Two Anthropology assignments and two discussions, science homework help

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For the assignment, answer the question(s) with one to two paragraphs. Your answer should draw upon the course material and you should cite your sources. For the discussion, your contribution should also draw upon the course material as well as give your own insight/thoughts. Please use proper grammar and spelling.

Module 6

Assignment 6:350 words +

Thinking holistically, why are societies based on foraging far more egalitarian than societies based on agriculture? You must include examples from our ethnography "The Forest People" and Lee's article Eating Christmas in the Kalahari.

Discussion 6

What is consumerism? Is it “natural” for people to want more and more, or does a comparative perspective suggest that this is culturally produced? If so, how? Is consumerism an aberration, or is it integral to the functioning of a capitalist economy?

Module 7

Assignment 7: 350 words +

What are the effects of Western fantasies of African wilderness on the Maasai and their ability to engage in traditional livelihoods? How have Western fantasies transformed the kind of work that Maasai do today?

Discussion 7

Discuss the documentary Amazonia Eterna in relation to our examination of environmental and ecological anthropology. You are free to discuss any element of the documentary but relate your discussion to anthropology!

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Overview Module 6 In this module we examine foodways and economies across cultures. Anthropologists are interested in how people define, procure, prepare, and eat food and in how people make, share, and procure material items and services. Assigned Readings and Learning Objectives 6 Assigned Readings • • • • • Welsch and Vivanco: Chapters 7, 9 Lecture 6 Brondo: Chapters 7.1 (Eating Christmas in the Kalahari by Richard Borshay Lee); 7.3 (Making the Market by Paige West); 7.4 (Migrant Farmworkers and the Pain of Picking by Seth Holmes) Turnbull: Chapters 8-10 Bourgois: Chapter 5 Learning Objectives • • • • • • • • • • • • • Understand the roles that the production, distribution, and consumption of food play in human societies. Understand why humans have no single diet, and how biological, environmental, and cultural factors combine to shape human diet and health. Describe how people create meaning and social relationships around food. Distinguish between different modes of food production. Describe the social and ecological impacts of industrialized agriculture, and understand why not every society adopts its methods to increase productivity. Identify the social and political–economic processes involved in producing food insecurity as well as public health concerns related to obesity and overweight. Analyze what we can learn about social and cultural change from the ways a society’s foodways change. Understand how anthropologists have studied economies around the world. Explain the major theories and debates regarding the relationship between culture, economics, and value. Demonstrate cultural meanings and uses of money. Explain the basic principles involved in gift exchange. Describe the role of gift exchange in the American economy. Explain how consumption of goods creates cultural meaning and social interaction. • Illustrate how the social practices and meanings involved in capitalism can vary across cultures. Subsistence Strategies A subsistence strategy is how we transform the energy of the physical environment into food. Many anthropologists consider subsistence strategies the basic building blocks upon which cultural differences rest. Subsistence strategies have a dramatic impact upon residence patterns, structures of power and prestige, and family and kinship patterns, for example. Environmental conditions provide the range of possible adaptations. There are five basic subsistence patterns: foraging, pastoralism, horticulture, agriculture, industrialism and post-industrial global economy. Foraging Foraging (also known as hunting and gathering): food is naturally available in the environment. Foragers rely upon hunting wild game, fishing, and collecting plants. They do not cultivate plants. A group's dependence on hunting versus gathering varies. Most foragers rely more heavily on plants for the majority of their diet, however, there are some groups such as those living in arctic zones who rely more on hunting, fishing, and trapping. For most of human history, humans have subsisted as foragers. Marshall Sahlins, an anthropologist at the University of Chicago, described foragers as "the original affluent society." This is because foragers spend the least amount of time procuring their needs, leaving them with a tremendous amount of leisure time. The general characteristics of foragers include: • • • • • • Nomadic Organized into small kin groups and their kin networks are minimal Little occupational specialization (most everyone in the group can perform most jobs) More egalitarian than societies with other subsistence strategies. There are fewer power or status hierarchies and greater gender equality. Organized political leadership is rare. Social control is informal and the group is held together by an ethic of sharing. Gendered division of labor where women typically gather and men typically hunt. However, this is not strict and men will gather and women will hunt. Accumulation of individual wealth is not valued, most likely because resources are not stored but consumed immediately. Pastoralism Pastoralism: the care of domesticated herd animals whose products are part of the diet. Pastoralism is typically found in environments where the land cannot support agriculture. The main animals herded are cattle, sheep, goats, yaks, and camels. Pastoralism was not developed in the New World because of