ENG 350 West Los Angeles College Understanding Thesis Statement Discussion

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fxngre12

Humanities

ENG 350

West Los Angeles College

ENG

Question Description

I'm working on a english discussion question and need an explanation and answer to help me learn.

 discussion questions and answering these questions about the thesis statement:

How familiar are you with the form and function of a thesis statement?

Have you written rhetorical essays in the past that required you to posit and argue a thesis?

What have you learned about the thesis statement in previous writing classes?

After completing Week One's assigned reading, what questions or concerns do you have regarding the writing of thesis statements?.) 


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These helpful checklists will guide you through the process of writing an essay. Questions about Your Purpose 14 Questions for Critical Reading 22 Reading Visual Texts 25 Setting Limits 30 Questions for Probing 32 Stating Your Thesis 45 Recognizing a Pattern 50 What Not to Do in an Introduction 53 Effective Support 56 What Not to Do in a Conclusion 60 Constructing a Formal Outline 61 Drafting 63 Revising 66 Guidelines for Peer Editing 69 Editing for Grammar 83 Editing for Punctuation 86 Editing for Sentence Style and Word Choice 89 Proofreading 90 Checking Your Paper’s Format 91 A note about the cover Artists use patterns to give shape to their art and to guide the eye through the elements of a visual work. In the same way, patterns in composition help to shape a writer’s work and to create pathways for understanding it. FOURTEENTH EDITION Patterns for College Writing A Rhetorical Reader and Guide Laurie G. Kirszner University of the Sciences, Emeritus Stephen R. Mandell Drexel University For Peter Phelps, 1936–1990, with thanks For Bedford/St. Martin’s Vice President, Editorial, Macmillan Learning Humanities: Edwin Hill Director of Content Development: Jane Knetzger Development Manager: Maura Shea Senior Program Director: Leasa Burton Program Manager for Readers and Literature: John E. Sullivan III Developmental Editor: Sherry Mooney Senior Content Project Manager: Jessica Gould Media Producer: Rand Thomas Senior Content Workflow Manager: Jennifer Wetzel Marketing Manager: Joy Fisher Williams Associate Editor: Jennifer Prince Copy Editor: Kathleen Lafferty Senior Photo Editor: Martha Friedman Photo Researcher: Sheri Blaney Permissions Editor: Kalina Ingham Senior Art Director: Anna Palchik Text Design: Richard Korab Cover Design: John Callahan Cover Art: Autumn Interior, Wheatley, Jenny; Private Collection/Bridgeman Images Opener Banner Photo: JonnyDrake/Shutterstock Composition: Lumina Datamatics, Inc. Copyright © 2018, 2015, 2012, 2010 by Bedford/St. Martin’s. All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, except as may be expressly permitted by the applicable copyright statutes or in writing by the Publisher. 210987fedcba For information, write: Bedford/St. Martin’s, 75 Arlington Street, Boston, MA 02116 ISBN-13 978-1-319-12081-8 (EPUB) Acknowledgments Text acknowledgments and copyrights appear at the back of the book on pages 786–90, which constitute an extension of the copyright page. Art acknowledgments and copyrights appear on the same page as the art selections they cover. Preface Since it was first published, Patterns for College Writing has been used by millions of students at colleges and universities across the United States. We have been delighted by the overwhelmingly positive response to the first thirteen editions of Patterns, and we continue to be gratified by positive feedback from the many instructors who find Patterns to be the most accessible and the most pedagogically sound rhetoric-reader they have ever used. In preparing this fourteenth edition, we have worked hard to fine-tune the features that have made Patterns the most popular composition reader available today and to develop new features to enhance the book’s usefulness for both instructors and students. What Instructors and Students Like about Patterns for College Writing An Emphasis on Critical Reading The Introduction, “How to Use This Book,” and Chapter 1, “Reading to Write: Becoming a Critical Reader,” prepare students to become analytical readers and writers by showing them how to apply critical reading strategies to a typical selection and by providing sample responses to the various kinds of writing prompts in the book. Not only does this material introduce students to the book’s features, but it also prepares them to tackle reading and writing assignments in their other courses. Extensive Coverage of the Writing Process The remaining chapters in Part One, “The Writing Process” (Chapters 2 through 5), comprise a “mini-rhetoric,” offering advice on drafting, writing, revising, and editing as they introduce students to activities such as freewriting, brainstorming, clustering, and journal writing. These chapters also include numerous writing exercises to give students opportunities for immediate practice. Detailed Coverage of the Patterns of Development In Part Two, “Readings for Writers,” Chapters 6 through 14 explain and illustrate the patterns of development that students typically use in their college writing assignments: narration, description, exemplification, process, cause and effect, comparison and contrast, classification and division, definition, and argumentation. Each chapter begins with a comprehensive introduction that presents a definition and a paragraph-length example of the pattern to be discussed and then explains the particular writing strategies and applications associated with it. Next, each chapter analyzes one or two annotated student essays to show how the pattern can be used in particular college writing situations. Chapter 15, “Combining the Patterns,” illustrates how the various patterns of development discussed in Chapters 6 through 14 can work together in an essay. A Diverse and Popular Selection of Readings Varied in subject, style, and cultural perspective, the sixty-eight professional selections engage students while providing them with outstanding models for writing. We have tried to achieve a balance between classic authors (George Orwell, Jessica Mitford, E. B. White, Martin Luther King Jr.) and newer voices (Bich Minh Nguyen, Zeynep Tufekci, Marina Keegan) so that instructors have a broad range of readings to choose from. More Student Essays than Any Comparable Text To provide students with realistic models for improving their own writing, we include eighteen sample student essays. Helpful Coverage of Grammar Issues Grammar-in-Context boxes in chapter introductions offer specific advice on how to identify and correct the grammar, mechanics, and punctuation problems that students are likely to encounter when they work with particular patterns of development. Apparatus Designed to Help Students Learn Each professional essay in the text is followed by three types of questions. These questions are designed to help students assess their understanding of the essay’s content and of the writer’s purpose and audience; to recognize the stylistic and structural techniques used to shape the essay; and to become sensitive to the nuances of language. Each essay is also accompanied by a Journal Entry prompt, Writing Workshop topics (suggestions for full-length writing assignments), and Thematic Connections that identify related readings in the text. Also following each essay is a Combining the Patterns feature that focuses on different patterns of development used in the essay and possible alternatives to these patterns. Each chapter ends with a list of Writing Assignments and a Collaborative Activity. Many of these assignments and activities have been updated to reflect the most current topics and trends. Extensive Cultural and Historical Background for All Readings In addition to a biographical headnote, each reading is preceded by a headnote containing essential background information to help students make connections between the reading and the historical, social, and economic forces that shaped it. An Introduction to Visual Texts Every rhetorical chapter includes a visual text — such as a photograph, a piece of fine art, or panels from a graphic novel — that provides an accessible introduction to each rhetorical pattern. Apparatus that helps students discuss the pattern in its visual form follows each image. Thorough Coverage of Working with Sources Part Three, “Working with Sources,” takes students through the process of writing a research paper and includes a model student paper in MLA style. (The Appendix addresses APA style and includes a model APA paper.) What’s New in This Edition Engaging New Readings The twenty-five new professional essays treat topics of current interest. Isabel Wilkerson explores the history of “Emmett Till and Tamir Rice, Sons of the Great Migration.” Josh Barro explains “Why Stealing Cars Went Out of Fashion.” Karen Miller Pensiero shows us the “Photos That Change History.” In all cases, readings have been carefully selected for their high-interest subject matter as well as for their effectiveness as teachable models for student writing. Argumentation Chapter Updated The argument chapter has been revised to focus on issues of particular importance to college students. It includes two new debates (“Should Public Colleges Be Free?” and “Does It Pay to Study the Humanities?”) and one new casebook (“Do College Students Need Trigger Warnings?”). With Bedford/St. Martin’s, You Get More At Bedford/St. Martin’s, providing support to teachers and their students who use our books and digital tools is our top priority. The Bedford/St. Martin’s English Community is now our home for professional resources, including Bedford Bits, our popular blog with new ideas for the composition classroom. Join us to connect with our authors and your colleagues at community.macmillan.com, where you can download titles from our professional resource series, review projects in the pipeline, sign up for webinars, or start a discussion. In addition to this dynamic online community and book-specific instructor resources, we offer digital tools, custom solutions, and value packages to support both you and your students. We are committed to delivering the quality and value that you’ve come to expect from Bedford/St. Martin’s, supported as always by the power of Macmillan Learning. To learn more about or to order any of the following products, contact your Bedford/St. Martin’s sales representative or visit the website at macmillanlearning.com. LaunchPad for Patterns for College Writing: Where Students Learn LaunchPad provides engaging content and new ways to get the most out of your book. Get an interactive e-Book combined with assessment tools in a fully customizable course space; then assign and mix our resources with yours. Interactive Peer Review Worksheets allow students to type their responses into a form that is easy to share with fellow students and their instructor. Reading Comprehension Quizzes for every selection in Patterns help you quickly gauge your students’ understanding of the assigned reading. Diagnostics and Exercise Central provide opportunities to assess areas for improvement and assign additional exercises based on students’ needs. Eight diagnostic quizzes — pre- and post-tests on sentence grammar, punctuation and mechanics, reading skills, and reading strategies — offer visual reports that show performance by topic, class, and student as well as comparison reports that track improvement over time. Use these reports to target additional practice by assigning quizzes from the Exercise Central question bank. Pre-built units — including readings, videos, quizzes, discussion groups, and more — are easy to adapt and assign by adding your own materials and mixing them with our high-quality multimedia content and ready-made assessment options, such as LearningCurve adaptive quizzing. LaunchPad also provides access to a gradebook that offers a clear window on the performance of your whole class, individual students, and even results of individual assignments. Use LaunchPad on its own or integrate it with your school’s learning management system so that your class is always on the same page. LaunchPad for Patterns