are these questions examples of word for word plagiarism or paraphrasing plagiarism or none?

Anonymous
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Original Source Material

Student Version

To summarize, the elaboration model of instruction starts by presenting knowledge at a very general or simplified level in the form of a special kind of overview. Then it proceeds to add detail or complexity in "layers" across the entire breadth of the content of the course (or curriculum), one layer at a time, until the desired level of detail or complexity is reached.

References:
Reigeluth, C. M. (1999). The elaboration theory: Guidance for scope and sequence decisions. In C. M. Reigeluth (Ed.), Instructional design theories and models: A new paradigm of instructional theory (Vol. II, pp. 425-453). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

They soon switched to a model based on the elaboration theory (Reigeluth, 1999). Using this approach, the game would begin with a level that offered the simplest version of the whole task (the epitome); subsequent levels would become increasingly more complex--an approach common to videogames--with opportunities for review and synthesis.

References:
Reigeluth, C. M. (1999). The elaboration theory: Guidance for scope and sequence decisions. In C. M. Reigeluth (Ed.), Instructional design theories and models: A new paradigm of instructional theory (Vol. II, pp. 425-453). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Which of the following is true for the Student Version above?




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Item 2

In the case below, the original source material is given along with a sample of student work. Determine the type of plagiarism by clicking the appropriate radio button.

Original Source Material

Student Version

First, the potential of digital games is discussed using the tutor/tool/tutee framework proposed by Taylor (1980). Second, the potential of digital games to enhance learning by connecting game worlds and real worlds is stated. Third, the possibility of digital games to facilitate collaborative problem-solving is addressed. Fourth, the capability of digital games to provide an affective environment for science learning is suggested. Last, the potential of using digital games to promote science learning for younger students is indicated.

References:
Li, M. C., & Tsai, C. C. (2013). Game-Based Learning in Science Education: A Review of Relevant Research. Journal of Science Education and Technology, 1-22.

There are five advantages of using games in science learning stated in the literature. Games can be used as tools; make connections between virtual worlds and the real world; promote collaborative problem solving; provide affective and safe environments; and encourage younger students for science learning.

Which of the following is true for the Student Version above?




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Item 3

In the case below, the original source material is given along with a sample of student work. Determine the type of plagiarism by clicking the appropriate radio button.

Original Source Material

Student Version

There is no other way to accommodate the facts that different children learn at different rates and have different learning needs. But to have an attainment-based rather than time-based system, we must in turn have person-based progress rather than group-based progress. And that in tum requires changing the role of the teacher to that of a coach or facilitator/manager, rather than that of dispenser of knowledge to groups of students who pass by at the ring of a bell like so many little widgets on an assembly line.

References:
Reigeluth, C. M. (1994). The imperative for systemic change. In C. M. Reigeluth & R. J. Garfinkle (Eds.). Systemic change in education. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Educational Technology Publications.

In the new paradigm of the information age, rather than serving as a dispenser of knowledge as teachers did in the industrial age, their role must change to that of coach or facilitator of learning (Reigeluth, 1994). There is no other way to accommodate the facts that different children learn at different rates and have different learning needs (Reigeluth, 1994, p. 8).

References:
Reigeluth, C. M. (1994). The imperative for systemic change. In C. M. Reigeluth & R. J. Garfinkle (Eds.). Systemic change in education. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Educational Technology Publications.

Which of the following is true for the Student Version above?




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Item 4

In the case below, the original source material is given along with a sample of student work. Determine the type of plagiarism by clicking the appropriate radio button.

Original Source Material

Student Version

Memory is given a prominent role in the learning process. Learning results when information is stored in memory in an organized, meaningful manner. Teachers/designers are responsible for assisting learners in organizing that information in some optimal way. Designers use techniques such as advance organizers, analogies, hierarchical relationships, and matrices to help learners relate new information to prior knowledge. Forgetting is the inability to retrieve information from memory because of interference, memory loss, or missing or inadequate cues needed to access information.