an absence of animals capable of being domesticated (llamas and alpacas are the exceptions). Pastoralism is found mostly in East Africa (cattle), North Africa (camels), Southwest Asia (sheep and goats), Central Asia (yak), and the subarctic (caribou and reindeer). The domesticated animal is not the sole source of food for pastoralists. It is practiced with cultivation or trading relationships with cultivators or with foraging. Pastoralists make direct use of their herd animals by consuming the meat, blood, and milk (directly or as cheese, yoghurt, and butter). The herd animal takes on tremendous social and symbolic significance for the group. Their language often reflects this in the complex and extensive vocabulary surrounding the herd animal. An example of the significance of cattle to the Maasai, an East African pastoralist group, was made clear to me when I was a college student in Kenya. Another American student and I were lunching with a Maasai man we had recently met. In an attempt to flatter us, he told each of us what we reminded him of: I was "a little dik dik in the forest" ( a very tiny antelope that comes to about one's knee) and my friend was a "strong cow." My friend wasn't too impressed with being compared to a cow and our Maasai friend saw the disappointment on her face. He desperately tried to explain that cows were the most prized animals in the world for a Maasai and that cows were deemed beautiful and strong. It wasn't until later when we had lived with a rural Maasai family that we both understood his compliment (and that being compared to a tiny, fragile antelope wasn't so much of a compliment). Animals must be herded to fertile grounds. Thus, pastoralists have developed two predominant strategies for moving animals about: • • Transhumance: animals are moved throughout the year to different areas as pastures open up at different climatic zones. Typically, men and boys move with the herds while the women, children, and elderly stay in the village. This is most commonly found in Europe and Africa. Nomadism: the whole family moves with the herds. There are no permanent villages. This is most commonly found in the Middle East and North Africa. Pastoralist societies tend to be patrilineal and patrilocal, which you will learn about when we study kinship, family, and marriage. A dik dik, not your professor: A group of Maasai herders with several of their strong, beautiful cows: Horticulture Horticulture: plants are produced using simple, non-mechanized technology such as hoes and digging sticks. In horticulture, a field is not used year after year, but rather is left fallow for a time. The yield per acre is lower and the amount of human labor needed is lower than in agriculture. Traditionally, horticulturists grow only enough food for the group. They had no surplus for a market or trade system. Today, though, many grow crops for markets and trade. Horticulturists usually grow several crops and supplement it with hunting, gathering, fishing, and domestic animals. Men typically clear the land, burn the land, plant, weed, and build fences. Women typically plant, weed, harvest, process the product, and cook. Horticulture is found mainly in tropical rain forests in Asia, sub-Saharan Africa, the Pacific Islands, and the Amazon Basin of South America. One form of horticulture is swidden or slash and burn. A field is cleared by cutting down the trees and then burning the dried growth. The ash acts as a fertilizer. This form of horticulture, however, may be detrimental to the environment if a field is not allowed to remain fallow long enough to regenerate natural growth. The land becomes grassland instead. Horticulturists must move from field to field. The family may stay in one locale and simply walk further and further to each new field being cultivated. Or the family may change its residence along with the field site. Matrilineality (which you will learn more about when we study kinship, marriage, and family) is more common among horticulturists than among any other subsistence pattern. This possibly reflects the importance of women's roles in cultivation. Agriculture Agriculture: the same plot of land is cultivated permanently with the use of plows, draft animals, and complex technology such as water and soil control. Irrigation, fertilization, and selective crop breeding are very important in agriculture. More people are fed on less land with intense cultivation (from both technology and more intensive use of labor). Agriculture requires tremendous capital investments such as for the purchase of fertilizers and labor. The majority of people in Malawi, Africa, for example, are agriculturists. They grow maize and other crops such as cassava, rice, okra, beans, and potatoes. The majority of people can only get seed and fertilizer by borrowing money or through credit, which is repaid when their crop is sold. Laborers are hired on with the promise of part of the crop. It is only the very wealthy who are able to acquire seed and fertilizer each year without being extended credit or taking on a loan. I conducted research in Malawi on the blind (Malawi, like many impoverished nations, has a very high rate of blindess). For blind Malawian farmers, maintaining a farm is very difficult, not because of their blindness but because they are denied loans or credit for the necessary agricultural inputs. They are mistakenly viewed as a bad credit risk because of their blindness (the blind, in actuality, are able to produce equally successful crops when given access to the same resources as sighted farmers). Without fertilizer, crop production is much lower leading to a very precarious economic state for the blind farmer. In agriculture, production goes beyond subsistence. Crops are produced to support nonfood producing specialists within society. Cash crops are also produced and the state