community Practice Methods Activity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78 Appendix 4B: Turn the Curve for Result-based Accountability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79 Appendix 4C: Community-based Participatory Action Research: Neighborhood Assessment and Analysis Paper and Presentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79 Appendix 4D: Community-based Participatory Action Research: Research Proposal and Study . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 Appendix 4E: Community-based Participatory Action Research: Research Paper Instructions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84 Appendix 4F: Grand Challenges Assignment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 Contents Competency 5 xi Engage in Policy Practice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89 Appendix 5A: Case Vignette: Organizational Development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99 Appendix 5B: Case Vignette: ABC Agency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100 Appendix 5C: Think Tank Activity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102 Appendix 5D: “The Light of Day” Strikes Again: Legislator Profile . . . . . . . . . . 103 Appendix 5E: Comparing Policy Analysis Frameworks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104 Appendix 5F: Policy Development Exercise . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105 Appendix 5G: Advocacy Policy Role Play . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105 Appendix 5H: Historical Policy Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108 Appendix 5I: Develop Volunteer Manual . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109 Appendix 5J: Rural Advocacy Project . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109 Appendix 5K: Who Represents Me in Government? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111 Appendix 5L: Hearing Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113 Appendix 5M: Supreme Court Contributions to Social Policy: Case Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114 Appendix 5N: Legislative Proposal Assessment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116 Competency 6  Engagement With Individuals, Families, Groups, Organizations, and Communities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119 Appendix 6A: Rebuttal of How to Conduct Yourself as a Practitioner Abroad . . . 129 Appendix 6B: Advocacy Communications Critique . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130 Appendix 6C: Identifying and Engaging Stakeholders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131 Appendix 6D: Profiles of Elected Officials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132 Appendix 6E: Survey of Advocacy Organizations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133 Appendix 6F: Twitter Assignment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134 Appendix 6G: Interorganizational Engagement in Collaborations, Coalitions, and Partnerships . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136 xii SPECIALIZED PRACTICE CURRICULAR GUIDE FOR MACRO SOCIAL WORK PRACTICE Competency 7  Assess Individuals, Families, Groups, Organizations, and Communities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139 Appendix 7A: SWOT Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150 Appendix 7B: Assessing Teams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151 Appendix 7C: Eco-Map: The Policy Context . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152 Appendix 7D: Financial Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153 Appendix 7E: Assess a Management Policy or Practice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154 Appendix 7F: Performance Assessment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155 Appendix 7G: Culturally Competent Programming Assessment . . . . . . . . . . . . 156 Appendix 7H: Walking Community Assessment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162 Appendix 7I: Strength-Based Needs Assessment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163 Appendix 7J: Disability Meme . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 165 Appendix 7K: Coalition Meeting Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 165 Appendix 7L: White Paper or Position Paper . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166 Appendix 7M: Legislative Case Study . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168 Appendix 7N: System of Care Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169 Appendix 7O: Ecological Analysis of a Social Agency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 7 1 Competency 8  Intervene With Individuals, Families, Groups, Organizations, and Communities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177 Appendix 8A: Case Vignette: Community Center . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184 Appendix 8B: Policy Impact . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 185 Appendix 8C: Using Social Media . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 185 Appendix 8D: Mock Legislative Hearing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 186 Appendix 8E: You’ve Won! Now What? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 187 Appendix 8F: Strategy Chart Case Study . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 187 Appendix 8G: Community Project . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 189 Appendix 8H: Systems Problem Analysis and Practice Intervention . . . . . . . . . 194 Contents xiii Appendix 8I: Developing a Policy Proposal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197 Appendix 8J: Policy Critique . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 199 Appendix 8K: Designing an Advocacy Campaign for Social Change . . . . . . . . 201 Appendix 8L: Legislative Testimony . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 202 Appendix 8M: Advocacy Strategy and Implementation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 205 Appendix 8N: Advocacy Portfolio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 207 Competency 9 Evaluate Practice With Individuals, Families, Groups, Organizations, and Communities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 213 Appendix 9A: Evaluating Policies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 221 Appendix 9B: Team Evaluation Project and Report . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 222 Appendix 9C: Evaluation Project . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 223 Appendix 9D: Online Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 231 Appendix 9E: Cultural Competence Evaluation Assignment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 234 Appendix 9F: Social Mapping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 236 Macro Tools for the Field . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 247 Preface: Competency-Based Education In 2008 the Council on Social Work Education (CSWE) adopted a competency-based education framework for its educational policy and accreditation standards. Competency-based education rests on a shared view of the nature of competence in professional practice. Social work competence is the ability to integrate and apply social work knowledge, values, and skills to practice situations in a purposeful, intentional, and professional manner to promote human and community well-being. The Educational Policy and Accreditation Standards (EPAS) recognizes a holistic view of competence, that the demonstration of competence is informed by knowledge, values, skills, and cognitive and affective processes that include the social worker’s critical thinking, affective reactions, and exercise of judgment regarding unique practice situations. Overall professional competence is multidimensional and composed of interrelated competencies. An individual social worker’s competence is developmental and dynamic, changing over time in relation to continuous learning (CSWE, 2015, p. 6). Competency-based education is an outcome-oriented approach to curriculum design. The goal of the outcome approach is to ensure that students can demonstrate the integration and application of the competencies in practice. In EPAS, social work practice competence consists of nine interrelated competencies and component behaviors that consist of knowledge, values, skills, and cognitive and affective processes. Using a curriculum design that begins with the outcomes, expressed as the expected competencies, programs develop the substantive content, pedagogical approaches, and educational activities that provide learning opportunities for students to demonstrate the competencies (CSWE, 2015, p. 6). xv xvi SPECIALIZED PRACTICE CURRICULAR GUIDE FOR MACRO SOCIAL WORK PRACTICE SOCIAL WORK COMPETENCIES The 2015 EPAS stipulates nine competencies for the social work profession. These competencies apply to both generalist and specialized practice. The nine social work competencies are listed in the 2015 EPAS on pp. 7–9. Each of the nine social work competencies is followed by a paragraph that describes the dimensions (knowledge, values, skills, and cognitive and affective processes) that make up the competency at the generalist level of practice. This paragraph informs the content that should be reflected in the generalist social work curriculum and represents the underlying content and processes that inform the behaviors. The bullet points under the paragraph descriptions in the EPAS are a set of behaviors that integrate the dimensions of the competency and represent observable components of each competency. The dimensions of the competency inform the behaviors. SPECIALIZED PRACTICE Specialized practice builds on