Compare and contrast the somatic symptom disorders, homework help

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Compare and contrast the somatic symptom disorders. What are the differences? Do you think they are “legitimate” psychological.


Reference

Comer, R. (2015). Abnormal Psychology, Ninth Edition. Worth Publishers; New York, New York. (ISBN 978-1-4641-7170-3) American Psychiatric Association (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual for mental disorders, (5th Ed.). American Psychiatric Publishing, Inc.; Washington, DC.

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Dr. Moy DSM-5 Criteria  An inability to recall important autobiographical information, usually of a traumatic or stressful nature, that is inconsistent with ordinary forgetting.      Note: Dissociative amnesia most often consists of localized or selective amnesia for a specific event or events; or generalized amnesia for identity and life history. The symptoms cause clinically significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning. The disturbance is not attributable to the physiological effects of a substance (e.g., alcohol or other drug of abuse, a medication) or a neurological or other medical condition (e.g., partial complex seizures, transient global amnesia, sequelae of a closed head injury/traumatic brain injury, other neurological condition). The disturbance is not better explained by dissociative identity disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, acute stress disorder, somatic symptom disorder, or major or mild neurocognitive disorder. Specify if:300.13 (F44.1) With dissociative fugue: Apparently purposeful travel or bewildered wandering that is associated with amnesia for identity or for other important autobiographical information.   Inability to recall important personal information Usually about a traumatic experience       Not ordinary forgetting Not due to physical trauma May last hours or years Usually remits spontaneously Memory returns in bits and pieces Changes in the DSM-5: Dissociative fugue is now a specifier of dissociative amnesia — rather than as a separate diagnosis.  Memory deficits in explicit but not implicit memory  Explicit memory  Involves conscious recall of experiences  Example- remembering a birthday party, or a significant event  Implicit memory  Underlies behaviors based on experiences that cannot be consciously recalled (unconscious recollection)  Example- driving a car or riding a bike  Distinguishing other causes of memory loss from dissociation:  Degenerative brain disorders (Ex Alzheimer's Disease)  Not linked to stress  Involves gradual decline over time  Accompanied by other cognitive deficits  Inability to learn new information  Substance abuse  Linked to use of drug or alcohol   Symptoms remit on their own Because it is related to life stressors in order to prevent relapse those stressors are identified and treated   Teaching coping skills Attempts to recall what happened during amnesia/fugue state with help of family and friends to integrate information into their memory DSM-5 Criteria  The presence of persistent or recurrent experiences of depersonalization, derealization, or both:       Depersonalization: Experiences of unreality, detachment, or being an outside observer with respect to one’s thoughts, feelings, sensations, body, or actions (e.g., perceptual alterations, distorted sense of time, unreal or absent self, emotional and/or physical numbing). Derealization: Experiences of unreality or detachment with respect to surroundings (e.g., individuals or objects are experienced as unreal, dreamlike, foggy, lifeless, or visually distorted). During the depersonalization or derealization experiences, reality testing remains intact. The symptoms cause clinically significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning. The disturbance is not attributable to the physiological effects of a substance (e.g., a drug of abuse, medication) or another medical condition (e.g., seizures). The disturbance is not better explained by another mental disorder, such as schizophrenia, panic disorder, major depressive disorder, acute stress disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, or another dissociative disorder.   Perception of self is altered Feelings of detachment or disconnection    Watching self from outside Floating above one’s body Emotional numbing  Unusual sensory experiences  Limbs feel deformed or enlarged  Voice sounds different or distant  DSM-5: Other objects/people/the environment may seem disconnected or unreal      Triggered by stress or traumatic event No psychosis or loss of memory Often co-morbid with anxiety, depression, or Personality Disorders Typical onset in adolescence Chronic course   Address any comorbid disorders (depression, anxiety, eating disorder) May have depersonalization in Borderline PD DSM—5 Criteria  Disruption of identity characterized by two or more distinct personality states, which may be described in some cultures as an experience of possession. The disruption in identity involves marked discontinuity in sense of self and sense of agency, accompanied by related alterations in affect, behavior, consciousness, memory, perception, cognition, and/or sensory-motor functioning. These signs and symptoms may be observed by others or reported by the individual.  Recurrent gaps in the recall of everyday events, important personal information, and/or traumatic events that are inconsistent with ordinary forgetting. DSM-5 Criteria, cont’d  The symptoms cause clinically significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning.  The disturbance is not a normal part of a broadly accepted cultural or religious practice.   