extracts from laborers through taxes. In Malawi, the two predominant cash crops are tobacco and tea. Tobacco grown in Malawi is purchased by one of two companies, both American owned. Tobacco sales account for 80% of Malawi's economic productivity. Agriculturists, thus, are enmeshed in the larger global economy. Agriculture is associated with: • • • • • Technology that allows food production in areas that would otherwise be too hilly or dry for cultivation. Sedentary communities. Significant environmental effects. Irrigation schemes such as ditches and paddies become repositories for wastes, chemicals, and disease microorganisms. Also, converting land to agriculture results in deforestation and less environmental diversity. Specialization in crop production is extreme. Typically only one or two staple crops are grown. For example, in Malawi, maize and cassava are the staple crops with the majority of land devoted to their cultivation. This results in a less diverse diet and an increase in malnutrition. A less diverse crop also makes crop failure very risky. The Irish potato famine (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site. is an example of what may happen when a staple crop fails and there are few alternative crops grown to support the population. A division of labor in which men have the greatest role as cultivator. Anthropologists believe that with the advent of agriculture, women were cut off from production for the first time in history. Agriculturists tend to have sharp gender stratification with men having greater power. PreviousNext Industrial and Post-Industrial Global Economy Industrial and Post-Industrial Global Economy: the use of machines and chemical processes for the production of goods. The switch to industrialization results in dramatic changes in society and the economy: • • • With industrialization there is a shift to wage labor so that one is no longer the owner of the product he or she produces. There is extreme occupational specialization meaning that we are all dependent upon the labor of others for survival. It is associated with an increase in population and a dramatic increase in the consumption of resources, goods, and services. Industrial and post-industrial capitalist economies are built upon the assumption that consumption must increase and expand and one's material standard of living must always increase. Thus, resource consumption is promoted resulting in widespread commercialization. The "commodification of personal life" is one aspect of this commercialization, reality television being an example. Industrialism and post industrialism are associated with extreme social stratification. There are at least two social classes found in both socialist and capitalist economies: • • a labor force that produces goods and services. a smaller class that controls production and distribution. There is often another class: • a managerial class that oversees production. Industrial and post-industrial economies do offer people more choice in how they make a living. An individual is not simply consigned to hunting and gathering, cultivating, or herding. Most of us have a much broader range of options in deciding how we will make a living. However, the range of options is not the same for everyone. Many people are shut out of most means of making a living for various reasons, which will be discussed further when we study dimensions of inequality. Modes of Reproduction A functioning society requires the bearing and rearing of children into healthy adults who contribute to the well-being of the community. There are three basic Modes of Reproduction, the total number of births and deaths, which generally correspond to the three major subsistence strategies. The Foraging Mode of Reproduction Traditional foragers typically have several years between births, with women having approximately three to four live births during their reproductive lives. Fertility is largely controlled indirectly through prolonged breastfeeding and low body fat levels (from diet and exercise). These two factors inhibit ovulation and thus pregnancy. Infant mortality, infanticide, spontaneous abortion, and induced abortions result in a replacement level of reproduction. This mode of reproduction is sustainable over time. The Agricultural Mode of Reproduction Agriculture is associated with the highest fertility rates. Agriculture requires a large labor force, so having large families is a common strategy. Additionally, diet and shorter breastfeeding time results in post-partum women ovulating sooner than women in foraging societies. The highest fertility rates worldwide are found among Mennonites, Hutterites, Europeandescent Christians in the United States and Canada, and Amish. Women give birth to between 8 and 10 children who survive to adulthood. Industrial and Post-Industrial Global Economy These societies have low birth and death rates resulting in replacement level fertility or even below replacement level fertility. In an industrial and post-industrial economy, children are no longer economic assets. In fact, they are extremely expensive requiring investments in decades of education and training. Parents have fewer children, but invest more resources in each child. There are three distinguishing characteristics of an industrial and post-industrial mode of reproduction. It reflects the social inequality found in such an economy. Middle- and upper-class families have low birth and death rates, but poor families still have high birth and death rates. Additionally, industrial and post-industrial societies have population aging, when the proportion of older people is greater than younger people. This means there are fewer economically active people supporting a large number of economically inactive people. Finally, scientific technology is integrated in all aspects of reproduction from conception to birth. Economic Anthropology Economic anthropologists study economic systems and economic behavior. They have been concerned with two main questions: 1. How are production, distribution, and consumption organized in different societies? The focus is on systems of human behavior. 