generalist practice, as described in Educational Policy (EP) 2.0 of the 2015 EPAS, adapting and extending the social work competencies for practice with a specific population, problem area, method of intervention, perspective, or approach to practice. Specialized practice augments and extends social work knowledge, values, and skills to engage, assess, intervene, and evaluate within an area of specialization. Specialized practitioners advocate with and on behalf of clients and constituencies in their area of specialized practice. Specialized practitioners synthesize and use a broad range of interdisciplinary and multidisciplinary knowledge and skills based on scientific inquiry and best practices and consistent with social work values. Specialized practitioners engage in and conduct research to inform and improve practice, policy, and service delivery. The master’s program in social work prepares students for specialized practice. Programs identify the specialized knowledge, values, skills, cognitive and affective processes, and behaviors that extend and enhance the nine social work competencies and prepare students for practice in the area of specialization (CSWE, 2015, p. 12). Preface xvii FRAMEWORK FOR THE GUIDE The CSWE Commission on Educational Policy (COEP) developed a framework for the development of curricular guides for areas of specialized practice. The task force followed the guidelines for creating macro social work competencies and curricular resources that reflect accreditation standards for master’s programs, listed here: 1) Identification of an area of specialized practice for a specific population, problem area, method of intervention, perspective, or approach to practice in social work (EP M2.1). 2) Discussion of how the area of specialized practice builds on generalist practice as described in EP 2.0 (AS M2.1.1). 3) Identification of the specialized knowledge, values, skills, cognitive and affective processes, and behaviors that extend and enhance the nine social work competencies and prepare students for practice in the area of specialization identified (EP M2.1 and AS M2.1.3). 4) Suggested curriculum content and resources (e.g., readings, multimedia and online resources, modules, assignments, experiential exercises, class and field activities) for each of the nine social work competencies and any additional competencies identified. The curriculum content and resources identified in this guide are not required by accreditation standards and are meant to serve as an optional guide to programs on how to conceptualize macro social work practice with the nine social work competencies identified in the 2015 EPAS. 5) Identification of the competency dimensions (knowledge, values, skills, and cognitive and affective processes) associated with the course content for each competency. ORGANIZATION OF THE GUIDE Congruent with the 2015 EPAS and framework developed by CSWE’s COEP, specialized practice for macro social work builds on generalist practice but augments and extends social work knowledge, values, and skills to engage, assess, intervene, and evaluate within administration and management xviii SPECIALIZED PRACTICE CURRICULAR GUIDE FOR MACRO SOCIAL WORK PRACTICE practice, community practice, and policy practice. Accordingly, for each of the competencies identified in this guide, there is a paragraph description of the dimensions—knowledge, values, skills, and cognitive and affective processes— that make up the competency and prepare students for macro social work practice. This is followed by a set of three or four behaviors to be attained by practitioners who are working with and on behalf of macro social work and their constituencies. Readings, in-class exercises, media and assignments, and whether they address knowledge, values, skills, or cognitive and affective processes are identified for each of the competencies. Descriptions of shorter selected assignments and in-class exercises for each competency are shown in the curricular map; longer activities or additional details are given in the appendices. REFERENCE Council on Social Work Education. (2015). Educational policy and accreditation standards. Retrieved from https://www.cswe.org/Accreditation/ Standards-and-Policies/2015-EPAS Introduction We are pleased to present the Specialized Practice Curricular Guide for Macro Social Work. It enhances our understanding and implementation of the nine generalist-level competencies of the Council on Social Work Education (CSWE) 2015 Educational Policy and Accreditation Standards (EPAS) 2015 for macro practice. Herein we define macro as organizational administration and management, community organizing, and policy practice. Social work education, with its person-in-environment foundation, requires competency in macro and micro areas of practice in the classroom and in the field. This guide seeks to serve as an invaluable resource to faculty, students, field instructors, and supervisors who educate students to work effectively in the macro arena. We believe that these materials can also help to advance other areas of social work education, including programs that choose specializations or concentrations based on fields of practice, methods, or populations. CSWE competencies for generalist practice require that practice content at community, organizational, and policy levels be part of the social work curriculum. BACKGROUND Over the years, many social work educators and agency leaders have reported a decline in the number of social work students choosing to pursue macro courses and career tracks. In turn, this trend became the reason to eliminate or reduce macro specializations and curricula. Some states in the United States also began to license graduate social workers only at the clinical level. Furthermore, many social work graduates who gravitated toward macro careers took positions with titles that were not identified as social work or did xix xx SPECIALIZED PRACTICE CURRICULAR GUIDE FOR MACRO SOCIAL WORK PRACTICE not require a social work degree. Due to this combination of factors our profession became more directed toward the micro/clinical practice. Almost as a self-fulfilling prophecy, if the marketing of an MSW program did not feature macro curricula and specializations, potential students might not know they could pursue this are of social work practice. An analysis of the 2008 EPAS conducted by the Association for Community Organization and Social Administration (ACOSA) revealed that it did not sufficiently explain or explicitly identify the macro end of “practice.” In response ACOSA undertook a year-long process to develop a set of macro practice competencies, practice behaviors, and curricular resources for the 2008 EPAS, which the Journal of Community Practice and the Encyclopedia of Social Work published (Gamble & Soska, 2013). In 2012, Jack Rothman with Tracy Soska conducted a survey through the ACOSA and its members, as well as faculty of CSWE-recognized macro programs in schools of social work. They identified the marginalization of macro faculty, curricula, and field placements. Rothman subsequently issued a report (Rothman, 2013) that identified the declining influence of macro practice in social work education. He called for a strategy that would provide a greater presence and awareness of macro issues, by increasing the macro curricula and recruiting more macro-oriented students within social work education. In response, ACOSA leaders created the Special Commission to Advance Macro Practice in Social Work (SC) in July 2013. Shortly thereafter, Darlyne Bailey and Terry Mizrahi were invited to serve as co-chairs of the SC and many kindred others volunteered to assist with the massive undertaking. The SC recruited eighteen prominent social work educators and leaders to serve as commissioners. As of this printing, the SC includes 30 commissioners, joined by an engaged community of more than 500 allies, individual and organizational supporters, and 90 + investor schools from among accredited BSW and MSW programs. These investor deans, directors, and department chairs have contributed financially or in-kind through faculty support to the advance the SC’s goals and agenda. The SC also received formal affirmation or endorsement from the CSWE, the National Association of Deans and Directors (NADD), and the National Association of Social Workers (NASW). Each year, Introduction xxi social work educators report the various ways they visibly “make macro matter” in their recruitment, curricula, field internships, and alumni connections. The SC promotes two overarching goals. The first is ensuring that by 2020, 20% of all graduate-level social work students nationally have chosen macro social work as an area of specialization (for the MSW programs that have identified areas of specialization). The second goal is to rebalance micro and macro curricula in the programs that are identified as integrated practice or advanced generalist. Rebalancing means including a comparable amount of identifiable macro practice as micro content in classroom and field curricula, or producing innovative models for uniting the range of practice competencies. Since 2013, we have implemented several strategies that achieve these goals. We provided the CSWE Commission on Educational Policy (COEP) and Commission on Accreditation (COA) with critical input for the 2015 EPAS. This included a more comprehensive definition of social work practice that more explicitly incorporates, the term macro at the organization, community, and policy areas of practice throughout. A defining feature of the final 2015 EPAS now includes a holistic view of competency-based practice behaviors as observable actions that demonstrate an integration of competence