CSU Quality Management Implementation Question

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Read the case study on Indian service industries in regards to Total Quality Management. (Article: Talib, F., Mohd, N. (2020 May). Assessment of Total Quality Management implementation in Indian service industries. IUP Journal of Operations Management, 19(2), 7-28. 

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https://search-proquest-com.csuglobal.idm.oclc.org/docview/2430681833/fulltextPDF/EFCBF496F140462EPQ/1?accountid=38569)

In Module 3, show your understanding of the case study by providing a synopsis of the case, the 17 Total Quality Management concepts covered, and the conclusion reached about those 17 Total Quality Management concepts.


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Assessment of Total Quality Management Implementation in Indian Service Industries† Faisal Talib* and Mohd. Nishat Faisal** The purpose of this paper is to examine the extent to which Total Quality Management (TQM) practices have been implemented in Indian service industries. A self-structured instrument was used to collect data from four different service industries, viz., healthcare, banking, hospitality and Information and Communication Technology (ICT). Using empirical data gathered from a sample of 172 (generated from stratified sampling methodology) top and middle managers in Indian service industries, the findings were reported. The instrument was tested and validated through reliability and validity tests. A one-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was used to examine the extent of TQM implementation in Indian service industries. The results revealed that six TQM practices, i.e., top-management commitment, customer focus, process management, quality systems, teamwork, and communication, are effectively implemented across the Indian service industries, suggesting that no significant difference was found, while the remaining 11 practices are partially implemented as significant difference was observed in their implementation. The proposed framework can help Indian service managers and practitioners to make the process of TQM implementation effective by proper implementation of the identified set of TQM practices to gain maximum benefits and advantages of the TQM program. Introduction In the present era of global and increased competitive environment, industries have been experiencing rapid changes in the business performance propelled by phenomena † An earlier version of the paper was presented at the Annual Meeting of the Decision Sciences Institute Conference (DSI-2016) which was held between November 19-22, 2016, Austin, TX, USA. * Associate Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Zakir Husain College of Engineering and Technology, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, Uttar Pradesh, India; and is the corresponding author. E-mail: ftalib77@gmail.com ** Professor, Department of Management and Marketing, College of Business and Economics Qatar University, Doha, Qatar. E-mail: nishat786@qu.edu.qa Assessment Total Quality Management Implementation © 2020 IUP.ofAll Rights Reserved. in Indian Service Industries 7 like increased customer awareness of quality, adoption of new and advanced technology, globalization, cost effectiveness, efficient utilization of resources and achieving customer satisfaction (Kumar et al., 2011; Kristianto et al., 2012; and Psomas et al., 2014). In response to these challenges, many business practitioners and industry managers have started to adopt different quality improvement approaches for enhancing competitiveness and sustainable business performance (Arumugam et al., 2009) such as Total Quality Management (TQM), Six Sigma, ISO 9000 and Quality Models (EFQM, MBNQA, Deming Award) (Talib et al., 2011a, 2011b and 2011c; and Talib et al., 2013a). Among them, TQM is widely accepted approach that uses a set of management practices focusing on customer satisfaction, industry development, product and service quality and continuous improved performance (Yusof and Aspinwall, 2000; Talib and Rahman, 2010; Talib et al., 2011c; Kristianto et al., 2012; and Talib et al., 2013b). Through TQM practices, both the industries, i.e., manufacturing and service have been trying to upgrade their quality standards and improve product and service design to fulfill customer expectations along with overall business performance (Bhat and Rajashekhar, 2009). Further, for successful implementation of TQM, there is a need to identify a set of TQM practices applicable to service industry (Talib et al., 2011c) and assure the proper implementation of the same for earning maximum benefits. A considerable amount of literature is present on the implementation of TQM program in manufacturing industries. These studies have showed several benefits of successful implementation of TQM and still they are being benefited in some way (Talib and Rahman, 2012; Abusa and Gibson, 2013; Belay et al., 2014; and Mahmood et al., 2014). Following the success of TQM in manufacturing industry, managers and decisionmakers have worked out to explore the need of applying the TQM principles and practices to the service industries and recommended its applicability as there are not enough studies conducted in this sector, especially in Indian context (Prajogo, 2005; and Talib and Rahman, 2012). Based on this, the present study tries to fill the present gap by reviewing the literature on TQM implementation in the service sector and conducting a survey-based research for implementing the previously identified and validated set of TQM practices in Indian service industries (Talib et al., 2011a, 2011b, and 2011c; and Talib et al., 2013b). Considering the benefits of TQM in manufacturing industries and lack of research studies on implementation of TQM in service industries, the present study aims to examine the extent or degree to which TQM practices are practiced or implemented in Indian service industries. This study involves a survey-based empirical research on assessment of TQM implementation program in Indian service industries with the aim of achieving greater benefits and performance. The scope of the study is four selected service industries, namely, healthcare, banking, hospitality, and Information and Communication Technology (ICT). Reliability and validity tests, and