for College Writing can be purchased on its own or packaged with the print book at a significant discount. An activation code is required. To order LaunchPad for Patterns for College Writing with the print book, use ISBN 978-1-319-13642-0. For more information, go to launchpadworks.com. Choose from Alternative Formats of Patterns for College Writing Bedford/St. Martin’s offers a range of affordable formats, allowing students to choose the one that works best for them. Paperback To order the paperback edition, use ISBN 978-1-319-056643. Popular e-Book formats For details of our e-Book partners, visit macmillanlearning.com/ebooks. Select Value Packages Add value to your text by packaging one of the following resources with Patterns for College Writing. To learn more about package options for any of the following products, contact your Bedford/St. Martin’s sales representative or visit macmillanlearning.com. LaunchPad Solo for Readers and Writers allows students to work on whatever they need help with the most. At home or in class, students learn at their own pace, with instruction tailored to each student’s unique needs. LaunchPad Solo for Readers and Writers features: Pre-built units that support a learning arc. Each easy-to-assign unit is composed of a pre-test check, multimedia instruction and assessment, and a post-test that assesses what students have learned about critical reading, writing process, using sources, grammar, style, and mechanics. Dedicated units also offer help for multilingual writers. Diagnostics that help establish a baseline for instruction. Assign diagnostics to identify areas of strength and areas for improvement on topics related to grammar and reading and to help students plan a course of study. Use visual reports to track performance by topic, class, and student as well as comparison reports that track improvement over time. A video introduction to many topics. Introductions offer an overview of the unit’s topic, and many include a brief, accessible video to illustrate the concepts at hand. Twenty-five reading selections with comprehension quizzes. Assign a range of classic and contemporary essays, each of which includes a label indicating Lexile level to help you scaffold instruction in critical reading. Adaptive quizzing for targeted learning. Most units include LearningCurve, game-like adaptive quizzing that focuses on the areas in which each student needs the most help. The ability to monitor student progress. Use our gradebook to see which students are on track and which need additional help with specific topics. Additional reading comprehension quizzes. Patterns for College Writing includes multiple-choice quizzes, which help you quickly gauge your students’ understanding of the assigned reading. These are available in LaunchPad Solo for Readers and Writers. Order ISBN 978-1-319-14527-9 to package LaunchPad Solo for Readers and Writers with Patterns for College Writing at a significant discount. Students who rent or buy a used book can purchase access, and instructors may request free access at macmillanlearning.com/readwrite. Writer’s Help 2.0 is a powerful online writing resource that helps students find answers whether they are searching for writing advice on their own or as part of an assignment. Smart search. Built on research with more than 1,600 student writers, the smart search in Writer’s Help provides reliable results even when students use novice terms, such as flow and unstuck. Trusted content from our best-selling handbooks. Choose Writer’s Help 2.0, Hacker Version, or Writer’s Help 2.0, Lunsford Version, and ensure that students have clear advice and examples for all of their writing questions. Diagnostics that help establish a baseline for instruction. Assign diagnostics to identify areas of strength and areas for improvement on topics related to grammar and reading and to help students plan a course of study. Use visual reports to track performance by topic, class, and student as well as comparison reports that track improvement over time. Adaptive exercises that engage students. Writer’s Help 2.0 includes LearningCurve, game-like online quizzing that adapts to what students already know and helps them focus on what they need to learn. Reading comprehension quizzes. Patterns for College Writing includes multiple-choice quizzes, which help you quickly gauge your students’ understanding of the assigned reading. These are available in Writer’s Help 2.0. Writer’s Help 2.0 can be packaged with Patterns for College Writing at a significant discount. For more information, contact your sales representative or visit macmillanlearning.com/writershelp2. Macmillan Learning Curriculum Solutions Curriculum Solutions brings together the quality of Bedford/St. Martin’s content with our expertise in publishing original custom print and digital products. Developed especially for writing courses, our ForeWords for English program contains a library of the most popular, requested content in easy-to-use modules to help you build the best possible text. Whether you are considering creating a custom version of Patterns for College Writing or incorporating our content with your own, we can adapt and combine the resources that work best for your course or program. Some enrollment minimums apply. Contact your sales representative for more information. Instructor Resources You have a lot to do in your course. Bedford/St. Martin’s wants to make it easy for you to find the support you need — and to get it quickly. Resources for Instructors Using Patterns for College Writing is available as a PDF that can be downloaded from macmillanlearning.com. Visit the instructor resources tab for Patterns for College Writing. In addition to chapter overviews and teaching tips, the instructor’s manual includes sample syllabi, suggestions for classroom discussion, and possible responses for every question in the book. NEW! A Student’s Companion for Patterns for College Writing If your students need a little extra support, consider ordering A Student’s Companion for Patterns for College Writing (ISBN 978-1-319-12674-2). This text reinforces the most foundational elements in academic writing. While recognizing and respecting students’ abilities, this supplement breaks down the steps necessary to excel in college writing, tackling time management; critical reading skills across print, digital and professional genres; the essaydrafting process; and the essentials of grammar. This companion, meant to supplement the coverage in Patterns for College Writing, gives students the additional support they need to get or stay on-level in the composition classroom. It is an ideal solution for accelerated learning programs or corequisite courses, while the deep integration with Patterns makes it an ideal resource for any instructor who wants students to build a strong foundation in academic writing. Acknowledgments As always, friends, colleagues, students, and family all helped this project along. Of particular value were the responses to the questionnaires sent to the following instructors, who provided frank and helpful advice: Amelia Magallanes Arguijo, Laredo Community College; Victoria Bryan, Cleveland State Community College; Thomas Chester, Ivy Tech Community College; Anne Dearing, Hudson Valley Community College; Jennifer Eble, Cleveland State Community College; Marcus Embry, University of Northern Colorado; Ulanda Forbess, North Lake College; Jan Geyer, Hudson Valley Community College; Priscilla Glanville, State College of Florida; Scott Hathaway, Hudson Valley Community College; Josh Miller, Cape Fear Community College; Janet Minc, University of Akron Wayne College; Jennifer Ravey, Lamar University; Cheryl Saba, Cape Fear Community College; Ana Schnellmann, Lindenwood University; Dhipinder Walia, Lehman College; and Coreen Wees, Iowa Western Community College. Additional thanks to Cedric Burroughs at Marquette University for his valuable suggestions. Special thanks go to Jeff Ousborne for his help with some of the apparatus and for revising the headnotes and the Resources for Instructors. Through fourteen editions of Patterns for College Writing, we have enjoyed a wonderful working relationship with Bedford/St. Martin’s. We have always found the editorial and production staff to be efficient, cooperative, and generous with their time and advice. As always, we appreciate the encouragement and advice of our longtime friend, Nancy Perry. In addition, we thank Joan Feinberg, past president of Bedford/St. Martin’s, for her support for this project and for her trust in us. During our work on this edition, we have benefited from our productive relationship with John Sullivan, Program Manager, Readers and Literature, who helped us make this edition of Patterns the best it could be. We have been especially lucky to work on this edition with our talented developmental editor, Sherry Mooney, a real star. We are also grateful to Jessica Gould, senior content project manager, and Lisa Kinne, managing editor, for their work overseeing the production of this edition; John Callahan for the attractive new cover; and associate editor Jennifer Prince for her invaluable help with tasks large and small. We are fortunate to have enjoyed our long and fulfilling collaboration; we know how rare a successful partnership like ours is. We also know how lucky we are to have our families to help keep us in touch with the things that really matter. Laurie G. Kirszner Stephen R. Mandell Contents Preface Thematic Guide to the Contents Introduction: How to Use This Book Henry Louis Gates Jr., “What’s in a Name?” Responding to an Essay Responding to Other Kinds of Texts PART ONE: The 1 Writing Process Reading to Write: Becoming a Critical Reader Understanding Critical Reading Determining Your Purpose CHECKLIST: Questions about Your Purpose Previewing Highlighting Brent Staples, Cutting and Pasting: A Senior Thesis by (Insert Name) Moisés Naím, The YouTube Effect “Although international news operations employ thousands of professional journalists, they will never be as omnipresent as millions of people carrying cellphones that can record video.” Annotating CHECKLIST: Questions for Critical Reading Brent Staples, Cutting and Pasting: A Senior Thesis by (Insert Name) (with sample annotations) Reading Visual Texts CHECKLIST: Reading Visual Texts 2 Invention Understanding Your Assignment Setting Limits Length Purpose Audience Occasion Knowledge CHECKLIST: Setting Limits Moving from Subject to Topic Questions for Probing CHECKLIST: Questions for Probing Freewriting A Student Writer: Freewriting Finding Something to Say Brainstorming A Student Writer: Brainstorming Journal Writing A Student Writer: Journal Writing Grouping Ideas Clustering A Student Writer: Clustering Making an Informal Outline A Student Writer: Making an Informal Outline Understanding Thesis and Support Developing a Thesis Defining the Thesis Statement Deciding on a Thesis Stating Your Thesis Implying a Thesis A Student Writer: Developing a Thesis CHECKLIST: Stating Your Thesis 3 Arrangement Recognizing a Pattern CHECKLIST: Recognizing a Pattern Understanding the Parts of the Essay The Introduction CHECKLIST: What Not to Do in an Introduction The Body Paragraphs CHECKLIST: Effective Support The Conclusion CHECKLIST: What Not to Do in a Conclusion Constructing a Formal Outline CHECKLIST: Constructing a Formal Outline A Student Writer: Constructing a Formal Outline 4 Drafting and Revising Writing Your First Draft CHECKLIST: Drafting A Student Writer: Writing a First Draft Revising Your Essay Revising with an Outline Revising with a Checklist CHECKLIST: Revising Revising with Your Instructor’s Written Comments Revising in a Conference Revising in a Peer-Editing Group CHECKLIST: Guidelines for Peer Editing Strategies for Revising A Student Writer: Revising a First Draft Peer Editing Worksheet Points for Special Attention: First Draft The Introduction The Body Paragraphs The Conclusion A Student Writer: Revising a Second Draft Points for Special Attention: Second Draft The Introduction The Body Paragraphs The Conclusion Working with Sources The Title A Student Writer: Preparing a Final Draft SAMPLE STUDENT ESSAY: Laura Bobnak, The Price of Silence (Student Essay) 5 Editing and Proofreading Editing for Grammar Be Sure Subjects and Verbs