Obstetrics and gynecology, science homework help

Anonymous
timer Asked: Jul 24th, 2017
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Question Description

make detailed notes on the malignant disorders of the ovary. Detailed! Only use Williams obstetrics, no other book! I'm really in need, so try do it urgently.

Tutor Answer

PlasmaB
School: New York University

Hey buddy, kindly have a look at the work, and in case you need any further clarification, please get in touch. All the best, and bye

Malignant Disorders of the Ovary
Student’s Name
Date

1

MALIGNANT DISORDERS OF THE OVARIES
Ovarian cancer account for 3 – 4 % of cancers in women
1. AETIOLOGY
Incessant ovulation thought to play an important role.
-

Repeated disruption and repair of germinal epithelium may provide opportunity
for somatic gene deletions and mutations which can contribute to tumour
initiation and progression.

-

-

Found protective


Multiparity



Oral contraceptives



History of breastfeeding

Increased risk


Nulliparity
2



Infertility



Diets with high animal fat saturation



High body mass index (BMI) especially for the endometroid type



Genetic preponderance in 10 – 12 % of epithelial ovarian cancer patients



Turner’s syndrome (45 X0 ) for dysgerminoma and gonadoblastoma.



Carcinogenic substances in mullerian ductal system (BTL shown to reduce
incidence of ovarian cancer).

-

Hereditary ovarian cancer occurs in two forms
a) As breast and ovarian cancer (BOC) syndromes


Most often associated with germ line mutations in the BRCAI gene located
on chromosome 17



Less commonly with BRCA 2 mutations on chromosome 13.



Women with BRCA 1 mutations from high risk families have a lifelong
risk of 44% of BRCA 2 upto 27%



Autosomal dorminant inheritance

b) Hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) syndrome- Lynch 11
syndrome


Comprises familial colon cancer (lynch 1 syndrome) and high rate of
ovarian, endometrial, GIT and genitourinary malignancies.



Genes involved include DNA mismatch repair genes like MLH 1, MSH 2,
MSH 3, MSH 6, PMS 1 and PMS 2



A female member in affected family has a live long risk of ovarian cancer
at approximately 12%.

3

-

A number of molecular mechanisms related to pathogenesis have been described
eg:


Allelic loss and mutations of the P53 tumour suppressor gene in about
59% of cancers



Decreased expression of CDK(cyclic- dependent kinase) inhibitors



p16 deletions.

2. HISTOPATHOLOGICAL TYPES
a) Epithelial


Serous cystadenocarcinoma



Mucinous cystadenocarcinoma



Endometroid



Clear cell carcinoma



Brenner – (Transitional cell) carcinoma



Undiffferentiated

b) Germ cell


Dysgerminoma



Endodermal sinus tumour



Teratoma (immature, mature, specialized)



Embryonal carcinoma



Choriocarcinoma



Gonadoblastoma
4



Mixed germ cell



Polyembryonal

c) Sex cord and stromal


Granulosa cell tumor



Fibroma



Thecoma



Sertoli-Leydig cell



Gynandroblastoma

d) Neoplasms metastatic to the ovary


Breast



Colon



Stomach



Endometrium



Lymphoma

a) Epithelial nesplasms
Derived from ovarian surface mesothelial cells

Serous cystadenocarcinoma


Histologically like endosalpix



Commonest ovarian tumour



Account for 75 – 80% of all epithelia cancers



40 – 60% bilateral
5



85% associated with extra ovarian spread at the time of diagnosis



More than 50% exceed 15cm diameter



shows areas of hemorrhage, necrosis ,cyst w...

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Review

Anonymous
Tutor went the extra mile to help me with this essay. Citations were a bit shaky but I appreciated how well he handled APA styles and how ok he was to change them even though I didnt specify. Got a B+ which is believable and acceptable.

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