one-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) has been used to empirically investigate the TQM implementation in these 8 The IUP Journal of Operations Management, Vol. XIX, No. 2, 2020 industries. After successfully implementing the TQM program using the identified set of TQM practices, the Indian service managers and practitioners would be able to achieve enhanced business performance and increased competitiveness in the marketplace. The paper is organized as follows: it starts with a review of literature on TQM implementation, followed by the description of the research framework, question and hypothesis formulation and detailed research methodology used in the study. Subsequently, results are discussed, and finally, the main conclusions of the research study along with some managerial implications and scope for future research is offered. Literature Review TQM Practices in Service Industries TQM practices in service quality are those critical factors that ensure success of organization and therefore, must be given continual attention to bring about high performance in the service industries (Boynton and Zmud, 1984). The TQM success will result in improved communication, increased productivity, improved employee involvement, improved quality, reduced lead-time, improved customer satisfaction, reduced costs of poor quality, and improved competitive advantage (Antony et al., 2002). As long as TQM is adopted fully and practiced effectively in an organization, these benefits will be delivered. It will strengthen the organizational business performance and competitive advantage by taking care of customer requirements. Therefore, many organizations have implemented different TQM practices in order to position their places in the market place. There is a voluminous published literature on quality management practices adopted by different academician and practitioners in various service organizations. This huge amount of literature primarily focuses on the TQM practices and the approaches taken to assure a successful implementation of TQM program to achieve desired outcome and benefits. Saraph et al. (1989) revealed eight Critical Success Factors (CSFs) for TQM implementation such as top-management leadership, role of quality department, training, product design, supplier quality management, process management, quality data reporting, and employee relations. Meanwhile Antony et al. (2002) described 11 TQM practices—management commitment, role of the quality department, training and education, employee involvement, continuous improvement, supplier partnership, product/service design, quality policies, quality data and reporting, communication to improve quality and customer satisfaction orientation. A study by Brah et al. (2000) on TQM and business performance in Singapore service sector identifies 11 constructs of TQM implementation, which are: top management support, customer focus, employee involvement, employee training, employee empowerment, supplier quality management, process improvement, service design, quality improvement rewards, benchmarking, and cleanliness and organization. Assessment of Total Quality Management Implementation in Indian Service Industries 9 Sureshchandar et al. (2002) expanded the practices even further and came out with 12 major practices comprising of top-management commitment and visionary leadership, human resource management, technical system, information and analysis system, benchmarking, continuous improvement, customer focus, employee satisfaction, union intervention, social responsibility, services capes, and service culture. Samat et al. (2006) extracted out seven practices from 25 TQM practices as prescribed by Sila and Ebrahimpour (2002); they are: management support and commitment, employee involvement, employee empowerment, information and communication, training and education, customer focus, and continuous improvement. Ueno (2008) described seven predominant practices in the promotion of service quality; they are: recruitment and selection, training, teamwork, empowerment, performance appraisals and rewards (including measurement and recognition), communication (two-way) and culture (of the organization). Lakhal et al. (2006) grouped TQM practices into 10 general practices; they are: top-management commitment and support, organization for quality, employee training, employee participation, supplier quality management, customer focus, continuous support, quality system improvement, information and analysis, and statistical quality technique use. Gupta et al. (2005) in there study on total quality service in service firms develops three constructs: leadership, organizational culture and employee commitment which were found to be important in achieving total quality service objectives. Ahire et al. (1996) took a different approach to develop and validate 12 quality management construct based on the literature. They are: top-management commitment, benchmarking, internal quality information use, employee involvement, training, empowerment, supplier quality management, statistical process control usage, design quality management, customer focus, supplier performance, and product quality. A recent study conducted by Talib and Rahman (2010) found out nine important CSFs in their literature review on service industries; they are: top-management commitment, customers’ focus, training and education, continuous improvement and innovation, supplier management, employee involvement, employee encouragement, benchmarking, and quality information and performance. Claver-Cortés et al. (2008), identifies four important managerial factors in their literature review on the hotel service industry settings. They are: training, information and communication technologies and information systems, environmental management and performance. Badri et al. (1995) comes out with eight factors: role of divisional top-management and quality policy, role of quality department, training, service design, supplier quality management, process management/operating procedure, quality data, and reporting and employee relation. 