Oliver Cromwell established a republic called the Commonwealth of England (1649-1660) and ruled as a dictator close after the overthrow of King Charles I. James Harrington was then a leading philosopher of republicanism. The collapse of the Commonwealth of England in 1660 and the restoration of the monarchy under Charles II discredited republicanism among the ruling circles of England. However celebrated liberalism, and emphasis on the rights of John Locke, who played an important role in the Glorious Revolution of 1688. However, republicanism flourished in the "country" party of the early 18th century, denounced the corruption of the party "tribunal", producing a political theory that strongly influenced the American colonists. In general, the English ruling classes of the 18th century vehemently opposed republicanism, typified by John Wilkes attacks, especially in the American Revolution and the French Revolution. The UK is perhaps the best example of constitutionalism in a country that has an uncodified constitution. A variety of events in seventeenth-century England, including "prolonged power struggle between King and Parliament was accompanied by a flowering of political ideas in which the concept of countervailing powers was clearly defined," led to a well-developed system of government with multiple government and private institutions to counter state power.
Calvinism played an important role in the republican revolts in England and the Netherlands. Like the city-states of Italy and the Hanseatic League, both were important commercial centers with a large class of prosperous merchants trade with the New World. Much of the population of both areas also embraced Calvinism. During the Dutch Revolt (from 1566), the Dutch Republic emerged from the rejection of the Spanish domination of the Habsburgs. However, the country adopted a republican form of government immediately: in the formal declaration of independence (Act of Abjuration, 1581), the throne of King Philip was only declared void, and the Dutch magistrates asked the Duke of Anjou, Queen Elizabeth of England and Prince William of Orange, one after another, to replace Felipe. It took until 1588 before the Estates (Staten, the representative assembly at the time) decided to give the country's sovereignty in themselves.
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