informed by knowledge, values, skills, and cognitive and affective processes. Another SC strategy, with ACOSA as its partner organization, reached out to other macro-related organizations—the Network for Social Work Management (NSWM), Influencing Social Policy (ISP), Macro Social Work Student Network (MSWN), and the Twitter Chat Collaborative (#MacroSW). Together we formed the “United for Macro” partnership. (For more information, please see https://www.acosa.org/joomla/about-the-special-commission). PHASES IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE GUIDE Phase 1: Initiating the Guide An ongoing dialogue between the SC and CSWE resulted in the identification of the need for a Specialized Practice Curricular Guide for Macro Social Work as the fifth in a series of guides published by CSWE. The macro guide provides specific, detailed curricular content and resources for social work educators, students, and practitioners to use in creating or enhancing macro curricula in the classroom and field. xxii SPECIALIZED PRACTICE CURRICULAR GUIDE FOR MACRO SOCIAL WORK PRACTICE Together we created a multiphase process designed to engage many stakeholders and contributors in the task of adapting and extending the nine competencies from the 2015 EPAS into a specialized macro practice guide that usefully included a section for field education resources. To ensure an inclusive and comprehensive process, the SC invited ACOSA, the NSWM, and ISP to each designate a focus area team leader in their respective areas of community, administration and management, and policy practice. CSWE and the SC a sent a letter to the deans and directors of all CSWE accredited programs asking them to nominate a faculty member to participate in new the National Task Force for the Macro Guide that would develop this inaugural guide. Working with the SC co-chairs and CSWE representatives, the three focus area team leaders each invited three additional colleagues from among this National Task Force to join their team. This collective became the Coordinating Committee, responsible for providing the overall direction and guidance of the National Task Force. The SC also selected a two-student team to join the Coordinating Committee so ensure the presence of the student perspective and to provide administrative support. Lastly, CSWE hired a consultant who became part of the Coordinating Committee, to provide additional expertise on issues related to race and racial equity. Ultimately, the National Task Force for the Macro Guide consisted of members of the Coordinating Committee and nominated faculty together representing about 75 social work programs across the United States. Phase 2: Convening the National Task Force In September 2017, National Task Force held a 2-day meeting at Catholic University in Washington, D.C. The participants deliberated in small and large groups and explored the structure and content of the nine competencies as applied to the three focus areas. This began an iterative process among members of the Coordinating Committee, with additional input solicited from other field education colleagues. During the September meeting members of the National Task Force refined the competencies and practice behaviors. The Task Force then formed working teams that cut across the three focus areas to integrate content on the three focus areas within each of the competencies for both descriptions and practice behaviors. Introduction xxiii The outcome of the larger collective process was further refined by the focus area teams who integrated the descriptions and practice behaviors. The members of the National Task Force also established a consulting group to operationalize the competencies within field placements. Phase 3: Forming Work Groups Following the National Task Force meetings, each focus area team leader reached out to team members for recommendations of curricular resources for each of the competencies (i.e., readings, field activities, class activities, media, assignments, and case studies). In addition, the consultative group on field education suggested field resources for the competencies. In addition to further integration each focus area team designated a team member to one or more work group focusing specifically on each competency and a point person to coordinate these working sessions over the upcoming months. These focus area work groups within each focus area team compiled and refined their recommendations regarding definitions, competencies, and behaviors. These were reviewed and finalized by the focus area team leaders. Phase 4: Integrating the Competencies Across Focus Areas During this process, the focus area team leaders regularly met and intensively prepared a document that integrated the definitions and practice behaviors for each competency as provided by the collaborative working groups across three focus areas. The focus area team leaders also worked together, competency by competency, to review, revise, and finalize a draft of definitions and set of practice behaviors for each competency. They then shared these integrated definitions and sets of practice behaviors within their respective focus area teams for further review and input for final drafts for each competency definition and set of practice behaviors. Concurrently, the focus area team leaders worked extensively to develop a final compendium of curricular resources applicable to each focus area for each competency, which were also reviewed by the focus area team work groups. The Task Force forwarded all documents the SC co-chairs and the student team for review, revisions, input, and finalization. xxiv SPECIALIZED PRACTICE CURRICULAR GUIDE FOR MACRO SOCIAL WORK PRACTICE Phase 5: Completing and Producing the Guide In early June 2018, the macro guide focus area leadership teams, the SC co-chairs, and the student team members of the Coordinating Committee completed a final draft to send to the 75 National Task Force members and the consultant for review and comment. CSWE published and distributed the first-ever Specialized Practice Curricular Guide for Macro Social Work in fall of 2018, a year after the convening of the National Task Force. Distribution and celebration of this guide were planned for the CSWE 2018 Annual Meeting held in Orlando, Florida. CONCLUSION The multilayered structure and iterative and reiterative process used to produce this guide were purposeful. Our goal was to provide a highly informative guide that maximally enabled inclusivity, multivocality, accessibility, and transparency. The curriculum content and resources outlined in this guide can serve as resources for programs when conceptualizing and delivering specialized macro practice. For each competency, guide users can access and select from the suggested resources, including full descriptions of in-class exercises and assignments, by clicking on the associated URLs. We also recognized that most macro competencies included in this guide can be addressed in multiple courses, linked to more than one of the nine social work competencies, or may be field focused. Relatedly, some curricular resources, particularly in-class exercises, assignments, and field experiences, can be used to support the attainment of more than one competency. The examples and resources included in this guide represent only some that are available within social work and fully address all possible subareas or subgroups within macro social work practice Nonetheless the excellent content can be used to develop macro courses or a comprehensive macro program. Additional references, resources, and course syllabi can be found on the websites of ACOSA, CSWE's Policy Clearinghouse, ISP, and NSWM. Finally, the section on Macro Tools for the field included field-related classroom assignments related to each competency. In addition, some in-class exercises can be modified for field assignments and vice versa. Introduction xxv As with any curricular guide, the Task Force members made steadfast and concerted efforts to avoid a binary gender identification when using pronouns such as he and she by including nouns such as student, faculty, staff, and community members. Some redundancies, gaps, and areas for further development are inevitable. The intent of this guide is to provide a solid foundation for social work education programs to develop and enhance their own macro content to ensure that their graduates acquire competencies for specialized macro practice or robust macro content in a generalist or integrated programs within the EPAS 2015 curriculum design. We encourage our faculty and field colleagues to bring a critical eye and to add or modify resources as needed to best align with their respective program’s mission, context, and specialized curricular structures. We believe that this guide supports the overall goal of ensuring that we prepare future social workers to engage in macro practice. We hope you will agree! Introduction to the Competencies: Underlying Assumptions Common to Macro-Level Practice Macro social work practice includes three primary focus areas: administration and management (focusing on the organizational environment), community practice (focusing on the community environment defined by geography, identity, or issue), and policy practice (focusing on the public policy environment). The following assumptions cut across each of the three competency descriptions and inform our work: ●● ●● ●● ●● Societal ills based on injustice, inequality, or inequity cannot be ameliorated or lessened without social workers individually and collectively understanding and addressing systemic and structural root causes. These require practitioners with competencies in community, organizations, and policy analysis and change. Macro