Agree Be Sure Verb Tenses Are Accurate and Consistent Be Sure Pronoun References Are Clear Be Sure Sentences Are Complete Be Careful Not to Run Sentences Together without Proper Punctuation Be Careful to Avoid Misplaced and Dangling Modifiers Be Sure Sentence Elements Are Parallel CHECKLIST: Editing for Grammar Editing for Punctuation Learn When to Use Commas — and When Not to Use Them Learn When to Use Semicolons Learn When to Use Apostrophes Learn When to Use Quotation Marks Learn When to Use Dashes and Colons CHECKLIST: Editing for Punctuation Editing for Sentence Style and Word Choice Eliminate Awkward Phrasing Be Sure Your Sentences Are Concise Be Sure Your Sentences Are Varied Choose Your Words Carefully CHECKLIST: Editing for Sentence Style and Word Choice Proofreading Your Essay Check for Commonly Confused Words Check for Misspellings and Faulty Capitalization Check for Typos CHECKLIST: Proofreading Checking Your Paper’s Format CHECKLIST: Checking Your Paper’s Format PART TWO: Readings 6 for Writers Narration What Is Narration? Using Narration Planning a Narrative Essay Developing a Thesis Statement Including Enough Detail Varying Sentence Structure Maintaining Clear Narrative Order Structuring a Narrative Essay Revising a Narrative Essay REVISION CHECKLIST: Narration Editing a Narrative Essay GRAMMAR IN CONTEXT: Avoiding Run-Ons EDITING CHECKLIST: Narration A Student Writer: Literacy Narrative Erica Sarno, Becoming a Writer (Student Essay) Points for Special Attention Focus on Revision A Student Writer: Narration Tiffany Forte, My Field of Dreams (Student Essay) Points for Special Attention Focus on Revision PEER EDITING WORKSHEET: NARRATION Visual Text: Marjane Satrapi, from Persepolis II (Graphic Fiction) Junot Díaz, The Money “The summer I was twelve, my family went away on a ‘vacation’ — one of my father’s half-baked get-to-know-our-country-better-bysleeping-in-the-van extravaganzas — and when we returned to Jersey, exhausted, battered, we found our front door unlocked… . The thieves had kept it simple; they’d snatched a portable radio, some of my Dungeons & Dragons hardcovers, and, of course, Mami’s remittances.” Ocean Vuong, Surrendering “The task allowed me to camouflage myself; as long as I looked as though I were doing something smart, my shame and failure were hidden. The trouble began when I decided to be dangerously ambitious. Which is to say, I decided to write a poem.” Bonnie Smith-Yackel, My Mother Never Worked “From her wheelchair she canned pickles, baked bread, ironed clothes, wrote dozens of letters weekly to her friends and her ‘half dozen or more kids,’ and made three patchwork housecoats and one quilt.” Martin Gansberg, Thirty-Eight Who Saw Murder Didn’t Call the Police “For more than half an hour thirty-eight respectable, law-abiding citizens in Queens watched a killer stalk and stab a woman in three separate attacks… . Not one person telephoned the police during the assault; one witness called after the woman was dead.” George Orwell, Shooting an Elephant “But I did not want to shoot the elephant. I watched him beating his bunch of grass against his knees, with the preoccupied grandmotherly air that elephants have. It seemed to me that it would be murder to shoot him.” Sherman Alexie, Indian Education (Fiction) “The farm town high school I play for is nicknamed the ‘Indians,’ and I’m probably the only actual Indian ever to play for a team with such a mascot.” Writing Assignments for Narration Collaborative Activity for Narration 7 Description What Is Description? Using Description Understanding Objective Description CHECKLIST: Using Visuals Effectively Understanding Subjective Description Using Objective and Subjective Language Selecting Details Planning a Descriptive Essay Developing a Thesis Statement Organizing Details Using Transitions Structuring a Descriptive Essay Revising a Descriptive Essay REVISION CHECKLIST: Description Editing a Descriptive Essay GRAMMAR IN CONTEXT: Avoiding Misplaced and Dangling Modifiers EDITING CHECKLIST: Description A Student Writer: Objective Description Mallory Cogan, My Grandfather’s Globe (Student Essay) Points for Special Attention Focus on Revision A Student Writer: Subjective Description Mary Lim, The Valley of Windmills (Student Essay) Points for Special Attention Focus on Revision PEER-EDITING WORKSHEET: DESCRIPTION Visual Text: Ansel Adams,Jackson Lake (Photo) Bich Minh Nguyen, Goodbye to My Twinkie Days “For me, a child of Vietnamese immigrants growing up in Michigan in the 1980s, Twinkies were a ticket to assimilation: the golden cake, more golden than the hair I wished I had, filled with sweet white cream. Back then, junk foods seemed to represent an ideal of American indulgence.” Suzanne Berne, Ground Zero “Like me, perhaps, the people around me had in mind images from television and newspaper pictures: the collapsing buildings, the running office workers, the black plume of smoke against a bright blue sky. Like me, they were probably trying to superimpose those terrible images onto the industrious emptiness right in front of them.” Marina Keegan, Stability in Motion “My car was not gross; it was occupied, cluttered, cramped. It became an extension of my bedroom, and thus an extension of myself.” Heather Rogers, The Hidden Life of Garbage “There’s a reason landfills are tucked away, on the edge of town, in otherwise untraveled terrain, camouflaged by hydroseeded, neatly tiered slopes. If people saw what happened to their waste, lived with the stench, witnessed the scale of destruction, they might start asking difficult questions.” E. B. White, Once More to the Lake “Summertime, oh summertime, pattern of life indelible, the fadeproof lake, the woods unshatterable, the pasture with the sweetfern and the juniper forever and ever …” Kate Chopin, The Storm (Fiction) “They did not hear the crashing torrents, and the roar of the elements made her laugh as she lay in his arms. She was a revelation in that dim, mysterious chamber; as white as the couch she lay upon.” Writing Assignments for Description Collaborative Activity for Description 8 Exemplification What Is Exemplification? Using Exemplification Using Examples to Explain and Clarify Using Examples to Add Interest Using Examples to Persuade Planning an Exemplification Essay Developing a Thesis Statement Providing Enough Examples Choosing a Fair Range of Examples Using Transitions Structuring an Exemplification Essay Revising an Exemplification Essay REVISION CHECKLIST: Exemplification Editing an Exemplification Essay GRAMMAR IN CONTEXT: Using Commas in a Series EDITING CHECKLIST: Exemplification A Student Writer: Exemplification Kristy Bredin, Job Application Letter (Student Essay) Points for Special Attention Focus on Revision A Student Writer: Exemplification Grace Ku, Midnight (Student Essay) Points for Special Attention Focus on Revision PEER-EDITING WORKSHEET: EXEMPLIFICATION Visual Texts: Four Tattoos: Charles Thatcher,“Alisha, Loretta”; Carrie Villines, “Positive Outlook”; Anthony Bradshaw, “Bar Code”; Guido Koppes, “Owl” (Photos) Zeynep Tufekci, Why the Post Office Makes America Great “Yes, I was told, in the United States, mail gets picked up from your house, six days a week, free of charge. I told my friends in Turkey about all this. They shook their heads in disbelief, wondering how easily I had been recruited as a C.I.A. agent, saying implausibly flattering things about my new country.” Judith Ortiz Cofer, The Myth of the Latin Woman: I Just Met a Girl Named Maria “[Y]ou can leave the island, master the English language, and travel as far as you can, but if you are a Latina, especially one like me who so obviously belongs to Rita Moreno’s gene pool, the island travels with you.” Brent Staples, Just Walk On By: A Black Man Ponders His Power to Alter Public Space “It was in the echo of that terrified woman’s footfalls that I first began to know the unwieldy inheritance I’d come into — the ability to alter public space in ugly ways.” Deborah L. Rhode, Why Looks Are the Last Bastion of Discrimination “Among the key findings of a quarter-century’s worth of research: Unattractive people are less likely to be hired and promoted, and they earn lower salaries, even in fields in which looks have no obvious relationship to professional duties.” Maia Szalavitz, Ten Ways We Get the Odds Wrong “And though emotions are themselves critical to making rational decisions, they were designed for a world in which dangers took the form of predators, not pollutants. Our emotions push us to make snap judgments that once were sensible — but may not be anymore.” Jamaica Kincaid, “Girl” (Fiction) “[T]his is how to bully a man; this is how a man bullies you; this is how to love a man, and if this doesn’t work there are other ways, and if they don’t work don’t feel too bad about giving up… .” Writing Assignments for Exemplification Collaborative Activity for Exemplification 9 Process What Is Process? Understanding Instructions Understanding Process Explanations Using Process Planning a Process Essay Accommodating Your Audience Developing a Thesis Statement Using Transitions Structuring a Process Essay Revising a Process Essay REVISION CHECKLIST: Process Editing a Process Essay GRAMMAR IN CONTEXT: Avoiding Unnecessary Shifts EDITING CHECKLIST: Process A Student Writer: Instructions Eric McGlade, The Search (Student Essay) Points for Special Attention Focus on Revision A Student Writer: Process Explanation Melany Hunt, Medium Ash Brown (Student Essay) Points for Special Attention Focus on Revision PEER EDITING WORKSHEET: PROCESS Visual Text: National Geographic,Yellowstone Fires, Past and Future (Illustrations) Naomi Rosenberg, How to Tell a Mother Her Child Is Dead “You don’t make a phone call, you do not talk to the medical student, you do not put in an order. You never make her wait. She is his mother.” Stanley Fish, Getting Coffee Is Hard to Do “You will face a coordination problem if you are a general deploying troops, tanks, helicopters, food, tents, and medical supplies, or if you are the CEO of a large company juggling the demands of design, personnel, inventory, and productions… . And these days, you will face a coordination problem if you want to get a cup of coffee.” Joshua Piven and David Borgenicht, How to Build a Monster from Spare Parts “Wait for a lightning bolt to strike the rod, sending electricity surging through the wires and galvanizing the creature’s nervous system into first reflexive and then sustainable activity. That is: life. Life!” Arthur Miller, Get It Right: Privatize Executions “People can be executed in places like Shea Stadium before immense paying audiences… . As with all sports events, a certain ritual would seem inevitable and would quickly become an expected part of the occasion.” Jessica Mitford, The Embalming of Mr. Jones “For those who have the stomach for it, let us part the formaldehyde curtain.” Shirley Jackson, The Lottery (Fiction) “There was a great deal of fussing to be done before Mr. Summers declared the lottery open. There were the lists to make up — of heads of families, heads of households in each family, members of each household in each family.” Writing Assignments for Process Collaborative Activity for Process 10 Cause and Effect What Is Cause and Effect? Using Cause and Effect Understanding Main and Contributory Causes Understanding Immediate and Remote Causes Understanding Causal Chains Avoiding Post Hoc Reasoning Planning a Cause-and-Effect Essay Developing a Thesis Statement Arranging Causes and Effects Using Transitions Structuring a Cause-and-Effect Essay Finding Causes Describing or Predicting Effects Revising a Cause-and-Effect Essay REVISION CHECKLIST: Cause and Effect Editing a Cause-and-Effect Essay Avoiding “The reason is because”; Using Affect and Effect Correctly GRAMMAR IN CONTEXT: EDITING CHECKLIST: Cause and Effect A Student Writer: Cause and Effect Evelyn Pellicane, The Irish Famine, 1845–1849 (Student Essay) Points for Special Attention Focus on Revision PEER-EDITING WORKSHEET: CAUSE AND EFFECT Visual Text: Jeffrey Coolidge,Rube Goldberg Machine (Photo) Josh Barro, Why Stealing Cars Went Out of Fashion “Old cars are easier to steal, and there are plenty of them still on the road. But there’s an obvious problem with stealing them: They’re not worth very much.” Maggie