References:
Ertmer, P. A., & Newby, T. J. (1993). Behaviorism, cognitivism, constructivism: Comparing critical features from an instructional design perspective. Performance Improvement Quarterly, 6(4), 50-71.

Memory takes an important role in the process of learning. Learning occurs when information is integrated into student memory in a structured and meaningful way. Teachers can help students learn by arranging that information in useful ways. Advance organizers could be used to assist learners to connect existing knowledge to new knowledge.

References:
Ertmer, P. A., & Newby, T. J. (1993). Behaviorism, cognitivism, constructivism: Comparing critical features from an instructional design perspective. Performance Improvement Quarterly, 6(4), 50-71.

Which of the following is true for the Student Version above?




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Item 5

In the case below, the original source material is given along with a sample of student work. Determine the type of plagiarism by clicking the appropriate radio button.

Original Source Material

Student Version

Science classrooms offer at least five ways to individualize and to enhance students'learning using games and simulations beyond what is possible in informal settings. First, teachers can assign students to teams based on detailed knowledge of learners' intellectual and psychosocial characteristics. Second, in contrast to relatively unguided learning in contexts outside of school, science teachers can alter their classroom instruction and support based on the feedback educational games and simulations provide. Third, science games and simulations are adaptable to students with special needs, allowing them to be mainstreamed in science classrooms. Fourth, educational games and simulations can prepare students to take full advantage of real world field trips in science classrooms. Fifth, teachers through their knowledge of students can relate virtual experiences in science games and simulations to what is happening in the real world or in their personal lives.

References:
Dede, C. (2009). Learning context: Gaming, gaming simulations, and science learning in the classroom. Paper commissioned for the National Research Council Workshop on Gaming and Simulations, October 6-7, Washington, DC. Retrieved from: http://www7.nationalacademies.org/
bose/Dede_Gaming_CommissionedPaper. pdf

According to Dede (2009), different games can be assigned and used based on students' characteristics. Information about student performance when playing games can help science teachers plan subsequent classroom activities. Games also can be utilized for students with special needs, which can be selected to match their ability levels.

Which of the following is true for the Student Version above?




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Item 6

In the case below, the original source material is given along with a sample of student work. Determine the type of plagiarism by clicking the appropriate radio button.

Original Source Material

Student Version

There is a design methodology called rapid prototyping, which has been used successfully in software engineering. Given similarities between software design and instructional design, we argue that rapid prototyping is a viable method for instructional design, especially for computer-based instruction.

References:
Tripp, S. D., & Bichelmeyer, B. A. (1990). Rapid prototyping: An alternative instructional design strategy. Educational Technology Research and Development, 38(1), 31-44.

Tripp and Bichelmeyer (1990) suggested that rapid prototyping could be an advantageous methodology for developing innovative computer-based instruction. They noted that this approach has been used successfully in software engineering; hence, rapid prototyping could also be a viable method for instructional design due to many parallels between software design and instructional design.


References:
Tripp, S. D., & Bichelmeyer, B. A. (1990). Rapid prototyping: An alternative instructional design strategy. Educational Technology Research and Development, 38(1), 31-44.

Which of the following is true for the Student Version above?




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Item 7

In the case below, the original source material is given along with a sample of student work. Determine the type of plagiarism by clicking the appropriate radio button.

Original Source Material

Student Version

The study of learning derives from essentially two sources. Because learning involves the acquisition of knowledge, the first concerns the nature of knowledge and how we come to know things.... The second source in which modern learning theory is rooted concerns the nature and representation of mental life.

References:
Driscoll, M. P. (2000). Psychology of learning for instruction (2nd Ed.). Needham Heights, MA: Allyn & Bacon.

Driscoll (2000) concludes that "the study of learning derives from essentially two sources... The first concerns the nature of knowledge and how we come to know things.... The second ... concerns the nature and representation of mental life" (p. 10).


References:
Driscoll, M. P. (2000). Psychology of learning for instruction (2nd Ed.). Needham Heights, MA: Allyn & Bacon.

Which of the following is true for the Student Version above?




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Item 8

In the case below, the original source material is given along with a sample of student work. Determine the type of plagiarism by clicking the appropriate radio button.