social workers, who sit at the intersection of the individual and society, recognize the interconnections and interdependencies between micro and macro systems. These social workers are well positioned to address a wide range of societal challenges and to engage in macro policy practice on many fronts. Macro social workers adhere to professional codes of ethics and advance the social work principles of social and economic justice. Macro social work practice has at its core identifying and dismantling structural racism, sexism, heterosexism, classism, ageism, ableism and other forms of marginalization, oppression, and discrimination in communities, organizations, and public policy. xxvii xxviii ●● ●● ●● ●● ●● SPECIALIZED PRACTICE CURRICULAR GUIDE FOR MACRO SOCIAL WORK PRACTICE Macro is direct social work practice. It is integral to working with individuals, families, and small groups (the micro end of social work) and is critically important to the life chances and well-being of all people, especially vulnerable populations. Macro practice occurs through partnerships with clients, constituencies, and communities. This process of engagement builds on their strengths and is informed and guided by their experiences and recommendations. Macro practice requires a sophisticated understanding of the prevailing social, economic, and political contexts that shape living and working conditions at the local, state, and national levels. Macro-level change is a process that requires thoughtful, deliberate, and strategic analysis, planning, communication, and intervention. Macro practice calls for working collectively to prevent social problems, ameliorate adverse conditions, and effect positive social change in government, organizational, and community settings. DISTINCTIONS AMONG THE THREE AREAS OF MACRO PRACTICE Although areas of overlap and permeable boundaries prevail among the three macro focus areas the following differences also exist. CORE FOCI Administration and management practice. Social workers in the administrative and management area focus on aspects of human service agencies and organizations that provide resources and services especially for vulnerable populations and those most at risk. Macro practice social workers in this area understand leadership behaviors, performance management, organizational behavior, evidence-based or promising practices, finances, and budgeting and know how these features of organization life interconnect and influence service effectiveness and talent management. Community practice. Social workers in community practice recognize that the social environment that sustains all people consists of many types of Introduction to the Competencies: Underlying Assumptions Common to Macro-Level Practice xxix communities, including geographic, identity and cultural, faith or spiritual, mutual interest, organizational or associational, and more. People belong to many different communities simultaneously; therefore, social work practice in communities targets diverse stakeholders, constituencies, and power holders. Policy practice. Social workers in policy practice shape and affect broad social systems and institutions where laws, regulations, policies, and other wide-ranging decisions that affect human well-being are made. Policy practice focuses predominantly on influencing the policy-making process of local, state, and national levels of government, in the executive, legislative, and judicial branches, and in electoral politics. Policy practitioners strive to amplify the voices and perspectives of marginalized populations within the political arena. MACRO SOCIAL WORKERS USE SPECIFIC KNOWLEDGE AND SKILLS TO INTERVENE IN THEIR MAJOR PRACTICE ENVIRONMENTS Organizational environment. Social workers in administration and management practice intervene to align organizational missions with outcomes through service delivery to people, particularly vulnerable populations and those who are at risk. These environments include large public settings, smaller public settings, private nonprofit settings, and private for-profit settings. Community environment. Social workers in community practice engage with community partners to mobilize on issues and needs, develop services and strategies that enhance community well-being, and build community capacity. Community practitioners work in a range of settings, including community and neighborhood-based organizations, faith-based organizations, community development corporations, public development agencies, and broader human services agencies in public, private nonprofit or for-profit sectors, and coalitions, collaborations, and other alliances. Policy environment. Social workers in policy practice intervene to influence policy outcomes through advocacy, political action, and serving in policy-making roles. They persuade policymakers through lobbying, galvanize public support or opposition through constituent education and mobilization, and engage in electoral politics. Some shape policy directly by occupying policy-making roles at the local, state, and national levels. Others focus on xxx SPECIALIZED PRACTICE CURRICULAR GUIDE FOR MACRO SOCIAL WORK PRACTICE electoral politics, engaging in both partisan and nonpartisan political activity. Policy practitioners work in a variety of venues including legislative offices; local, state, and federal agencies; think tanks; lobbying firms; policy research and analysis organizations, community-based social service agencies; professional associations; advocacy groups; and political campaigns. MACRO SOCIAL WORKERS USE A VARIETY OF STRATEGIES AND TACTICS TO ACHIEVE GOALS SPECIFIC TO THEIR PRACTICE ENVIRONMENTS Administration and management. Practitioners work within organizational systems to persuade decision makers, boards of directors, and funders to provide programs and services that meet the needs of the services users, especially the most vulnerable and oppressed. Social workers in administration and management operate within the four domains of executive leadership, resource management, strategic management, and interorganizational or community collaboration. ●● ●● ●● Executive leadership: Social workers in administration and management will use interpersonal skills that are necessary to motivate others to communicate the organizational mission and vision at all levels of management. Specifically, the skills of analytical and critical thinking, professional behavior, maintaining stakeholder relationships, communication, cross-cultural understanding, advocacy for social justice, and innovative change are used within and between organizations to achieve the organizational missions and goals. Resource management: Social workers in administration and management have the intellectual skills that provide for a clear perspective on the organization in its environment and are essential to possessing the capacity to think and act strategically. These skills are in the areas of effective talent management, managing and overseeing the budget and other financial resources, and ensuring transparency, protection, and accountability, including information technology. Strategic management: Social workers in administration and management have technical skills that are essential to managing Introduction to the Competencies: Underlying Assumptions Common to Macro-Level Practice xxxi organizational function in the areas of fundraising, marketing and public relations, design and development of effective organizational and interorganizational programs, managing risk and legal affairs, and ensuring strategic planning for strategic action. ●● Community collaboration: Social workers in administration and management build relationships and collaborate with complementary agencies, institutions, businesses, and other community group to enhance program resources and improve services. Social workers identify opportunities for partnerships that promote the achievement of the organizational mission and manage policy advocacy coalitions and other alliances dedicated to issues of social justice and client well-being. Community practitioners. These social workers address geographic, identity, cultural, faith or spiritual, mutual interest, and organizational or associational communities to engage and mobilize constituencies and stakeholders and to persuade public, organizational, and local community decision makers to provide funds, resources, and services to the community to best address community-identified needs and issues, especially with those who are oppressed, vulnerable, and at risk. Community practice social work includes strategies of community organizing, planning, development, capacity building, and social action and change. ●● ●● Community organizing: Social workers in community practice educate, engage, and mobilize community constituents and stakeholders to address community-identified needs and issues. In mobilizing community constituencies and stakeholders, these social workers help to foster collective power that can be used to engage or persuade external stakeholders and decision makers to address community needs and issues and to organize grassroots community members and stakeholders to sustain a mobilized community constituency toward its goals. Community planning: Social workers in community practice partner with community constituents and stakeholders to assess community needs and issues and the target systems to respond to those needs xxxii SPECIALIZED PRACTICE CURRICULAR GUIDE FOR MACRO SOCIAL WORK PRACTICE and issues; identify community assets, capacities, and allies; and develop intervention plans (goals and objectives) toward addressing community needs and issues. ●● ●● ●● Community development: Social workers in community practice work to