Note: In children, the symptoms are not better explained by imaginary playmates or other fantasy play. The symptoms are not attributable to the physiological effects of a substance (e.g., blackouts or chaotic behavior during alcohol intoxication) or another medical condition (e.g., complex partial seizures).  Two or more distinct and fully developed personalities (alters)      Each with unique behaviors, memories, and relationships Memory gaps common for periods of time when alters are in control Rare disorder Diagnosis controversial Other symptoms: headaches, hallucinations, self harm, suicide attempts      Typical onset in childhood Rarely diagnosed until adulthood More severe than other dissociative disorders More common in women than men Often comorbid with: PTSD, major depression, borderline personality disorder, substance abuse, phobias   Disorder (DID): Two Major Theories Posttraumatic Model   DID results from severe psychological and/or sexual abuse in childhood Sociocognitive Model    DID a form of role-play in suggestible individuals Occurs in response to prompting by therapists or media No conscious deception Evidence raised in theory debate 1. DID can be role-played 1. DID patients show only partial implicit memory deficits 2. 1. 3. 4. 5. • Hypnotized students prompted to reveal alters did so (Spanos, Weekes, & Bertrand, 1985) On test of implicit memory, alters show quicker response times than normal (Nissen et al., 1988) DID diagnosis differs by clinician A few clinicians diagnose the majority of DID cases For many, symptoms emerge after therapy begins     Empathic and supportive therapist Integration of alters into one fully functioning individual Improved coping skills Psychoanalytic approach adds: Re-experience the traumatic event  Use of hypnosis  Age regression  This category applies to presentations in which symptoms characteristic of a dissociative disorder that cause clinically significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning predominate but do not meet the full criteria for any of the disorders in the dissociative disorders diagnostic class. The other specified dissociative disorder category is used in situations in which the clinician chooses to communicate the specific reason that the presentation does not meet the criteria for any specific dissociative disorder. This is done by recording “other specified dissociative disorder” followed by the specific reason (e.g., “dissociative trance”). Examples of presentations that can be specified using the “other specified” designation include the following:  Chronic and recurrent syndromes of mixed dissociative symptoms: This category includes identity disturbance associated with less-than-marked discontinuities in sense of self and agency, or alterations of identity or episodes of possession in an individual who reports no dissociative amnesia.     Identity disturbance due to prolonged and intense coercive persuasion: Individuals who have been subjected to intense coercive persuasion (e.g., brainwashing, thought reform, indoctrination while captive, torture, long-term political imprisonment, recruitment by sects/cults or by terror organizations) may present with prolonged changes in, or conscious questioning of, their identity. Acute dissociative reactions to stressful events: This category is for acute, transient conditions that typically last less than 1 month, and sometimes only a few hours or days. These conditions are characterized by constriction of consciousness; depersonalization; derealization; perceptual disturbances (e.g., time slowing, macropsia); micro-amnesias; transient stupor; and/or alterations in sensory-motor functioning (e.g., analgesia, paralysis). Dissociative trance: This condition is characterized by an acute narrowing or complete loss of awareness of immediate surroundings that manifests as profound unresponsiveness or insensitivity to environmental stimuli. The unresponsiveness may be accompanied by minor stereotyped behaviors (e.g., finger movements) of which the individual is unaware and/or that he or she cannot control, as well as transient paralysis or loss of consciousness. The dissociative trance is not a normal part of a broadly accepted collective cultural or religious practice.  This category applies to presentations in which symptoms characteristic of a dissociative disorder that cause clinically significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning predominate but do not meet the full criteria for any of the disorders in the dissociative disorders diagnostic class. The unspecified dissociative disorder category is used in situations in which the clinician chooses not to specify the reason that the criteria are not met for a specific dissociative disorder, and includes presentations for which there is insufficient information to make a more specific diagnosis (e.g., in emergency room settings).
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Running head: SOMATIC SYMPTOMS DISORDERS

Somatic Symptom Disorders
Name
Institution

SOMATIC SYMPTOMS DISORDERS

Somatic Symptom Disorders
Somatic Symptom disorders occur when an individual feels anxious concerning the
physical symptoms such as feeling tired and pain. Such a person has strong feelings, thoughts,
and behaviors that are linked to the symptoms that interrupt the daily life situations (Comer,
2015).People with such disorders react extremely to the signs thus leading to a change in their
behaviors. One of the common causes of physical symptom condition is the negative perception
towards personality. Genetics and family upbringing also contributes to the development of the
disease. Individuals who are sensitive to sensations and pain are also li...


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