2. What motivates people in different cultures to produce, distribute, or exchange, and consume? Motivation is a concern of psychologists but it also is implicitly a concern of economists and anthropologists. Economists assume that people make economic decisions rationally using a profit motive. This assumption is basic to the capitalist world economy. In fact, the subject matter of economics is often defined as economizing, or rational, use of scarce resources or means to alternative uses or ends. What does this mean? Classical economic theory assumes our wants are infinite and our means are limited. Thus, people must make choices about how to use their scarce resources--time, labor, money, and capital. The traditional economist assumes people will always make the most rational choice. Some economists and most anthropologists recognize that individuals may be motivated by other goals. For example, an individual may try to maximize something other than profit when making "economic" decisions. They may try to maximize prestige, pleasure, excitement, comfort, or social harmony, as just a few examples. For example, my career choice was not a "rational" economic decision in that it does not maximize profit. The investment one must make in obtaining a Ph.D. in anthropology (both in time and money) does not result in greater profit later. If profit were the primary motivator, there would be no anthropologists (or artists, linguists, etc.). How are Resources Allocated? Economic anthropologist often look at resources as being allocated in several spheres: • • • • • subsistence fund: people work to eat and must replace the calories they use in their daily activity. replacement fund: people must maintain their technology and other items essential to production. For example, hoes and plows must be repaired and replaced, clothing and shelter must be maintained. social fund: people allocate resources to help others and to bond to others. For example, in Malawi, excess resources often must be put in this fund before the replacement fund in order to maintain harmonious family relationships. ceremonial fund: these are expenditures on rituals, for example, funerals. rent fund: this has a wider meaning than payment for use of property. It refers to resources people must render to an individual or agency that is superior politically or economically. Motivations for allocating one's resources among these spheres vary. Plus people often do not have a choice in allocating resources. For example, Cambodians during French colonial rule were required to participate in corvee labor to the colonial government. All men were required to provide one month of labor to the colonial government per year. This would be an allocation of resources to a rent fund, but an allocation the men had no choice in making. They were not compensated for their labor so it was also a form of slavery. Exchange and Distribution Economist Karl Polanyi stimulated a comparative study of exchange and influenced anthropological research on exchange and distribution. He identified three principles orienting exchanges: Market Principle: this principle dominates a capitalist economy. Items are bought and sold using money with an eye to maximize profit and value is determined by the law of supply and demand (things cost more the scarcer they are and the more people want them). Bargaining is characteristic to maximize exchange. Redistribution: operates when goods and services move from the local level to a center (capital, regional collection point, storehouse at a chief's residence). The flow of goods returns from the center to the common people. There may be many "middle men" in this path. An example of redistribution comes from the Cherokee of Tennessee Valley. They were farmers supplementing their crops with hunting and fishing. They had chiefs. Each main village had a central Plaza where meetings of the chief's council would take place and where redistribution feasts took place. Each family voluntarily allotted a portion of their annual harvest to the chief during these feasts. This food was used to feed the needy, travelers, or warriors (who could not plant their own crops). It was available to all who needed it, but it "belonged" to the chief and he dispersed it. Reciprocity: The exchange between social equals normally related by kinship, marriage or other close personal tie. It is the dominant form of exchange among more egalitarian societies such as foragers, horticulturists, and pastoralists. We distinguish three degrees of reciprocity: • • • generalized reciprocity: this is the purest form. It is characteristic of exchanges between closely related people. Someone gives something to another person and expects nothing immediately in return. It is not an economic transaction, usually, but an expression of personal relationship. For example, gift giving for birthdays in American culture is generalized reciprocity. Nothing is expected in return except that the person will respect American culture's customs regarding love, honor, and loyalty to the kin and friend group. In another example, this form of exchange is predominant among foragers. Among the !Kung San, 40% of the people contributed little to the food supply. Children, teenagers, and elderly depended on others for food. Despite this high proportion of dependents, the average worker hunted or gathered less than half as much as the average American works (12 to 19 hours a week for the forager). So strong is the ethic of reciprocity and sharing, that most foragers have no word for "thank you." To offer