engage community constituencies and stakeholders around common interests, needs, and issues; build community consensus using collaboration and coalition tactics to find common ground for (re)developing and revitalizing a locality and its assets (e.g., housing, commercial business, social service organizations, and programs); and use community planning tactics to prioritize and undertake efforts to improve a locality, develop social or community programs, or establish and maintain community-based organizations. Community capacity building: Social workers in community practice recognize the importance of building human and social capital in ways that strengthen intracommunity bonds and bridge intercommunity relations. They increase the capacity of community constituencies and stakeholders to build and sustain skilled community-based leadership, promote and train grassroots organizers; establish and maintain organizations to sustain community efforts; and foster and support partnerships, collaborations, coalitions, and other alliances to build intraorganizational and interorganizational power and influence. Community change: Social workers in community practice recognize that promoting community change requires persuasion at several levels: educating community constituencies, stakeholders, and decision makers about the nature and scope of needs and issues; campaigning to engage grassroots constituencies and stakeholders in sustained advocacy and lobbying on problems, positions, and solutions to decision makers; fostering and sustaining alliances and coalitions to enhance power and influence to promote needed change; and, as necessary and feasible, engaging in confrontation and conflict to oppose decisions and decision makers or advance collective interests when the stakes are significant or adverse to human rights and social, economic, or environmental justice. Introduction to the Competencies: Underlying Assumptions Common to Macro-Level Practice xxxiii Policy practitioners. These social workers use planned, strategic interventions—informed by a deep understanding of context and power dynamics—to persuade local, state, and national policymakers to initiate, adopt, and implement policies consistent with social work values and priorities. They work with decision makers, policymakers, thought leaders, community leaders, activists, grassroots organizations, and others to promote change that improves the lives of all people, especially vulnerable populations. They educate and mobilize members of the public to support policy goals and work collaboratively with colleagues within social work and across professional disciplines. Major domains of policy practice include policy analysis, policy development, policy advocacy, policy implementation, and electoral politics. ●● ●● ●● Policy analysis: Social workers in policy practice use specific frameworks to examine existing policies and assess their intended and unintended consequences. They also identify the strengths and shortcomings of proposed policies and compare various policy options. Analyses may focus on the policy process; historical context; political ramifications; social, economic, and environmental impacts; implications for client rights, needs, benefits, and services; and consistency with social work values. Policy development: Social workers in policy practice identify social problems and propose policy responses. They use research evidence, practice knowledge, and client perspectives and experiences to develop solutions that are intended to result in an improved quality of life and that demonstrate consistency with core social work principles. They consider the political landscape and likelihood of enactment as well as implementation requirements. They collaborate with others in the policy environment to draft legislation, develop fiscal impact statements, and educate members of the legislative and executive branches about prospective policy solutions. Policy advocacy: Social workers in policy practice use ethical, collaborative, and political strategies to advance policy proposals intended to have a positive impact on client populations, especially those who are vulnerable or oppressed. They create and implement strategic advocacy campaigns that may involve developing and xxxiv SPECIALIZED PRACTICE CURRICULAR GUIDE FOR MACRO SOCIAL WORK PRACTICE working in coalitions, testifying at legislative hearings, mobilizing constituent support, engaging in direct action, meeting with policymakers, and generating attention through media or social media. They translate research findings for consumption by policymakers and the public, craft messages appropriate to key audiences, and develop and deliver cogent and persuasive arguments. ●● ●● Policy implementation: Social workers in policy practice write regulations that operationalize enacted legislation, specifying how to translate laws and other policies into practice at the agency and service delivery levels. Social workers monitor the implementation process to ensure that it occurs as intended. They also engage in advocacy to enforce existing legislation designed to protect human rights and provide opportunities and supports to vulnerable populations. Electoral politics: Social workers in policy practice engage in voter education, engagement, and mobilization to maximize participation in the democratic process. They recognize that political action is essential to self-efficacy and community health and has far-reaching consequences for social policy. They lead and participate in electoral campaigns and run for and hold political office. MACRO SOCIAL WORK PRACTITIONERS IDENTIFY AND SEEK A VARIETY OF OUTCOMES Administration and management practice. Social workers in administration and management strive to align program services with organizational mission by maintaining currency in funding that supports the services for the populations being served, particularly vulnerable individuals, marginalized groups, and oppressed populations. Community practice. Social workers in community practice seek outcomes that improve community well-being; address oppression, discrimination, and racism; are culturally grounded; and consider the historical context and evolving dynamic shifts in the nature of communities. These outcomes include the following: Introduction to the Competencies: Underlying Assumptions Common to Macro-Level Practice ●● ●● ●● ●● ●● xxxv an engaged community mobilized for collective power and action; greater awareness of community needs and issues for actions that advance solutions to address those needs and issues; formal community plans and agendas that ensure community participation and action; stronger relationships and bonds within the community that help bridge relationships outside the community; skilled community-based leadership and effective organizations to implement community plans and sustain community action; and revitalized and new local communities, programs, and assets (e.g., parks, business, housing, community services). Policy practice. Social workers in policy practice use the policy and political processes to dismantle oppressive structures, achieve systemic reforms, create service improvements that advance and protect the physical and social environment and the rights and well-being of marginalized populations; implement strategies that result in a more engaged public and in better educated policymakers who understand the priorities of low-income and vulnerable constituents; and appreciate the research evidence and practice wisdom that social workers bring to the table. CORE DOCUMENTS, REFERENCES, AND RESOURCES The following is a selected list of references and resources that are basic to one or all of the macro practice focus areas. General Information on Social Work Competencies THE GRAND CHALLENGES FOR SOCIAL WORK American Academy of Social Work and Social Welfare. (n.d.). Grand Challenges Initiatives. Retrieved from http://aaswsw.org/ grand-challenges-initiative/ THE NETWORK FOR SOCIAL WORK MANAGEMENT COMPETENCIES Network for Social Work Management. (n.d.). Competencies. Retrieved from https://socialworkmanager.org/competencies/ xxxvi SPECIALIZED PRACTICE CURRICULAR GUIDE FOR MACRO SOCIAL WORK PRACTICE ACOSA COMPETENCIES Gamble, D. N., & Soska, T. M. (2013). Macro practice competencies. The Encyclopedia of Social Work. doi:10.1093/acrefore/9780199975839.013.976 ROTHMAN REPORT Rothman, J. (2013, June). Education for macro intervention: A survey of problems and prospects. Journal of Community Practice, 21(3). Retrieved from http:// www.acosa.org/joomla/pdf/RothmanReportRevisedJune2013.pdf MIZRAHI AND ROTHMAN REPORT Mizrahi, T., & Rothman, J. (2014) Balancing micro and macro practice: A challenge for social work. Social Work, 59(1), 91–93. Codes of Ethics NATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF SOCIAL WORKERS CODE OF ETHICS National Association of Social Workers. (n.d.). Code of ethics. Retrieved from https://www.socialworkers.org/About/Ethics/Code-of-Ethics/ Code-of-Ethics-English INTERNATIONAL FEDERATION OF SOCIAL WORKERS CODE OF ETHICS International Federation of Social Workers. (n.d.). Statement of ethical principles. Retrieved from http://ifsw.org/policies/statement-of-ethical-principles/ Community Resources THE HANDBOOK OF COMMUNITY PRACTICE Weil, M., Reisch, M., & Ohmer, M. L. (2013). The handbook of community practice (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE. INDIGENOUS AND TRIBAL SOCIAL WORK EDUCATORS ASSOCIATION https://www.cswe.org/getattachment/Centers-Initiatives/Scholarships-andFellowships/Scholars-Program/Past-CSWE-Scholars/10-TaskForceonNativeA mericansinSocialWorkEducation.pdf.aspx COMMUNITY TOOLBOX The University of Kansas. (n.d.). Community tool box. Retrieved