Original Source Material

Student Version

The theory we have constructed originates with the three phases of learning described above. We have organize and adapted the features of simulations to provide the learner with the most effective and efficient presentations in order to achieve successful acquisition, application and assessment. Our general model describes five aspects of simulations and provides prescriptions for the implementation of each. It applies to all simulations for teaching principles or procedures. Specific conditions or types of simulations require their own characteristic prescriptions that are described G3 variations on the general model.

References:

Reigeluth, C., & Schwartz, E. (1989). An instructional theory for the design of computer-based simulations. Journal of Computer-Based Instruction, 16(1), 1-10.

Another ID theory that could be useful in the design of educational games is a model presented by Reigeluth and Schwartz (1989) intended for designing instruction in educational simulations. This model provides a more specific approach to designing instruction. Reigeluth and Schwartz propose three phases of the learning process which educational simulations should activate. They are: (1) acquisition of basic knowledge, (2) application of knowledge to the full range of scenarios, and (3) assessment of what has been learned. Their model for designing educational simulations is comprised of heuristics intended to inform the designer in following a set of prescriptions.

References:

Reigeluth, C., & Schwartz, E. (1989). An instructional theory for the design of computer-based simulations. Journal of Computer-Based Instruction, 16(1), 1-10.

Which of the following is true for the Student Version above?




Hints



Item 9

In the case below, the original source material is given along with a sample of student work. Determine the type of plagiarism by clicking the appropriate radio button.

Original Source Material

Student Version

Learning is a complex set of processes that may vary according to the developmental level of the learner, the nature of the task, and the context in which the learning is to occur. As already indicated, no one theory can capture all the variables involved in learning.

References:
Gredler, M. E. (2001). Learning and instruction: Theory into practice (4th Ed.). Upper Saddle, NJ: Prentice-Hall.


A learning theory, there, comprises a set of constructs linking observed changes in performance with what is thought to bring about those changes.

References:
Driscoll, M. P. (2000). Psychology of learning for instruction (2nd Ed.). Needham Heights, MA: Allyn & Bacon.

A learning theory is made up of a set of constructs linking observed changes in performance with whatever is thought to bring about those changes. Therefore since "learning is a complex set of processes that may vary according to the developmental level of the learner, the nature of the task, and the context in which the learning is to occur," it is apparent that no one theory can capture all the variables involved in learning (Driscoll, 2000, p.10).

References:
Driscoll, M. P. (2000). Psychology of learning for instruction (2nd Ed.). Needham Heights, MA: Allyn & Bacon.

Which of the following is true for the Student Version above?




Hints



Item 10

In the case below, the original source material is given along with a sample of student work. Determine the type of plagiarism by clicking the appropriate radio button.

Original Source Material

Student Version

The concept of systems is really quite simple. The basic idea is that a system has parts that fit together to make a whole; but where it gets complicated - and interesting - is how those parts are connected or related to each other. There are many kinds of systems: government systems, health systems, military systems, business systems, and educational systems, to name a few.

References:
Frick, T. (1991). Restructuring education through technology. Bloomington, IN: Phi Delta Kappa Educational Foundation. Retrieved from https://www.indiana.edu/~tedfrick/
fastback/fastback326.html#nature

Frick (1991) claims that systems, including both business systems, and educational systems, are actually very simple. The main idea is that systems "have parts that fit together to make a whole" (The nature of systems in education section, para. 1). What is further interesting to Frick is how those parts are connected together.

References:
Frick, T. (1991). Restructuring education through technology. Bloomington, IN: Phi Delta Kappa Educational Foundation. Retrieved from https://www.indiana.edu/~tedfrick/
fastback/fastback326.html#nature

Which of the following is true for the Student Version above?





Tutor Answer

kassidy
School: Cornell University

Here is the document with all of the answers. Let me know if you have any additional questions! Pleasure working with you. :)

Plagiarism, Paraphrasing Plagiarism, or Neither
Item #1:
This is neither plagiarism nor paraphrasing plagiarism because this studen...

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Anonymous
Goes above and beyond expectations !

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