thanks is to imply that the act of sharing is unusual. balanced reciprocity: refers to exchanges between people who are more distantly related: cousins, trading partner, fictive kin. The giver expects something in return. It may not come immediately but the social relationship will be strained if there is no reciprocity. negative reciprocity: refers to exchanges with people outside or on the fringes of their social systems. For people living in a world of close personal relations such as among foragers, horticulturists, or pastoralists, exchanges with outsiders are full of ambiguity and distrust. Exchange is a way of establishing relations, sometimes. It resembles market economy exchanges but without money. For example, cattle raiding among the Kuria of East Africa is a form of negative reciprocity. Men steal from neighboring groups and they can expect "reciprocity" by a raid on themselves. Study Guide 6 1. Define animal husbandry. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Define food security. Define foodways. Define foraging. Define Green Revolution. Define horizontal migration. Define horticulture. Define industrial agriculture. Define intensification. 10. Define lactase persistence. 11. Define modes of subsistence. 12. Define nomadism. 13. Define nutrition transition. 14. Define obesity and overweight. 15. Define pastoralism. 16. Define structuralism. 17. Define sustainable agriculture. 18. Define swidden horticulture. 19. Define taste. 20. Define transhumance. 21. Define appropriation and give an example. 22. Define balanced reciprocity. 23. Define capitalism. 24. Define commodities. 25. Define consumers. 26. Define consumption. 27. Define cultural economics. 28. Define currency. 29. Define delayed reciprocity. 30. Define division of labor. 31. Define economic anthropology. 32. Define economic system. 33. Define exchange. 34. Define formal economics. 35. Define general-purpose money. 36. Define and give an example of generalized reciprocity. 37. Define limited-purpose money. 38. Define market. 39. Define means of production. 40. Define money. 41. Define and give an example of negative reciprocity. 42. Define neoclassical economics. 43. Define prestige economies. 44. Define reciprocity. 45. Define redistribution. 46. Define spheres of exchange. 47. Define substantive economics. 48. Define surplus value. 49. Define transactional orders. 50. Define value. Assessment Instructions For the assignment, answer the question(s) with one to two paragraphs. Your answer should draw upon the course material and you should cite your sources. For the discussion, your contribution should also draw upon the course material as well as give your own insight/thoughts. Please use proper grammar and spelling. Note that in the Assignment area, in order to bring up the window where you type your answer, you need to click on the blue Submit Assignment button in the top right. I know it is confusing! Assignment 6 Thinking holistically, why are societies based on foraging far more egalitarian than societies based on agriculture? You must include examples from our ethnography "The Forest People" and Lee's article Eating Christmas in the Kalahari. Discussion 6 No unread replies.No replies. What is consumerism? Is it “natural” for people to want more and more, or does a comparative perspective suggest that this is culturally produced? If so, how? Is consumerism an aberration, or is it integral to the functioning of a capitalist economy? Overview Module 7 In this module we examine environmental anthropology, the study of how cultures understand, interact with, and change the natural world. Assigned Readings and Learning Objectives 7 Assigned Readings • • • • Welsch and Vivanco: Chapter 8 Lecture 7 Brondo: Chapters 8.1 (Seeing Conservation Through a Global Lens by Jim Igoe); 8.4 (Gone the Bull of Winter? By Susan A. Crate) Turnbull: Chapters 11-15 Learning Objectives • • • • • • • Understand how anthropologists have studied sustainable and nonsustainable relationships between humans and the natural world. Identify examples of societies in which the distinction between humans and nature is different from the ways Americans view this distinction. Apply anthropological understandings of knowledge systems to assess whether nonWestern societies have science. Clarify how different societies conserve or do not conserve their natural resources. Explain why population growth alone does not adequately account for environmental degradation around the world. Demonstrate how environmental degradation reflects and reinforces patterns of social inequality. Identify and analyze how anthropologists can understand ethnographically and historically complex stories of landscape change. Amazonia Eterna Watch the following documentary, Amazonia Eterna: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=a4W4VXo6jFk Study Guide 7 1. Define artifactual landscapes. 2. Define carrying capacity. 3. Define cultural landscape. 4. Define ecological anthropology. 5. Define ecological footprint. 6. Define ecosystem. 7. Define environmental anthropology. 8. Define environmental determinism. 9. Define environmental justice. 10. Define ethnobiology. 11. Define ethnoscience. 12. Define political ecology. 13. Define sustainable development. 14. Define traditional ecological knowledge. Assignment 7 What are the effects of Western fantasies of African wilderness on the Maasai and their ability to engage in traditional livelihoods? How have Western fantasies transformed the kind of work that Maasai do today? Discussion 7 No unread replies.No replies. Discuss the documentary Amazonia Eterna in relation to our examination of environmental and ecological anthropology. You are free to discuss any element of the documentary but relate your discussion to anthropology! 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Running head: ANTHROPOLOGY