from https://ctb. ku.edu/en Introduction to the Competencies: Underlying Assumptions Common to Macro-Level Practice xxxvii Macro Social Work Practice Journals JOURNAL OF COMMUNITY PRACTICE https://www.tandfonline.com/loi/wcom20 HUMAN SERVICE ORGANIZATIONS (formerly ADMINISTRATION IN SOCIAL WORK) https://www.tandfonline.com/loi/wasw21 JOURNAL OF POLICY PRACTICE https://www.tandfonline.com/loi/wjpp20 Macro Social Work Professional Organizations NETWORK FOR SOCIAL WORK MANAGEMENT (NSWM) https://socialworkmanager.org/ ASSOCIATION FOR COMMUNITY ORGANIZATION AND SOCIAL ADMINISTRATION (ACOSA) http://www.acosa.org/joomla/ INFLUENCING SOCIAL POLICY (ISP) http://influencingsocialpolicy.org/ Macro Social Work Textbooks Burghardt, S. (2014). Macro practice in social work for the 21st century: Bridging the macro-micro divide (2nd ed.). Los Angeles, CA: SAGE. Netting, E. F., Kettner, P. M., McMurtry, S. L., & Thomas, M. L. (2017). Social work macro practice (6th ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson. Reisch, M. (2018). Macro social work practice: Working for change in a multicultural society. San Diego, CA: Cognella Academic Publishing. Social Work Practice, Policy, and Social Justice Bailey, D., & Emmerson, M. (2016). The horse and the herd: Steadying the shift between micro and macro-direct social work practice. The Pennsylvania Social Worker, 37(2). xxxviii SPECIALIZED PRACTICE CURRICULAR GUIDE FOR MACRO SOCIAL WORK PRACTICE Bailey, D., & Emmerson, M. (Guest Eds.). (2018). Interconnections of micro and macro practice: Sharing experiences of the real world [Special Issue]. Reflections: Narratives of Professional Helping, 24(1), 1–167. Retrieved from https://www.reflectionsnarrativesofprofessionalhelping.org/index.php/ Reflections/issue/view/123 Reisch, M. (2016). Social policy and social justice (2nd ed.). San Diego, CA: Cognella Academic Publishing. Social Work Speaks. (2017). National Association of Social Workers policy statements 2018–2020 (11th ed.). Washington, DC: NASW Press. Retrieved from https://www.naswpress.org/publications/Profession/social-workspeaks-1.html Competency 1 Demonstrate Ethical and Professional Behavior SPECIALIZED PRACTICE COMPETENCY DESCRIPTION Macro social workers demonstrate the capacity, integrity, and commitment to act in an ethical manner that promotes inclusive participation in decision making, public policy, and community building. They ensure that practice in complex systems respects every individual’s and community’s right to human dignity and worth by opposing sources and structures of racism and other forms of oppression. Macro practitioners are facilitative leaders and organizers across all realms of practice and maintain a commitment to a vision and mission that support the collective process of social change. To ensure ethical practice with communities, with organizations, and in the policy arena, these social workers use self-reflection, self-regulation, supervision, consultation, and lifelong learning to address how their attitudes and biases influence their personal and professional identity, values, and behaviors. Social workers in macro practice represent the profession’s values in interactions with clients, interprofessional colleagues, policymakers, and community stakeholders. They understand and promote organizational, community, and individual rights regarding policy, political activity, and other forms of social action. Macro practitioners recognize ethical issues in practice and distinguish between decision-making frameworks to navigate ethical dilemmas between their personal values, their identity, values of the profession, and the values, interests, and rights of individuals, families, groups, organizations, and communities. 1 2 SPECIALIZED PRACTICE CURRICULAR GUIDE FOR MACRO SOCIAL WORK PRACTICE COMPETENCY BEHAVIORS Social workers in macro practice ●● ●● ●● ●● ●● ●● ●● ●● ●● ●● apply an anti-oppression framework integrating the principles included in the NASW and International Federation of Social Workers (IFSW) ethical codes, evidence-based knowledge, and relevant legal and policy-related information; apply aspects of cultural humility into ethical decision making, demonstrating recognition of and ability to use the principles as related to NASW and IFSW codes of ethics; critically apply ethical decision-making frameworks that reflect social work values and the basic needs and rights of vulnerable, marginalized, and disadvantaged communities; identify and promote organizational and community vision, mission, goals, objectives, and values in the dynamic and evolving contexts of macro practice; advance internal and external policies for community change that reflect social work values, challenge discrimination and social inequities, and prioritize the voices of affected populations; use self-evaluation and reflection to critically navigate competing personal and professional values, as well as trade-offs involved in making strategic decisions; demonstrate proficiency in regulations and laws that govern practice within nonprofit and public agencies and community settings; model appropriate professional use of self in the different social work roles required in professional macro environments; demonstrate an understanding of the significance of social work supervision as an accountability mechanism in supporting ethical and professional social work practice; and recognize the complexities and dilemmas that may arise in working with multiple client groups and constituencies. Competency 1: Demonstrate Ethical and Professional Behavior 3 CURRICULAR RESOURCES MAPPED TO COMPETENCY DIMENSIONS Readings Resource Competency Dimension ARTICLES Bailey, D., Bonner, K. B., Uhly, K., & Wilen, J. S. (In press). Leadership, Foundations of. Encyclopedia of Social Work. (http://www.socialwork. oxfordre.com). Values Bass, B. M., & Steidlmeier, P. (1999). Ethics, character, and authentic transformational leadership behavior. Leadership Quarterly, 10(2), 181–217. Values Edwards, Richard L. (1987). The Competing Values Approach as an Integrating Framework for the Management Curriculum. Administration in Social Work, 11(1), 1-13. Values Gibelman, M. (2005). Social workers for rent: The contingency human services labor force. Families in Society, 86(4), 457–469. Values Hair, H. J. (2015). Supervision conversations about social justice and social work practice. Journal of Social Work, 15(4), 349–370. doi:10.1177/1468017314539082 Values Hardina, D. (2004). Guidelines for ethical practice in community organization. Social Work, 49(4), 595–604. Values Hardina, D., Jendian, M. A., & White, C. G. (2015). Tactical decision-making: Community organizers describe ethical considerations in social action campaigns. Journal of Sociology and Social Welfare, 42(1), 73–94. Values Cognitive and Affective Processes Cognitive and Affective Processes Cognitive and Affective Processes Cognitive and Affective Processes Cognitive and Affective Processes Cognitive and Affective Processes Cognitive and Affective Processes (continued) 4 SPECIALIZED PRACTICE CURRICULAR GUIDE FOR MACRO SOCIAL WORK PRACTICE Readings (continued) Resource Competency Dimension Kimberlin, S. E. (2010). Advocacy by nonprofits: Roles and practices of core advocacy organizations and direct service agencies, Journal of Policy Practice, 9(3–4), 164–182. Values LeRoux, K. (2011). Examining implementation of the National Voter Registration Act by nonprofit organizations: An institutional explanation. The Policy Studies Journal, 39(4), 565–589. Values Mosley, J. E. (2013). Recognizing new opportunities: Conceptualizing policy advocacy in everyday organizational practice. Social Work, 58(3), 231–239. Values Reisch, M., & Lowe, J. (2000). “Of means and ends” revisited: Teaching ethical community organizing in an unethical society. Journal of Community Practice, 7(1), 19–38. Values Reisch, M., & Taylor, C. L. (1983). Ethical guidelines for cutback management: A preliminary approach. Administration in Social Work, 7(3/4), 59–72. Values Cognitive and Affective Processes Cognitive and Affective Processes Cognitive and Affective Processes Cognitive and Affective Processes Cognitive and Affective Processes BOOK CHAPTERS Cummins, L. K., Byers, K. V., & Pedrick, L. (2011). Ethics in policy practice In Policy practice for social workers: New strategies for a new era (Chapter 5). Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon. Values Jansson, B. (2018). Articulating four rationales for participating in policy advocacy. In Becoming an effective policy advocate: From policy practice to social justice (Chapter 2, 8th ed.). Belmont, CA: Belmont/ Brooks-Cole. Values Lane, S. R., & Pritzker, S. (2018). Budgeting and allocating resources. In Political social work: Using power to create social change (Chapter 12, Section 4). New York, NY: Springer International Publishing. Values Cognitive and Affective Processes Cognitive and Affective Processes Cognitive and Affective Processes (continued) Competency 1: Demonstrate Ethical and Professional Behavior 5 Readings (continued) Resource Competency Dimension Lane, S. R., & Pritzker, S. (2018). Making ethical decisions in political social work In Political social work: Using power to create social change (Chapter 14). New York, NY: Springer International Publishing. Values Lewis, C. E. (2012). From the tough streets of East New York to Capitol Hill. In E. F. Hoffler & E. J. Clark (Eds.), Social work matters (pp. 46–50). Washington, DC: NASW Press. Values Minkler, M., Pies, C., & Hyde, C. (2012). Ethical issues in community organizing and capacity building. In M. Minkler (Ed.), Community organizing and community building for health and welfare (Chapter 7). New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press. Values Mizrahi, T. (2012). How I became a community organizer as a casework social work student. In E. F. Hoffler & E. J. Clark (Eds.)