Koerth-Baker, Why Rational People Buy into Conspiracy Theories “Perfectly sane minds possess an incredible capacity for developing narratives, and even some of the wildest conspiracy theories can be grounded in rational thinking, which makes them that much more pernicious.” Simon Cottee, What Motivates Terrorists? “Sometimes people do what they do for the reasons they profess. Sometimes not, because what they do is motivated by reasons that are too dark, shameful, or bizarre to be openly acknowledged. Sometimes people do things that are so morally contentious that when called to account they are liable to excuse or justify, rather than to explain, their actions. Terrorists unquestionably fall into this category.” Linda M. Hasselstrom, A Peaceful Woman Explains Why She Carries a Gun “People who have not grown up with the idea that they are capable of protecting themselves — in other words, most women — might have to work hard to convince themselves of their ability, and of the necessity. Handgun ownership need not turn us into gunslingers, but it can be part of believing in, and relying on, ourselves for protection.” Karen Miller Pensiero, Photos That Change History “Though the issues have varied greatly over the decades, historians point to other eras when photographs have resonated in the same transformative way, creating new social awareness and spurring changes in policy.” Janice Mirikitani, Suicide Note (Poetry) “I apologize. Tasks do not come easily. Each failure, a glacier. Each disapproval, a bootprint. Each disappointment, Ice above my river.” Writing Assignments for Cause and Effect Collaborative Activity for Cause and Effect 11 Comparison and Contrast What Is Comparison and Contrast? Using Comparison and Contrast Planning a Comparison-and-Contrast Essay Recognizing Comparison-and-Contrast Assignments Establishing a Basis for Comparison Selecting Points for Discussion Developing a Thesis Statement Structuring a Comparison-and-Contrast Essay Using Subject-by-Subject Comparison Using Point-by-Point Comparison Using Transitions Revising a Comparison-and-Contrast Essay REVISION CHECKLIST: Comparison and Contrast Editing a Comparison-and-Contrast Essay GRAMMAR IN CONTEXT: Using Parallelism EDITING CHECKLIST: Comparison and Contrast A Student Writer: Subject-by-Subject Comparison Mark Cotharn, Brains versus Brawn (Student Essay) Points for Special Attention Focus on Revision A Student Writer: Point-by-Point Comparison Maria Tecson, A Comparison of Two Websites on Attention Deficit Disorder (Student Essay) Points for Special Attention Focus on Revision PEER-EDITING WORKSHEET: COMPARISON AND CONTRAST Visual Texts: Auguste Rodin,The Kiss, and Robert Indiana , LOVE (Sculptures) Bruce Catton, Grant and Lee: A Study in Contrasts “When Ulysses S. Grant and Robert E. Lee met in the parlor of a modest house at Appomattox Court House, Virginia, on April 9, 1865, to work out the terms for the surrender of Lee’s Army of Northern Virginia, a great chapter in American life came to a close, and a great new chapter began.” Juan Williams, Songs of the Summer of 1963 … and Today “The emotional uplift of the monumental march is a universe of time away from today’s degrading rap music … that confuses and depresses race relations in America now.” Amy Chua, Why Chinese Mothers Are Superior “Chinese parents can order their kids to get straight As. Western parents can only ask their kids to try their best. Chinese parents can say, “You’re lazy. All your classmates are getting ahead of you.” By contrast, Western parents have to struggle with their own conflicted feelings about achievement, and try to persuade themselves that they’re not disappointed about how their kids turned out.” Ellen Laird, I’m Your Teacher, Not Your Internet-Service Provider “The honeymoon is over. My romance with distance teaching is losing its spark.” Deborah Tannen, Sex, Lies, and Conversation “How can women and men have such different impressions of communication in marriage? Why the widespread imbalance in their interests and expectations?” Isabel Wilkerson, Emmett Till and Tamir Rice, Sons of the Great Migration “Consider the story of two mothers whose lives bookend the migration and whose family lines would meet similar, unimaginable fates. The horrors they were fleeing would follow them in freedom and into the current day.” William Shakespeare, Shall I compare thee to a summer’s day? (Poetry) “But thy eternal summer shall not fade, Nor lose possession of that fair thou ow’st; Nor shall death brag thou wand’rest in his shade, When in eternal lines to time thou grow’st” Writing Assignments for Comparison and Contrast Collaborative Activity for Comparison and Contrast 12 Classification and Division What Is Classification and Division? Understanding Classification Understanding Division Using Classification and Division Planning a Classification-and-Division Essay Selecting and Arranging Categories Developing a Thesis Statement CHECKLIST: Establishing Categories Using Transitions Structuring a Classification-and-Division Essay Revising a Classification-and-Division Essay REVISION CHECKLIST: Classification and Division Editing a Classification-and-Division Essay GRAMMAR IN CONTEXT: Using a Colon to Introduce Your Categories EDITING CHECKLIST: Classification and Division A Student Writer: Classification and Division Josie Martinez, What I Learned (and Didn’t Learn) in College (Student Essay) Points for Special Attention Focus on Revision PEER-EDITING WORKSHEET: CLASSIFICATION AND DIVISION Visual Text: Coffee Types (Chart) Olga Khazan, The Three Types of Happiness “Minimalism is hot, culturally, and for years science has assured us that it was also the path to maximal bliss.” Carolyn Foster Segal, The Dog Ate My Tablet, and Other Tales of Woe “With a show of energy and creativity that would be admirable if applied to the (missing) assignments in question, my students persist, week after week, semester after semester, year after year, in offering excuses about why their work is not ready. Those reasons fall into several broad categories: the family, the best friend, the evils of dorm life, the evils of technology, and the totally bizarre.” Amy Tan, Mother Tongue “I spend a great deal of my time thinking about the power of language — the way it can evoke an emotion, a visual image, a complex idea, or a simple truth. Language is the tool of my trade. And I use them all — all the Englishes I grew up with.” Stephanie Ericsson, The Ways We Lie “We lie. We all do. We exaggerate, we minimize, we avoid confrontation, we spare people’s feelings, we conveniently forget, we keep secrets, we justify lying to the big-guy institutions.” Henry Reed, Naming of Parts (Poetry) “And this you can see is the bolt. The purpose of this Is to open the breech, as you see. We can slide it Rapidly backwards and forwards: we call this Easing the spring. And rapidly backwards and forwards The early bees are assaulting and fumbling the flowers: They call it easing the Spring.” Writing Assignments for Classification and Division Collaborative Activity for Classification and Division 13 Definition What Is Definition? Understanding Formal Definitions Understanding Extended Definitions Using Definition Planning a Definition Essay Developing a Thesis Statement Deciding on a Pattern of Development Structuring a Definition Essay Revising a Definition Essay REVISION CHECKLIST: Definition Editing a Definition Essay GRAMMAR IN CONTEXT: Avoiding is when and is where EDITING CHECKLIST: Definition A Student Writer: Definition Ajoy Mahtab, The Untouchable (Student Essay) Points for Special Attention Focus on Revision PEER-EDITING WORKSHEET: DEFINITION Visual Text: U.S. Census Bureau,U.S. Census 2010 Form (Questionnaire) Judy Brady, I Want a Wife “My God, who wouldn’t want a wife?” José Antonio Burciaga, Tortillas “My earliest memory of tortillas is my Mamá telling me not to play with them. I had bitten eyeholes in one and was wearing it as a mask at the dinner table.” Amy Wilentz, A Zombie Is a Slave Forever “The zombie is a dead person who cannot get across to lan guinée. This final rest — in green, leafy, heavenly Africa, with no sugarcane to cut and no master to appease or serve — is unavailable to the zombie. To become a zombie was the slave’s worst nightmare: to be dead and still a slave, an eternal field hand.” Richard Posner, On Plagiarism “The public wants a good read, a good show, and the fact that a book or a play may be the work of many hands — as, in truth, most art and entertainment are — is of no consequence to it. The harm is not to the reader but to those writers whose work does not glitter with stolen gold.” Emily Dickinson, “Hope” is the thing with feathers (Poetry) “‘Hope’ is the thing with feathers — That perches in the soul — And sings the tune without the words — And never stops — at all — ” Writing Assignments for Definition Collaborative Activity for Definition 14 Argumentation What Is Argumentation? Understanding Argumentation and Persuasion Planning an Argumentative Essay Choosing a Topic Developing a Thesis Analyzing Your Audience Gathering and Documenting Evidence Dealing with the Opposition Understanding Rogerian Argument CHECKLIST: Guidelines for Using Rogerian Argument Using Deductive and Inductive Arguments Using Deductive Arguments Using Inductive Arguments Using Toulmin Logic Recognizing Fallacies Using Transitions Structuring an Argumentative Essay Revising an Argumentative Essay REVISION CHECKLIST: Argumentation Editing an Argumentative Essay GRAMMAR IN CONTEXT: Using Coordinating and Subordinating Conjunctions EDITING CHECKLIST: Argumentation A Student Writer: Argumentation Marta Ramos, Just Say No (Student Essay) Points for Special Attention Focus on Revision PEER-EDITING WORKSHEET: ARGUMENTATION Visual Text: StopTextsStopWrecks.org,You Don’t Want Them Responding to Your Text (Ad) Thomas Jefferson, The Declaration of Independence “We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain inalienable rights, that among these are life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness.” Rachel Carson, The Obligation to Endure “The most alarming of all man’s assaults upon the environment is the contamination of air, earth, rivers, and sea with dangerous and even lethal materials. This pollution is for the most part irrecoverable; the chain of evil it initiates not only in the world that must support life but in living tissues is for the most part irreversible.” Martin Luther King Jr., Letter from Birmingham Jail “For years now I have heard the word ‘Wait!’ It rings in the ear of every Negro with piercing familiarity. This ‘Wait’ has almost always meant ‘Never.’ We must come to see, with one of our distinguished jurists, that ‘justice too long delayed is justice denied.’” ◾ DEBATE: Should Public Colleges and Universities Be Free? Aaron Bady, Public Universities Should Be Free “Public education should be free. If it isn’t free, it isn’t public education.” Matt Bruenig, The Case against Free College “Without a dramatic overhaul of how we understand student benefits, making college more or entirely free would most likely boost the wealth of college attendees without securing any important egalitarian gains.” ◾ DEBATE: Does It Pay to Study the Humanities? Leon Wieseltier, Perhaps Culture Is Now the Counterculture: A Defense of the Humanities “The technological mentality that has become the American worldview instructs us to prefer practical questions to questions of meaning — to ask of things not if they are true or false, or good or evil, but how they work.” Vinod Khosla, Is Majoring in Liberal Arts a Mistake for Students? “[L]iberal arts education in the United States is a minor evolution of eighteenth century European education. The world needs something more than that.” ◾ CASEBOOK: Do College Students Need Trigger Warnings? Geoffrey R. Stone, Free Expression in Peril “Universities must educate our students to understand that academic freedom is not a law of nature. It is not something to be taken for granted. It is, rather, a hard-won acquisition in a lengthy struggle for academic integrity.” Sophie Downes, Trigger Warnings, Safe Spaces, and Free Speech, Too “Civic discourse in this country has become pretty ugly, so maybe it’s not surprising that students are trying to create ways to have compassionate, civil dialogue.” Jennifer Medina, Warning: The Literary Canon Could Make Students Squirm “Colleges across the country this spring have been wrestling with student requests for what are known as ‘trigger warnings.’” Soraya Chemaly, What’s Really Important about “Trigger Warnings” “Conversations about trigger warnings, however, seem more and more like superficial proxies for ones about deeper problems on campuses regarding diversity, equity, the corporatization of education, and, the dreaded word, privilege.” ◾ CASEBOOK: Do Guns Have a Place on College Campuses? Andrew Wilson, Why I Wouldn’t Go to the University of Texas Law School “How can professors teach courses or assign grades with the possibility of violent retaliation one pull of the trigger away? How can students engage one another if the fear of offense is now informed by the fear of safety?” Students for Gun-Free Schools, Why Our Campuses Are Safer without Concealed Handguns “The safest policy to limit potential violence is to prohibit students and faculty from keeping handguns on campus and allow trained law enforcement officers to provide for campus security.” Students for Concealed Carry, Why Our Campuses Are Not Safer without Concealed Handguns “There is absolutely no verifiable evidence to suggest that allowing concealed carry on college campuses makes campuses any less safe; therefore, reason dictates that current school policies and state laws against concealed carry on campus serve only to stack the odds in favor of dangerous criminals who have no regard for school policy or state law.” Timothy Wheeler, There’s a Reason They Choose Schools “School officials typically base violence-prevention policies on irrational fears more than real-world analysis of what works. But which is more horrible, the massacre that timid bureaucrats fear might happen when a few good guys (and gals) carry guns on campus, or the one that actually did happen despite Virginia Tech’s progressive violence-prevention policy? Can there really be any more debate?” Writing Assignments for Argumentation Collaborative Activity for Argumentation 15 Combining the Patterns Structuring an Essay by Combining the Patterns Combining the Patterns: Revising and Editing GRAMMAR IN CONTEXT: Agreement with Indefinite Pronouns A Student Writer: Combining the Patterns Michael Huu Truong, The Park (Student Essay) Points for Special Attention Focus on Revision PEER-EDITING WORKSHEET: COMBINING THE PATTERNS Lars Eighner, On Dumpster Diving “I have learned much as a scavenger. I mean to put some of what I have learned down here, beginning with the practical art of Dumpster diving and proceeding to the abstract.” David Kirby, Inked Well “I used to think tattoos were for either lowlifes or those who wanted to pretend they were, but my mind now stands changed by the thoughtful, articulate people I talked to and the spectacular designs that had been inked into their bodies. In a word, tattoos are now officially OK by me.” Donald Kagan, On Patriotism “For Americans, as for citizens of any free country, there really is a social contract like those imagined by the political philosophers, and that contract provides legitimacy. People who tacitly accept that contract have the moral obligation to defend and support the country they have chosen as their own — that is, to be patriotic.” Jonathan Swift, A Modest Proposal “I have been assured by a very knowing American of my acquaintance in London, that a young healthy child well nursed is at a year old a most delicious, nourishing, and wholesome food, whether stewed, roasted, baked, or boiled; and I make no doubt that it will equally serve in fricassee or a ragout.” Writing Assignments for Combining the Patterns Collaborative Activity for Combining the Patterns PART THREE: Working with Sources 16 Finding and Evaluating Sources Finding Information in the Library Finding Information on the Internet Finding Useful Information Evaluating Sources 17 Integrating Sources and Avoiding Plagiarism Paraphrasing Summarizing Quoting Integrating Source Material into Your Writing Synthesizing Avoiding Plagiarism Avoiding Common Errors That Lead to Plagiarism Avoiding Plagiarism with Online Sources 18 Documenting Sources: MLA Parenthetical References in the Text The Works-Cited List Articles Books Internet Sources Other Internet Sources Other Nonprint Sources Model Student Research Paper in MLA Style Philip Lau, The Limitations of Wikipedia (Student Essay in MLA Style) Appendix: Documenting Sources: APA Using Parenthetical References Examples of APA Citations Periodicals Books Internet Sources Model Student Paper in APA Style Philip Lau, The Limitations of Wikipedia (Student Essay in APA Style) Glossary Index Thematic Guide to the Contents Family Relationships Junot Díaz, The Money 111 Marina Keegan, Stability in Motion 178 E. B. White, Once More to the Lake 189 Kate Chopin, The Storm (Fiction) 196 Grace Ku, Midnight 213 Jamaica Kincaid, “Girl” (Fiction) 254 Naomi Rosenberg, How to Tell a Mother Her Child Is Dead 277 Janice Mirikitani, Suicide Note (Poetry) 364 Amy Chua, Why Chinese Mothers Are Superior 402 Isabel Wilkerson, Emmett Till and Tamir Rice, Sons of the Great Migration 422 Amy Tan, Mother Tongue 458 Language Henry Louis Gates Jr., “What’s in a Name?” 2 Ocean Vuong, Surrendering 116 Deborah Tannen, Sex, Lies, and Conversation 415 Amy Tan, Mother Tongue 458 Stephanie Ericsson, The Ways We Lie 466 Richard Posner, On Plagiarism 509 Reading and Writing Brent Staples, Cutting and Pasting: A Senior Thesis by (Insert Name) 17 Ocean Vuong, Surrendering 116 Karen Miller Pensiero, Photos That Change History 356 Amy Tan, Mother Tongue 458 Richard Posner, On Plagiarism 509 David Kirby, Inked Well 691 Education Brent Staples, Cutting and Pasting: A Senior Thesis by (Insert Name) 17 Laura Bobnak, The Price of Silence 76 Ocean Vuong, Surrendering 116 Sherman Alexie, Indian Education (Fiction) 140 Janice Mirikitani, Suicide Note (Poetry) 364 Mark Cotharn, Brains versus Brawn 377 Ellen Laird, I’m Your Teacher, Not Your Internet-Service Provider 409 Josie Martinez, What I Learned (and Didn’t Learn) in College 440 Carolyn Foster Segal, The Dog Ate My Tablet, and Other Tales of Woe 452 Amy Tan, Mother Tongue 458 Richard Posner, On Plagiarism 509 Aaron Bady, Public Universities Should Be Free 575 Matt Bruenig, The Case against Free College 581 Leon Wiseltier, Does It Pay to Study the Humanities? 586 Vinod Khosla, Is Majoring in Liberal Arts a Mistake for Students? 594 Geoffrey R. Stone, Free Expression in Peril 609 Sophie Downes, Trigger Warnings, Safe Spaces, and Free Speech, Too 617 Jennifer Medina, Warning: The Literary Canon Could Make Students Squirm 621 Soraya Chemaly, What’s Really Important about “Trigger Warnings” 626 Andrew Wilson, Why I Wouldn’t Go to the University of Texas Law School 634 Students for Gun-Free Schools, Why Our Campuses Are Safer without Concealed Handguns 639 Students for Concealed Carry, Why Our Campuses Are Not Safer without Concealed Handguns 648 Timothy Wheeler, There’s a Reason They Choose Schools 660 Business and Work Bonnie Smith-Yackel, My Mother Never Worked 121 George Orwell, Shooting an Elephant 131 Kristy Bredin, Job Application Letter 211 Grace Ku, Midnight 213 Zeynep Tufekci, Why the Post Office Makes America Great 220 Deborah L. Rhode, Why Looks Are the Last Bastion of Discrimination 239 Naomi Rosenberg, How to Tell a Mother Her Child Is Dead 277 Stanley Fish, Getting Coffee Is Hard to Do 283 Race and Culture Henry Louis Gates Jr., “What’s in a Name?” 2 Marjane Satrapi, from Persepolis II (Graphic Fiction) 109 George Orwell, Shooting an Elephant 131 Sherman Alexie, Indian Education (Fiction) 140 Mary Lim, The Valley of Windmills 164 Bich Minh Nguyen, Goodbye to My Twinkie Days 169 Marina Keegan, Stability in Motion 178 Four Tattoos: Charles Thatcher, “Alisha, Loretta”; Carrie Villines, “Positive Outlook”; Guido Koppes, “Owl”; Anthony Bradshaw, “Bar Code” (Photos) 218 Zeynep Tufekci, Why the Post Office Makes America Great 220 Judith Ortiz Cofer, The Myth of the Latin Woman: I Just Met a Girl Named Maria 225 Brent Staples, Just Walk On By: A Black Man Ponders His Power to Alter Public Space 233 Jamaica Kincaid, “Girl” (Fiction) 254 Amy Chua, Why Chinese Mothers Are Superior 402 Isabel Wilkerson, Emmett Till and Tamir Rice, Sons of the Great Migration 422 Amy Tan, Mother Tongue 458 Ajoy Mahtab, The Untouchable 489 José Antonio Burciaga, Tortillas 500 Amy Wilentz, A Zombie Is a Slave Forever 504 Martin Luther King Jr., Letter from Birmingham Jail 558 Lars Eighner, On Dumpster Diving 676 Gender Marjane Satrapi, from Persepolis II (Graphic Fiction) 109 Kate Chopin, The Storm (Fiction) 196 Jamaica Kincaid, “Girl” (Fiction) 254 Linda M. Hasselstrom, A Peaceful Woman Explains Why She Carries a Gun 350 Deborah Tannen, Sex, Lies, and Conversation 415 Judy Brady, I Want a Wife 496 Nature and the Environment Mary Lim, The Valley of Windmills 164 Heather Rogers, The Hidden Life of Garbage 184 E. B. White, Once More to the Lake 189 Kate Chopin, The Storm (Fiction) 196 Rachel Carson, The Obligation to Endure 550 Media and Society Martin Gansberg, Thirty-Eight Who Saw Murder Didn’t Call the Police 126 Zeynep Tufekci, Why the Post Office Makes America Great 220 Maia Szalavitz, Ten Ways We Get the Odds Wrong 245 Stanley Fish, Getting Coffee Is Hard to Do 283 Josh Barro, Why Stealing Cars Went Out of Fashion 334 Maggie Koerth-Baker, Why Rational People Buy into Conspiracy Theories 338 Simon Cottee, What Motivates Terrorists? 344 Karen Miller Pensiero, Photos That Change History 356 Maria Tecson, A Comparison of Two Websites on Attention Deficit Disorder 382 Olga Khazan, The Three Types of Happiness 448 Juan Williams, Songs of the Summer of 1963 … and Today 397 David Kirby, Inked Well 691 History and Politics George Orwell, Shooting an Elephant 131 Suzanne Berne, Ground Zero 173 Arthur Miller, Get It Right: Privatize Executions 292 Evelyn Pellicane, The Irish Famine, 1845–1849 328 Bruce Catton, Grant and Lee: A Study in Contrasts 392 Josh Barro, Why Stealing Cars Went Out of Fashion 334 Simon Cottee, What Motivates Terrorists? 344 Karen Miller Pensiero, Photos That Change History 356 Isabel Wilkerson, Emmett Till and Tamir Rice, Sons of the Great Migration 422 Henry Reed, Naming of Parts 476 StopTextsStopWrecks.org, You Don’t Want Them Responding to Your Text (Ad) 542 Thomas Jefferson, The Declaration of Independence 550 Martin Luther King Jr., Letter from Birmingham Jail 558 Jonathan Swift, A Modest Proposal 706 Donald Kagan, On Patriotism 697 Ethics Brent Staples, Cutting and Pasting: A Senior Thesis by (Insert Name) 17 Laura Bobnak, The Price of Silence 76 Simon Cottee, What Motivates Terrorists? 344 Karen Miller Pensiero, Photos That Change History 356 Martin Gansberg, Thirty-Eight Who Saw Murder Didn’t Call the Police 126 George Orwell, Shooting an Elephant 131 Brent Staples, Just Walk On By: A Black Man Ponders His Power to Alter Public Space 233 Deborah L. Rhode, Why Looks Are the Last Bastion of Discrimination 239 Arthur Miller, Get It Right: Privatize Executions 292 Jessica Mitford, The Embalming of Mr. Jones 297 Shirley Jackson, The Lottery (Fiction) 304 Carolyn Foster Segal, The Dog Ate My Tablet, and Other Tales of Woe 452 Stephanie Ericsson, The Ways We Lie 466 Richard Posner, On Plagiarism 509 StopTextsStopWrecks.org, You Don’t Want Them Responding to Your Text (Ad) 542 Rachel Carson, The Obligation to Endure 550 Citizenship Ocean Vuong, Surrendering 116 Suzanne Berne, Ground Zero 173 Zeynep Tufekci, Why the Post Office Makes America Great 220 Arthur Miller, Get It Right: Privatize Executions 292 U.S. Census Bureau, U.S. Census 2010 Form (Questionnaire) 494 Henry Reed, Naming of Parts 476 StopTextsStopWrecks.org, You Don’t Want Them Responding to Your Text (Ad) 542 Thomas Jefferson, The Declaration of Independence 544 Rachel Carson, The Obligation to Endure 550 Martin Luther King Jr., Letter from Birmingham Jail 558 Donald Kagan, On Patriotism 697 Introduction: How to Use This Book Patterns for College Writing is a book of readings, but it is also a book about writing. Every reading selection is followed by questions and exercises designed to help you become a thoughtful and proficient writer. The study questions that accompany the essays in this book encourage you to think critically about writers’ ideas. Although some of the questions (particularly those listed under Comprehension) call for fairly straightforward, factual responses, other questions (particularly the Journal Entry assignments) invite more complex responses that reflect your individual reaction to the selections. The essay that begins on the following page, “ ‘What’s in a Name?’ ” by Henry Louis Gates Jr., is typical of those that appear in this book. It is preceded by a headnote that gives readers information about the author’s life and career. This headnote includes a background section that provides a social, historical, and cultural context for the essay. Henry Louis Gates Jr. “What’s in a Name?” Henry Louis Gates Jr. was born in 1950 in Keyser, West Virginia, and grew up in the small town of Piedmont. Currently Alphonse Fletcher University Professor and director of the W. E. B. Du Bois Institute for African and African American Research at Harvard University, he has edited many collections of works by African-American writers and published several volumes of literary criticism. He is probably best known as a social critic whose books and articles for a general audience explore a wide variety of issues and themes, often focusing on race and culture. In the following essay, which originally appeared in the journal Dissent, Gates recalls a childhood experience that occurred during the mid-1950s. Background on the civil rights movement In the mid-1950s, the first stirrings of the civil rights movement were under way, and in 1954 and 1955, the U.S. Supreme Court handed down decisions declaring racial segregation unconstitutional in public schools. Still, much of the country — particularly the South — remained largely segregated until Congress passed the Civil Rights Act of 1964, which prohibited discrimination based on race, color, religion, or national origin in businesses (including restaurants and theaters) covered by interstate commerce laws, as well as in employment. This legislation was followed by the Voting Rights Act of 1965, which guaranteed equal access to the polls, and the Civil Rights Act of 1968, which prohibited discrimination in housing and real estate. At the time of the experience Gates recalls here — before these laws were enacted — prejudice and discrimination against African Americans were the norm in many communities, including those outside the South. The question of color takes up much space in these pages, but the question of color, especially in this country, operates to hide the graver questions of the self. — JAMES BALDWIN, 1961 … blood, darky, Tar Baby, Kaffir, shine … moor, blackamoor, Jim Crow, spook … quadroon, meriney, red bone, high yellow … Mammy, porch monkey, home, homeboy, George … spearchucker, schwarze, Leroy, Smokey … mouli, buck. Ethiopian, brother, sistah. — TREY ELLIS, 1989 I had forgotten the incident completely, until I read Trey Ellis’s 1 essay “Remember My Name” in a recent issue of the Village Voice (June 13, 1989). But there, in the middle of an extended italicized list of the bynames of “the race” (“the race” or “our people” being the terms my parents used in polite or reverential discourse, “jigaboo” or “nigger” more commonly used in anger, jest, or pure disgust), it was: “George.” Now the events of that very brief exchange return to mind so vividly that I wonder why I had forgotten it. My father and I were walking home at dusk from his second job. 2 He “moonlighted” as a janitor in the evenings for the telephone company. Every day but Saturday, he would come home at 3:30 from his regular job at the paper mill, wash up, eat supper, then at 4:30 head downtown to his second job. He used to make jokes frequently about a union official who moonlighted. I never got the joke, but he and his friends thought it was hilarious. All I knew was that my family always ate well, that my brother and I had new clothes to wear, and that all of the white people in Piedmont, West Virginia, treated my parents with an odd mixture of resentment and respect that even we understood at the time had something directly to do with a small but certain measure of financial security. He had left a little early that evening because I was with him and I 3 had to be in bed early. I could not have been more than five or six, and we had stopped off at the Cut-Rate Drug Store (where no black person in town but my father could sit down to eat, and eat off real plates with real silverware) so that I could buy some caramel ice cream, two scoops in a wafer cone, please, which I was busy licking when Mr. Wilson walked by. Mr. Wilson was a very quiet man, whose stony, brooding, silent 4 manner seemed designed to scare off any overtures of friendship, even from white people. He was Irish, as was one-third of our village (another third being Italian), the more affluent among whom sent their children to “Catholic School” across the bridge in Maryland. He had white straight hair, like my Uncle Joe, whom he uncannily resembled, and he carried a black worn metal lunch pail, the kind that Riley* carried on the television show. My father always spoke to him, and for reasons that we never did understand, he always spoke to my father. “Hello, Mr. Wilson,” I heard my father say. 5 “Hello, George.” 6 I stopped licking my ice cream cone, and asked my Dad in a loud voice why Mr. Wilson had called him “George.” 7 “Doesn’t he know your name, Daddy? Why don’t you tell him your name? Your name isn’t George.” 8 “Doesn’t he know your name, Daddy? Why don’t you tell him your name? Your name isn’t George… .” For a moment I tried to think of who Mr. Wilson was mixing Pop up with. But we didn’t have any Georges among the colored people in 9 Piedmont; nor were there colored Georges living in the neighboring towns and working at the mill. “Tell him your name, Daddy.” 10 “He knows my name, boy,” my father said after a long pause. “He calls all colored people George.” 11 A long silence ensued. It was “one of those things,” as my Mom 12 would put it. Even then, that early, I knew when I was in the presence of “one of those things,” one of those things that provided a glimpse, through a rent curtain, at another world that we could not affect but that affected us. There would be a painful moment of silence, and you would wait for it to give way to a discussion of a black superstar such as Sugar Ray or Jackie Robinson. “Nobody hits better in a clutch than Jackie Robinson.” 13 “That’s right. Nobody.” 14 I never again looked Mr. Wilson in the eye. 15 ••• _______ * Eds. note — The lead character in the 1950s television program The Life of Riley, about a white working-class family and their neighbors. Responding to an Essay The study questions that follow each essay will help you think critically about what you are reading; they will help you formulate questions and draw conclusions. (Critical thinking and reading are discussed in Chapter 1 of this book.) Four types of questions follow each essay: Comprehension questions help you assess your understanding of what the writer is saying. Purpose and Audience questions ask you to consider why, and for whom, each selection was written and to examine the implications of the writer’s choices in light of a particular purpose or intended audience. Style and Structure questions encourage you to examine the decisions the writer has made about elements such as arrangement of ideas, paragraphing, sentence structure, and imagery. One question in this category, designated Vocabulary Project, focuses on word choice and connotation. Journal Entry assignments ask you to write a short, informal response to what you read and to speculate freely about related ideas, perhaps by exploring ethical issues raised by the selection or by offering your opinions about the writer’s statements. Briefer, less polished, and less structured than full-length essays, journal entries may suggest ideas for more formal kinds of writing. Following these sets of questions are three additional features: Writing Workshop assignments ask you to write essays structured according to the pattern of development explained and illustrated in the chapter. Some of these assignments, designated Working with Sources, will ask you to cite the essay or an outside source. In these cases, you will be reminded to include parenthetical documentation and a works-cited page that conform to MLA documentation style. Combining the Patterns questions focus on the various patterns of development — other than the essay’s dominant pattern — that the writer uses. These questions ask why a writer uses particular patterns (narration, description, exemplification, process, cause and effect, comparison and contrast, classification and division, and definition), what each pattern contributes to the essay, and what other choices the writer might have had. Thematic Connections identify other readings in this book that explore similar themes. Reading these related works will enhance your understanding and appreciation of the original work and perhaps give you material to write about. Following are some examples of study questions and possible responses, as well as a Writing Workshop assignment and a list of Thematic Connections, for “ ‘What’s in a Name?’ ” (page 2). The numbers in parentheses after quotations refer to the paragraphs in which the quotations appear. Comprehension 1. In paragraph 1, Gates wonders why he forgot about the exchange between his father and Mr. Wilson. Why do you think he forgot about it? Gates may have forgotten about the incident simply because it was something that happened a long time ago or because such incidents were commonplace when he was a child. Alternatively, he may not have forgotten the exchange between his father and Mr. Wilson but pushed it out of his mind because he found it so painful. (After all, he says he never again looked Mr. Wilson in the eye.) 2. How is the social status of Gates’s family different from that of other African-American families in Piedmont, West Virginia? How does Gates account for this difference? Gates’s family is different from other African-American families in town in that they are treated with “an odd mixture of resentment and respect” (2) by whites. Although other black people are not permitted to eat at the drugstore, Mr. Gates is. Gates attributes this social status to his family’s “small but certain measure of financial security” (2). Even so, when Mr. Wilson insults Mr. Gates, the privileged status of the Gates family is revealed as a sham. 3. What does Gates mean when he says, “It was ‘one of those things,’ as my Mom would put it” (12)? Gates’s comment indicates that the family learned to see such mistreatment as routine. In context, the word things in paragraph 12 refers to the kind of incident that gives Gates and his family a glimpse of the way the white world operates. 4. Why does Gates’s family turn to a discussion of a “black superstar” after a “painful moment of silence” (12) such as the one he describes? Although Gates does not explain the family’s behavior, we can infer that they speak of AfricanAmerican heroes like prizefighter Sugar Ray Robinson and baseball player Jackie Robinson to make themselves feel better. Such discussions are a way of balancing the negative images of African Americans created by incidents such as the one Gates describes and of bolstering the low selfesteem the family felt as a result. These heroes seem to have won the respect denied to the Gates family; to mention them is to participate vicariously in their glory. 5. Why do you think Gates “never again looked Mr. Wilson in the eye” (15)? Gates may have felt that Mr. Wilson was somehow the enemy, not to be trusted, because he had insulted Gates’s father. Or, he may have been ashamed to look Wilson in the eye because he believed his father should have insisted on being addressed properly. Purpose and Audience 1. Why do you think Gates introduces his narrative with the two quotations he selects? How do you suppose he expects his audience to react to these quotations? How do you react? Gates begins with two quotations, both by African-American writers, written nearly thirty years apart. Baldwin’s words seem to suggest that, in the United States, “the question of color” is a barrier to understanding “the graver questions of the self.” That is, the labels black and white may mask more fundamental characteristics or issues. Ellis’s list of names (many pejorative) for African Americans illustrates the fact that epithets can dehumanize people; they can, in effect, rob a person of his or her “self.” This issue of the discrepancy between a name and what lies behind it is central to Gates’s essay. In a sense, then, Gates begins with these two quotations because they are relevant to the issues he will discuss. More specifically, he is using the two quotations — particularly Ellis’s shocking string of unpleasant names — to arouse interest in his topic and provide an intellectual and emotional context for his story. He may also be intending to make his white readers uncomfortable and his black readers angry. How you react depends on your attitudes about race (and perhaps about language). 