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Anthropology Module One
Name
Institution
Professor
Date

ANTHROPOLOGY

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Anthropology Module One

Foraging involves the process of hunting wild animals, fishing and collecting edible and
nutritional plants that grow naturally in the wild. Plants are the main diets of a foraging
society, and therefore every member of the group will gather plants when necessary as well
as hunt and fish. Foraging societies usually have insufficient storage tools or the means to
transport their food, for example, the MaMbuti Pygmiesrarely had a day's supply of food on
hand (Tunbull, 2012); therefore they are usually nomadic and therefore travel to locations
that are bountiful in game and plants instead of cultivating the food. Foragers tend to work
less than other people, for example, those in agriculture, and are therefore the most affluent
due to the free time that they enjoy.
Based on the characteristics of foragers, they are far more egalitarian than societies based
on agriculture. Unlike agricultural communities, the division of labor in foraging societies is
equal among all members of the society irrespective of their gender, for example, women can
hunt animals or fish and men can gather plants, everyone is equal in their duty. Unlike in
agricultural societies where specialization is used to set people apart and divide labor,
creating an unequal society. Another example of how egalitarian foragers are is from
the!Kung Bushmen, in their culture arrogance and pride, are looked down upon and
discouraged because they create a sense of inequality among the members. Instead,
achievements are downplayed to keep someone humble, like how the Bushmen called the
Black Ox thin and useless while it was, in fact, a fat and healthy Ox. This culture of
downplaying individual triumphs and promoting humility among the members means that
their societies end up being more egalitarian than agricultural societies (Lee, 1969).

ANTHROPOLOGY
Discussion Six
Consumerism is a modern ideology that encourages the constant acquisition of products
and services that are always changing and continually improving so that consumers can purchase
more products and the cycle continues, with products and services being upgraded and altered
and then presented to the public for consumption. Consumerism is different from capitalism in
the sense that in Capitalism, there is an equal exchange of value when a transaction is made
between two parties where the commodities purchased are those that fall under basic needs in
Maslow's hierarchy of needs. Consumerism, on the other hand, is about obsessively
accumulating produc...


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