., Social work matters (pp. 83–90). Washington, DC: NASW Press. Values Cognitive and Affective Processes Cognitive and Affective Processes Cognitive and Affective Processes Cognitive and Affective Processes BOOKS Banks, S. (2014). Ethics. Critical and radical debates in social work (I. Ferguson & M. Lavalette, Eds.). Bristol, UK: Policy Press. Values Bolman, L. G., & Deal, T. E. (2017) Reframing organizations (6th ed.). Hoboken, NJ: Jossey-Bass. Values Burghardt, S., & Tolliver, W. (2010). Stories of transformative leadership in the human services: Why the glass is always full. Los Angeles, CA: Sage. Values Cameron, K., Quinn, R., Degraff, J., & Thakor, A. (2014). Competing values leadership (2nd ed.). Northampton, MA: Edward Elgar Publishing. Values Cognitive and Affective Processes Cognitive and Affective Processes Cognitive and Affective Processes Cognitive and Affective Processes (continued) 6 SPECIALIZED PRACTICE CURRICULAR GUIDE FOR MACRO SOCIAL WORK PRACTICE Readings (continued) Resource Competency Dimension Dolgoff, R., Harrington, D., & Loewenberg, F. (2012). Ethical decisions for social work practice (9th ed.). Brooks/Cole Empowerment Series. Stamford, CT: Cengage. Values Cognitive and Affective Processes Media Resource Competency Dimension Alliance for Justice: www.bolderadvocacy.org Knowledge Community Tool Box: http://ctb.ku.edu/ Knowledge Skills IFSW Ethical Principles: http://ifsw.org/policies/effective-and-ethicalworking-environments-for-social-work-the-responsibilities-of-employersof-social-workers-3/ Knowledge Internal Revenue Service (2017). “Direct” and “grass roots” lobbying defined. https://www.irs.gov/charities-non-profits/direct-and-grass-rootslobbying-defined. Knowledge NASW ethical principles using technology: https://www.socialworkers. org/includes/newIncludes/homepage/PRA-BRO-33617.TechStandards_ FINAL_POSTING.pdf Knowledge U.S. Office of Special Counsel. (n.d.). How does the Hatch Act affect me? Available at: https://osc.gov/pages/hatchact-affectsme.aspx Knowledge 2018 NASW Code of Ethics: https://www.socialworkers.org/About/Ethics/ Code-of-Ethics/Code-of-Ethics-English Knowledge inSocialWork podcast series Knowledge Episode 181: Chad Allee: Leadership in Social Work Values http://www.insocialwork.org/reviews.asp?ep=181 Cognitive and Affective Processes The idea of leadership is finding its way more often into the discussions of professional social work, but what is meant by “leadership”? And what does being a “leader” mean? In this episode, Chad Allee describes what leadership is, argues for the importance of leadership in social work, and points to the need to cultivate more social work leaders. Values Values Values (continued) Competency 1: Demonstrate Ethical and Professional Behavior 7 Media (continued) Resource Competency Dimension CUNY Workforce Development Initiative of the Silberman School of Social Work at Hunter College. Video Taking action, making change. Available at: https://www.youtube.com/ watch?v=fUl5CAn5zMo In-Class Exercises Resource Competency Dimension Case Vignette: College Counseling Center Knowledge Discusses the ethics surrounding keeping a program versus changing it to address trends. Values Skills See Appendix 1A. Small Groups: Administrative Dilemma Values Four different scenarios where ethical considerations are discussed, based on role and position with the organization. See Appendix 1B. Cognitive and Affective Processes Small Groups: Supervision in the Organizational Context Knowledge Supervision is an interaction process in which the worker plays an active part in influencing the behavior of the supervisor and the outcome of the process. In preparation for class discussion, students will reflect on the questions that refer to the Schulman text, as well as the competing values framework (CVF) and Stories of Transformative Leadership. You should be prepared to share your answers in small groups and to the class. See Appendix 1C. Community Practice Ethics Case Studies Values The case of the crèche Cognitive and Affective Processes This case study examines the clash of at least two ethical principles in a community practice context. How does a macro practice social worker practice ethically when the goals of a community violate basic social work values? Who gets funding This case study presents a dilemma involving competing values that highlight issues of race, class, and gender in a competitive funding environment. How can disadvantaged agencies compete with those with better access to resources needed to secure funding? See Appendix 1D. (continued) 8 SPECIALIZED PRACTICE CURRICULAR GUIDE FOR MACRO SOCIAL WORK PRACTICE In-Class Exercises (continued) Resource Competency Dimension Reflecting on Ethical Dilemmas in Policy Practice Values With a small group of your peers, identify at least three specific ethical dilemmas that policy practitioners might face in their practice. Discuss the personal values, organizational values, and professional values that might be in conflict for each dilemma. Then, as a group, identify relevant core social work values or ethical standards and discuss how each might help you approach the challenge. Skills Political Engagement, Laws, and Ethics Knowledge Cognitive and Affective Processes 1. In a small group, discuss with your peers any messages you have received about the political activity permissible for public and nonprofit employees in your state. 2. Then, as a group, look up each of the following (or assign a different question to each group): ●● The laws that govern political activity of state employees in your state ●● The laws that govern political activity of nonprofit employees ●● The laws that govern lobbying in your state 3. What is allowed? What isn’t? How do the actual laws surrounding political activity compare to the messages you have received? Values and Politics Values Chauncey Alexander, a former executive director of NASW, once wrote, “There is an organic relationship between professional function and political responsibility.” What do you think he means? Share examples of how this idea could, or has been, operationalized. Assignments Resource Identifying Your Leadership and Supervisory Style Competency Dimension Values A self-inventory of personal leadership styles and how they relate to values in decision making. See Appendix 1E. Case Study: Organizational Culture Values Focuses on the competing values within organizations. Cognitive and Affective Processes See Appendix 1F. (continued) Competency 1: Demonstrate Ethical and Professional Behavior Assignments (continued) Resource Competency Dimension Reflecting on Advocacy Knowledge Students write an essay, including self-reflection, based on a book about an activist. Values See Appendix 1G. Cognitive and Affective Processes Advocate’s Autobiography Values Students reflect on the role of advocacy in their own lives. See Appendix 1H. Cognitive and Affective Processes Values Inventory for Policy Practice Knowledge Students identify their positions on a series of policy issues (drawn from Social Work Speaks). They then compare their personal positions to those of NASW and write a critical reflection. Values See Appendix 1I. Activities Resource Competency Dimension Exploring Ethical Dilemmas From Field Internship Knowledge Students analyze an ethical dilemma that they have encountered in their macro field placement. Values See Appendix 1J. Cognitive and Affective Processes 9 10 SPECIALIZED PRACTICE CURRICULAR GUIDE FOR MACRO SOCIAL WORK PRACTICE APPENDIX 1A: CASE VIGNETTE: COLLEGE COUNSELING CENTER The counseling center at Hillsboro University was a model of excellence in its early years. It was one of the few such centers offering long-term therapy for students who desired high degrees of self-awareness. Only in cases of serious psychiatric crisis were students referred to outside agencies. The director of the counseling center prided himself on the fact that, with the highly qualified and credentialed staff of counselors he had hired, Hillsboro students could have all their mental health needs met within the boundaries of their peaceful, tree-lined campus. In the past several years, however, changes have begun to take place. The number of clients presenting themselves for services at the counseling center has dropped so drastically that the center’s staff–all licensed psychologists or clinical social workers–had time to spare. Waiting lists for appointments had never been long, but now the reception area was ominously quiet. This situation was surprising because any indicator that could possibly measure aspects of mental health among students showed that problems did exist. Disciplinary measures for drug and alcohol abuse had increased, the dropout rate at final exam time was as high as ever, and complaints from local police officers and residents showed that students were, indeed, “letting off steam” in the late hours. Considering the situation, the university’s vice president for student affairs, Mary Belmont, initiated a series of discussions with Simon Young, the counseling center director. Vice President Belmont’s contention was that the counseling center no longer met the needs of Hillsboro students. She pointed out, “We simply do not have the kind of students we used to. The students we have now are not here to find themselves. They are not interested in spending long hours delving into their reason for being. These young people are practical. They want help with immediate decisions, help with time management, and help in developing methods for dealing with stress. They are not going to spend long periods of time in a therapist’s