2. What is the point of Gates’s narrative? That is, why does he recount the incident? Certainly Gates wishes to make readers aware of the awkward, and potentially dangerous, position of his father (and, by extension, of other African Americans) in a small southern town in the 1950s. He also shows us how names help to shape people’s perceptions and actions: as long as Mr. Wilson can call all black men “George,” he can continue to see them as insignificant and treat them as inferiors. The title of the piece suggests that the writer’s main focus is on how names shape perceptions. 3. The title of this selection, which Gates places in quotation marks, is an allusion to act 2, scene 2, of Shakespeare’s Romeo and Juliet, in which Juliet says, “What’s in a name? That which we call a rose / By any other name would smell as sweet.” Why do you think Gates chose this title? Does he expect his audience to recognize the quotation? Because his work was originally published in a journal read by a well-educated audience, Gates would have expected readers to recognize this allusion (and also to know a good deal about 1950s race relations). Although Gates could not have been certain that all members of this audience would recognize the reference to Romeo and Juliet, he could have been reasonably sure that if they did, it would enhance their understanding of the selection. In Shakespeare’s play, the two lovers are kept apart essentially because of their names: she is a Capulet and he is a Montague, and the two families are involved in a bitter feud. In the speech from which Gates takes the title quotation, Juliet questions the logic of such a situation. In her view, what a person is called should not determine how he or she is regarded, which, of course, is Gates’s point as well. Even if readers do not recognize the allusion, the title still foreshadows the selection’s focus on names. Style and Structure 1. Does paragraph 1 add something vital to the narrative, or would Gates’s story make sense without the introduction? Could another kind of introduction work as well? Gates’s first paragraph supplies the context in which the incident is to be read; that is, it makes clear that Mr. Wilson’s calling Mr. Gates “George” was not an isolated incident but part of a pattern of behavior that allowed those in positions of power to mistreat those they considered inferior. For this reason, it is an effective introduction. Although the narrative would make sense without paragraph 1, the story’s full impact would probably not be as great. Still, Gates could have begun differently. For example, he could have started with the incident itself (paragraph 2) and interjected his comments about the significance of names later in the piece. He also could have begun with the exchange of dialogue in paragraphs 5 through 11 and then introduced the current paragraph 1 to supply the incident’s context. 2. What does the use of dialogue contribute to the narrative? Would the selection have a different impact without dialogue? Explain. Gates was five or six years old when the incident occurred, and the dialogue helps to establish the child’s innocence as well as his father’s quiet acceptance of the situation. In short, the dialogue is a valuable addition to the piece because it creates two characters, one innocent and one resigned to injustice, both of whom contrast with the voice of the adult narrator: wise, worldly, but also angry and perhaps ashamed, the voice of a man who has benefited from the sacrifices of men like Gates’s father. 3. Why do you think Gates supplies the specific details he chooses in paragraphs 2 and 3? In paragraph 4? Is all this information necessary? The details Gates provides in paragraphs 2 and 3 help to establish the status of his family in Piedmont; because readers have this information, the fact that the family was ultimately disregarded and discounted by some white people emerges as deeply ironic. The information in paragraph 4 also contributes to this irony. Here, we learn that Mr. Wilson was not liked by many white people, that he looked like Gates’s Uncle Joe, and that he carried a lunch box — in other words, that he had no special status in the town apart from that conferred by race. 4. Vocabulary Project. Consider the connotations of the words colored and black, both used by Gates to refer to African Americans. What different associations does each word have? Why does Gates use both — for example, colored in paragraph 9 and black in paragraph 12? What is your response to his father’s use of the term boy in paragraph 11? In the 1950s, when the incident Gates describes took place, the term colored was still widely used, along with Negro, to designate Americans of African descent. In the 1960s, the terms AfroAmerican and black replaced the earlier names, with black emerging as the preferred term and remaining dominant through the 1980s. Today, although black is preferred by some, African American is used more and more often. Because the term colored is the oldest designation, it may seem old-fashioned and even racist today; black, which connoted a certain degree of militancy in the 1960s, is probably now considered a neutral term by most people. Gates uses both words because he is speaking from two time periods. In paragraph 9, re-creating the thoughts and words of a child in a 1950s southern town, he uses the term colored; in paragraph 12, the adult Gates, commenting in 1989 on the incident, uses black. The substitution of African American for the older terms might give the narrative a more contemporary flavor, but it might also seem awkward or forced — and, in paragraph 9, inappropriately formal. As far as the term boy is concerned, different readers are apt to have different responses. Although the father’s use of the term can be seen as affectionate, it can also be seen as derisive in this context since it echoes the bigot’s use of boy for all black males, regardless of age or accomplishments. Journal Entry Do you think Gates’s parents should have used experiences like the one in “ ‘What’s in a Name?’ ” to educate him about the family’s social status in the community? Why do you think they chose instead to dismiss such incidents as “one of those things” (12)? Your responses to these questions will reflect your own opinions, based on your background and experiences as well as on your interpretation of the reading selection. Writing Workshop Write about a time when you, like Gates’s father, could have spoken out in protest but chose not to. Would you make the same decision today? By the time you approach the Writing Workshop assignments, you will have read an essay, responded to study questions about it, discussed it in class, and perhaps considered its relationship to other essays in the text. Often, your next step will be to write an essay in response to one of the Writing Workshop questions. (Chapters 2–4 follow Laura Bobnak, a first-year composition student, through the process of writing an essay in response to this Writing Workshop assignment.) Combining the Patterns Although narration is the pattern of development that dominates “ ‘What’s in a Name?’ ” and gives it its structure, Gates also uses exemplification, presenting an extended example to support his thesis. What is this example? What does it illustrate? Would several brief examples have been more convincing? The extended example is the story of the encounter between Gates’s father and Mr. Wilson, which compellingly illustrates the kind of behavior African Americans were often forced to adopt in the 1950s. Because Gates’s introduction focuses on “the incident” (1), one extended example is enough (although he alludes to other incidents in paragraph 12). Thematic Connections “The Myth of the Latin Woman: I Just Met a Girl Named Maria” (page 225) “ ‘Girl’ ” (page 254) As you read and think about the selections in this text, you should begin to see thematic links among them. Such parallels can add to your interest and understanding as well as give you ideas for class discussion and writing. For example, one related work is Judith Ortiz Cofer’s “The Myth of the Latin Woman: I Just Met a Girl Named Maria.” Although Cofer is Latina, not African American, she too faces the stigma of being seen as a stereotype rather than as an individual; she is characterized as “Maria” just as Gates’s father was characterized (and dismissed) as “George.” Because Cofer’s essay was written in 1993 and discusses fairly recent events (in contrast to Gates’s essay, which explores an event that took place in the 1950s), it provides a more contemporary — and, perhaps, broader — context for discussing issues of race and class. Jamaica Kincaid’s short story “ ‘Girl,’ ” by an African-American writer, also has some parallels with Gates’s autobiographical essay. Like Gates, Kincaid’s protagonist seems to occupy a subservient position in a society whose rules she must obey. The lessons in life skills that are enumerated in the story are also similar to the lesson Gates learns from his father. In the process of thinking about Gates’s narrative, discussing it in class, or preparing to write an essay on a related topic (such as the one listed under Writing Workshop on page 8), you might find it useful to read Cofer’s essay and Kincaid’s story. Responding to Other Kinds of Texts The first selection in Chapters 6 through 14 of this book is a visual text. It is followed by Reading Images questions, a Journal Entry, and a short list of Thematic Connections that will help you understand the image and shape your response to it. The final selection in each chapter, a story or poem, is followed by Reading Literature questions, a Journal Entry, and Thematic Connections. NOTE: At the end of each chapter, Writing Assignments offer additional practice in writing essays structured according to a particular pattern of development. Some of these assignments, designated Working with Sources, will ask you to refer to one or more of the essays in the chapter (or to an outside source). In these cases, you will be asked to include MLA parenthetical documentation and a works-cited page. Finally, a Collaborative Activity suggests an idea for a group project. Part One The Writing Process Every reading selection in this book is the result of a struggle between a writer and his or her material. If a writer’s struggle is successful, the finished work is welded together without a visible seam, and readers have no sense of the frustration the writer experienced while rearranging ideas or hunting for the right word. Writing is no easy task, even for a professional writer. Still, although there is no simple formula for good writing, some approaches are easier and more productive than others. At this point, you may be asking yourself, “So what? What has this got to do with me? I’m not a professional writer.” True enough, but during the next few years, you will be doing a good deal of writing. Throughout your college career, you will compose exams, reports, essays, and research projects. In your professional life, you may write progress reports, proposals, business correspondence, and memos. As diverse as these tasks are, they have something in common: they can be made easier if you are familiar with the stages of the writing process — a process that experienced writers follow when they write. The Writing Process Invention (also called prewriting) During invention, you decide what to write about and gather information to support or explain what you want to say. Arrangement During arrangement, you decide how you are going to organize your ideas. Drafting and revising During drafting and revising, you write several drafts as you reconsider your ideas and their organization and refine your style and structure. Editing and proofreading During editing, you focus on grammar and punctuation, as well as on sentence style and word choice. During proofreading, you correct spelling, mechanical errors, and typos and check your essay’s format. Although the writing process is usually presented as a series of neatly defined steps, that model does not reflect the way people actually write. Ideas do not always flow easily, and the central idea you set out to develop does not always wind up in the essay you ultimately write. In addition, writing often progresses in fits and starts, with ideas occurring sporadically or not at all. Surprisingly, much good writing occurs when a writer gets stuck or confused but continues to work until ideas begin to take shape. Because the writing process is so erratic, its stages overlap. Most writers engage in invention, arrangement, drafting and revision, and editing simultaneously — finding ideas, considering possible methods of organization, looking for the right words, and correcting grammar and punctuation all at the same time. In fact, writing is such an idiosyncratic process that no two writers approach the writing process in exactly the same way. Some people outline; others do not. Some take elaborate notes during the invention stage; others keep track of everything in their heads. The writing process discussed throughout this book reflects the many choices writers make at various stages of composition. Regardless of writers’ different approaches, however, one thing is certain: the more you write, the better acquainted you will become with your personal writing process and the better you will learn how to modify it to suit various writing tasks. Because much of your college writing will be done in response to texts you read, Chapter 1 of this book introduces you to critical reading; then, Chapters 2 through 5 discuss the individual stages of the writing process. These chapters will help you define your needs as a writer and understand your options as you approach writing tasks in college and beyond. 1 Reading to Write: Becoming a Critical Reader Chapter Outline Understanding Critical Reading Determining Your Purpose Checklist Questions about Your Purpose Previewing Recognizing Visual Signals Highlighting Recognizing Verbal Signals Brent Staples: Cutting and Pasting: A Senior Thesis by (Insert Name) Exercise 1 Moisés Naím: The YouTube Effect Annotating Checklist Questions for Critical Reading Exercise 2 Reading Visual Texts Checklist Reading Visual Texts Exercise 3 On a purely practical level, you will read the selections in this book to answer study questions and to prepare for class discussions (and, often, for writing). More significantly, however, you will also read to evaluate the ideas of others, to form judgments, and to develop original viewpoints. In other words, you will engage in critical reading. By introducing you to new ideas and new ways of thinking about familiar concepts, reading prepares you to respond critically to the ideas of others and to develop ideas of your own. When you read critically, you can form opinions, exchange insights with others, ask and answer questions, and develop ideas that can be further explored in writing. For all these reasons, critical reading is a vital part of your education. Understanding Critical Reading Reading is a two-way street. Readers are introduced to a writer’s ideas, but they also bring their own ideas to what they read. After all, readers have different national, ethnic, cultural, and geographic backgrounds and different kinds of knowledge and experiences, so they may react differently to a particular essay or story. For example, readers from an economically homogeneous neighborhood may have difficulty understanding an essay about class conflict, but they may be more objective than readers who are struggling with such conflict in their own lives. These differences in readers’ responses do not mean that every interpretation is acceptable, or that an essay (or story or poem) may mean whatever a reader wants it to mean. Readers must make sure they are not distorting a writer’s words, overlooking (or ignoring) significant details, or seeing things in an essay or story that do not exist. It is not important for all readers to agree on a particular interpretation of a work. It is important, however, for each reader to develop an interpretation that the work itself supports. When you read an essay in this book, or any text that you expect to discuss in class, you should read it carefully, ideally more than once. If a text is accompanied by a headnote or other background material, as those in this book are, you should read this material as well because it will help you understand the text. Keep in mind that some of the texts you read may eventually be used as sources for writing. In these cases, it is especially important that you understand what you are reading and can formulate a thoughtful response to the writer’s ideas. (For information on how to evaluate the sources you read, see Chapter 16.) Reminder Naming Your Files As you take notes about your sources and save each new draft as a separate file, it’s important to give each file an accurate and descriptive title so that you can find it when you need it. Your file name should identify the class for which you’re writing and the date you updated the file. Comp-Plagiarism essay_9-25-17 Once you develop a system that works for you, you should use it consistently — for example, always listing elements (class, assignment, date) in the same order for each project. You can also create a separate folder for each class and then use subfolders for each assignment, gathering together all your notes and drafts for an assignment. A folder system will be particularly useful if you regularly use a remote storage site such as Dropbox or Google Drive, where files can easily become confused or be overwritten. CLOSE VIEW To get the most out of your reading, you should use active reading strategies. In practical terms, that means actively participating in the reading process: approaching an assigned reading with a clear understanding of your purpose and marking the text to help you understand what you are reading. Determining Your Purpose Even before you start reading, you should consider some questions about your purpose — why you are reading. The answers to these questions will help you understand what kind of information you hope to get out of your reading and how you will use this information. Checklist Questions about Your Purpose Will you be expected to discuss what you are reading? If so, will you discuss it in class? In a conference with your instructor? Will you have to write about what you are reading? If so, will you be expected to write an informal response (for example, a journal entry) or a more formal one (for example, an essay)? Will you be tested on the material? Previewing When you preview, you try to get a sense of the writer’s main idea, key supporting points, and general emphasis. At this stage, you don’t read every word; instead, you skim the text. You can begin by focusing on the title, the first paragraph (which often contains a purpose statement or overview), and the last paragraph (which may contain a summary of the writer’s main idea). You should also look for clues to the writer’s message in the passage’s other visual signals. Recognizing Visual Signals Look at the title. Look at the opening and closing paragraphs. Look at each paragraph’s first sentence. Look for headings. Look for italicized and boldfaced words. Look for numbered lists. Look for bulleted lists (like this one). Look at any visuals (graphs, charts, tables, photographs, and so on). Look at any information that is boxed. Look at any information that is in color. When you have finished previewing the passage, you should have a general sense of what the writer wants to communicate. As you read and reread, you will record your reactions in writing. These notes will help you understand the writer’s ideas and your own thoughts about those ideas. Every reader develops a different system of recording responses, but many readers learn to use a combination of highlighting and annotating. Highlighting When you highlight, you mark the text. You might, for example, underline (or double underline) important concepts, box key terms, number a series of related points, circle an unfamiliar word (or place a question mark beside it), draw a vertical line in the margin beside a particularly interesting passage, draw arrows to connect related points, or star discussions of the central issues or main idea. At this stage, you continue to look for visual signals, but now, as you read more closely, you also begin to pay attention to the text’s verbal signals. Recognizing Verbal Signals Look for phrases that signal emphasis (“The primary reason”; “The most important idea”). Look for repeated words and phrases. Look for words that signal addition (also, in addition, furthermore). Look for words that signal time sequence (first, after, then, next, finally). Look for words that identify causes and effects (because, as a result, for this reason). Look for words that introduce examples (for example, for instance). Look for words that signal comparison (likewise, similarly). Look for words that signal contrast (unlike, although, in contrast). Look for words that signal contradiction (however, on the contrary). Look for words that signal a narrowing of the writer’s focus (in fact, specifically, in other words). Look for words that signal summaries or conclusions (to sum up, in conclusion). LaunchPad For more practice on critical reading strategies, see the LearningCurve on Critical Reading in the LaunchPad for Patterns. The following pages reprint a column by journalist Brent Staples that focuses on the issue of plagiarism among college students. The column, “Cutting and Pasting: A Senior Thesis by (Insert Name),” and the accompanying headnote and background material have been highlighted by a student. Brent Staples: Cutting and Pasting: A Senior Thesis by (Insert Name) Born in 1951 in Chester, Pennsylvania, Brent Staples is a writer and member of the editorial board of the New York Times. He often writes about culture, politics, race, and education. Staples has a B.A. in behavioral science from Widener University and a Ph.D. in psychology from the University of Chicago. Before joining the New York Times, he wrote for the Chicago Sun-Times, Chicago Reader, Chicago Magazine, and the jazz magazine Down Beat. His work has also appeared in publications such as Ms. and Harper’s. Staples is the author of a memoir, Parallel Time: Growing Up in Black and White (1994). ••• The student who highlighted Staples’s column and its headnote was preparing for a class discussion of a group of related articles on the problem of academic cheating. To prepare for class, she began by highlighting the essay to identify the writer’s key ideas and mark points she might want to think further about. This highlighting laid the groundwork for the careful annotations she would make when she reread the article. Exercise 1 Preview the following essay. Then, highlight it to identify the writer’s main idea and key supporting points. (Previewing and highlighting the article’s headnote, including the background material provided, will help you understand the article’s ideas.) You might circle unfamiliar words, underline key terms or concepts, or draw lines or arrows to connect related ideas. Moisés Naím: The YouTube Effect A long-time journalist, professor, politician, and public intellectual, Moisés Naím is the author and editor of several books, including Illicit: How Smugglers, Traffickers, and Copycats Are Hijacking the Global Economy (2006) and The End of Power: From Boardrooms to Battlefields and Churches to States, Why Being in Charge Isn’t What It Used to Be (2013). His writing has appeared in many magazines, journals, and newspapers. Educated at the Universidad Metropolitana in Venezuela and the Massachusetts Institute of Technolo...
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