office. Something has to change.” “But that is exactly my point,” Young responded. “These students do have problems, and they are not dealing with them. They think it is not important Competency 1: Demonstrate Ethical and Professional Behavior 11 to delve into their reasons for being, but it is important. They think they can solve their problems with a quick how-to session, but they cannot. A good proportion of these students do need therapy–at least as many as needed it 5 years ago. What we have to do is get those dormitory house parents, student advisors, and professors to start referring students to the center so they can get what they need.” “We are not going to do that, Simon. We do not know what these students need unless we ask them. What I would like to suggest is that we involve the members of your counseling staff, and then some other members of the university community, and try to implement some planning about what steps should be taken. We cannot afford to pay high salaries for clinicians to be sitting in their offices waiting for someone to remember they are there.” “Now I understand what you are really saying, Mary. It is getting near budget time again. You are not concerned about what these students need. You are concerned about the money being spent on the counseling center, and you are trying to cut costs. I would not mind it so much if you would just be straight about it. Just remember this: When you hired me as counseling center director, you told me I would have a free hand to build a high-quality center. You said that was what you wanted, and that is what you got. If you do not want that any more, just tell me.” “Simon, I do not want that anymore.” “Then you will have my resignation on your desk in the morning. I do not know whether the staff will join me or not.” “Simon, just wait a minute. You had some ideas about what kind of things you wanted to accomplish with young people. You had some goals in mind, and for a long time you met them. Now times are changing. Why is it so impossible to consider using different methods to reach students? Why not use decision-making kits that students can use on their own? Why not go into the dorms with life planning workshops? Why not train peer counselors to work with the students who live off campus?” “Because, Mary, what you are talking about are a bunch of fads. They may save money on professional salaries, but in no way do they accomplish the same ends. These are shortcuts that do not reach the places we are trying to go. What good are they? Maybe I was hasty in talking about my resignation, 12 SPECIALIZED PRACTICE CURRICULAR GUIDE FOR MACRO SOCIAL WORK PRACTICE but I have to tell you that I am going to support my staff, no matter what it takes. I will not have you firing experienced therapists left and right just to bring in a bunch of kids or pieces of paper that you think can fix people up.” “I am not suggesting that. What I am suggesting is that the plans you made when you started this counseling center were solid, and your methods worked. But you cannot stay married to your methods.” “These are not my methods, which I just invented. These are the methods that clinicians learn as part of their professional training. They fit accepted professional standards.” “Look, Simon, I understand that. Just give me a commitment that you will try to explore this further. We will not take any action until we have thought it through.” 1) What do you consider to be the most likely outcome of the conflict between Mary Belmont and Simon Young? 2) What are the real issues at stake? 3) Do you see one of these two differing viewpoints as being essentially correct in terms of your own values? Would you be able to present an argument justifying the opposite viewpoint? 4) If you were to be involved in a planning process like the one suggested by Mary Belmont, what steps would you follow? Who should be involved in the planning process? 5) Is there any way that earlier planning procedures might have prevented the conflict described in this case? 6) To what degree can the planning process be considered rational? APPENDIX 1B: SMALL GROUP DISCUSSION: ADMINISTRATIVE DILEMMA Developing the acumen to meet challenges ethically and swiftly is essential to accountability and performance realms of administrative practice, and more importantly to the well-being of those for whom the services are intended. Relying on course content to date, including readings and classroom Competency 1: Demonstrate Ethical and Professional Behavior 13 discussion, you and your groupmates will discuss the following administrative dilemmas. Using the Ethical Assessment Screen (Dolgoff et al., 2012) the group will assess the available alternatives to these dilemmas. You will choose a spokesperson for your group who will present your answers and rationale to the class. Ethical Assessment Screen (see Dolgoff et al., 2012, Figure 4.2, p. 74). Identify the relevant professional values and ethics, your own relevant values, and any societal values relevant to the ethical decision to be made in relation to this ethical dilemma. 1) What can you do to minimize the conflicts between personal, societal, and professional values? 2) Identify ethical alternatives you may take. 3) Which of the ethical alternatives will minimize conflicts between your client’s, others’, and society’s rights and protect to the greatest extent your client’s and others’ rights and welfare and society’s rights and interests? 4) Which alternative action will be most efficient, effective, and ethical and result in your doing the least harm possible? 5) Have you considered and weighed both short- and long-term ethical consequences? 6) Final check: Is the planned action impartial, generalizable, and justifiable? Administrative Dilemma 1 You are a supervisor at an agency that has well-known and well-loved vision and mission statements. In fact, you helped develop these beloved vision and mission statements, guided by your careful consideration of the community need and appropriate practice theories. Over time, though, the vision and mission statements have ceased to reflect the practices your agency is expected to follow and the application of practice theories you envisioned. You are aware of this contradiction. However, as a supervisor your responsibility is 14 SPECIALIZED PRACTICE CURRICULAR GUIDE FOR MACRO SOCIAL WORK PRACTICE to see that the work gets done and the agency receives reimbursement for services and meets its budget. Administrative Dilemma 2 You are an executive director of an agency and have become aware that a well-loved, well-admired, and well-performing employee has been accused of violating several agency policies. For each of the following violations, answer the exercise questions. ACCUSED VIOLATIONS OF POLICY ●● ●● excessive absence from work breaking confidentiality Administrative Dilemma 3 You work for a large mental health agency and are the manager for an adult case management team of five social...
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Final Project Milestone 1: Identification of a Social Problem
NAME
Walden University
SOCW 6361: Social Policy: Analysis and Advocacy
December 12th, 2021

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Introduction

Food security can be defined as the condition in which people cannot access enough food
for their daily consumption. These can be caused by natural disasters such as drought and
conflicts. It can lead to psychological effects such as anger on the victims. The populations
vulnerable to this social problem are at the lowest point in the income circulation, especially
those who lack jobs and the disabled. People earning low incomes cannot afford food hence go
hungry and thirsty. Food insecurity mainly affects groups such as people living in remote areas,
small children who live in poor conditions, African Americans living in the United States, and
other parts of the world. People from Latin are also vulnerable to social problems.
Historical background of food insecurity
It is reported that in 1970 there was an eruption of food crisis. That is after the president
of the United States of America realized that hunger was highly increasing among the residents
of the United States. That is also after the Second World War, where different approaches in
agriculture commenced. After the rising prices of oil in the 1970s, Henry (US secretary) is
believed to be the one who named food security. He worked under President Richard Nixon,
realizing the emanating global challenge and pandemic caused by inadequate food within the
region. In the 1960s, hunger cases in the United States became more profound. In 1980 the
president of the United States of America introduced a task force called food assistance as they
tried to bring to halt this pandemic. That invented the use of vocabularies such as poverty and
unemployment. Those food insecurity programs endorsed by the United States marked the onset
of realization and fight against food insecurity (Washington, 2019).
Change in population faced by food insecurity
Food security impacted a lot of negative effects on the population that faced this global
issue. Food insecurity led to a change in the mode of living of these people affected. It reduced

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the standards of living of these people. That is because the people suffered psychological hunger,
stress, and malnutrition. Among children, it led to a high increase in malnutrition-related
diseases. The diseases erupted and were widespread between children and different
Communities, leading to modalities. These food-related diseases such as marasmus became a
growing threat in the live...


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