10 The IUP Journal of Operations Management, Vol. XIX, No. 2, 2020 Al-Marri et al. (2007) proposes 16 TQM practices which were found to be critical for successful implementation of TQM in the banking service sector; they are: topmanagement support, customer focus, strategy, benchmarking, employee involvement, recognition and reward, problem analysis, quality technologies, service design, services capes, service culture, social responsibility, human resource management, continuous improvement, quality department, and quality systems. Similarly, the studies done by Kanji and Wallace (2000), Saravanan and Rao (2004), Rahman and Siddiqui (2006), Singh et al. (2006), Bergman and Klefsjö (2007), Khamalah and Lingaraj (2007), Yusuf et al. (2007), Fotopoulos and Psomas (2009), and Abusa and Gibson (2013) are of interest. TQM Implementation Despite the growing body of literature concerning issues with TQM implementation, there are some mixed studies that have examined the structure, impact and organization performance of TQM implementation in different organizations either theoretically or empirically or through case studies (Boateng-Okrah and Fening, 2012; Abusa and Gibson, 2013; Talib, 2013; Mahmood et al., 2014; and Nasim et al., 2014). The implementation of TQM in organizations has a positive impact on organization’s customer satisfaction, employee satisfaction and quality performance (Jayaram et al., 2010; Talib et al., 2010; Andrews et al., 2011; Kristianto et al., 2012; Talib et al., 2013b; and Mahmood et al., 2014). Similarly, many studies have looked into other issues of TQM like human resource management, supplier relationship, strategic planning, leadership, quality culture and have concluded a positive outcome in the form of business performance. TQM also contributes to benchmarking of CSFs for an organization (Ahmad and Elhuni, 2014). In a study Martinez-Costa and Jimenez-Jimenez (2008), presented evidence about TQM which promotes organization learning and improves performance in the form of profitability, customer satisfaction and product/services quality. Boateng-Okrah and Fening (2012) examined the level of TQM implementation in a mining sector and revealed positive outcome. Abusa and Gibson (2013) conducted a case study in Libyan industrial sector and found that there were no differences between TQM elements across ISO and non-ISO certified companies as well as in the case of Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) and large companies. Mahmood et al. (2014) measured the performance of Pakistan Aviation Manufacturing Industry (PAMI) empirically and observed that the proposed model of measuring organizational performance in PAMI was in general agreement with the TQM model of renowned researchers. In a study, Yapa (2012) reported the results of identification and use of TQM tools, techniques and concept among Sri Lankan service organizations and found the positive response of adopting TQM by managers in their organizations. Kristianto et al. (2012) presented the results of a survey of customer satisfaction after adopting TQM in a wheat flour milling company. The findings supported the company to achieve customer satisfaction by focusing on TQM implementation efforts. Assessment of Total Quality Management Implementation in Indian Service Industries 11 ’ Past studies on TQM literature suggest that different TQM practices are identified and used in the literature by the researchers and academicians. It was observed that these studies have identified various sets of TQM practices but no common set of practices were identified, though identification of a set of TQM practices should be given special consideration for ensuring successful implementation of TQM program in any industry (Jha and Kumar, 2010; and Talib et al., 2011c). The identification of TQM practices in the service industries, the frequency of occurrence of TQM practices in the TQM literature, and developing contextual relationship between the identified TQM practices and their implementation in service industries have been published by Talib et al. (2011a, 2011b and 2011c) and are cited by various researchers and quality journals. Hence, the present study utilizes a set of 17 TQM practices as identified and proposed by Talib et al. (2011a, 2011b and 2011c) for service industries through a comprehensive review of the TQM literature. These practices are depicted in Table 1. The detailed description of each TQM practice can be found in Talib et al. (2011a). Table 1: Set of TQM Practices for Service Industries TQM Practice TQM Practice No. 1. Top-Management Commitment 2. Customer Focus 3. Training and Education 4. Continuous Improvement and Innovation 5. Supplier Management 6. Employee Involvement 7. Information and Analysis 8. Process Management 9. Quality Systems 10. Benchmarking 11. Quality Culture 12. Human Resource Management 13. Strategic Planning 14. Employee Encouragement 15. Teamwork 16. Product and Service Design 17. Communication Source: Talib et al. (2011a, 2011b and 2011c) 12 The IUP Journal of Operations Management, Vol. XIX, No. 2, 2020 Data and Methodology Based on the review of literature, a framework is formulated and a research model has been proposed to examine the extent or degree to which TQM practices are practiced or implemented in Indian service industries. The proposed TQM research framework is presented in Figure 1. This research model suggest that the more is the extent to which the identified TQM practices are present, the better the quality-oriented results achieved in the Indian service industries. To achieve the study objective, a research question: ‘RQ1: to what extent the TQM practices are practiced or implemented in the Indian service companies’ was articulated. Figure 1: Research Model of Successful TQM Implementation in Indian Service Industries TQM Practices Top-Management Commitment Customer Focus Training and Education Continuous Improvement and Innovation Supplier Management H1 H2 H3 H4 H5 Employee Involvement H6 Information and Analysis H7 Process Management H8 Quality Systems H9 H10 Benchmarking H11 Quality Culture H12 Human Resource Management H13 Strategic Planning H14 Employee Encouragement Teamwork Total Quality Management Implementation H15 H16 H17 Product and Service Design Communication Assessment of Total Quality Management Implementation in Indian Service Industries 13 The purpose of this research is to examine the extent or degree to which TQM practices are practiced or implemented in Indian service industries. Based on the extensive literature review on TQM by Talib et al. (2010), Talib et al. (2011a, 2011b and 2011c), and Talib et al. (2013b), this paper utilizes 17 TQM practices that are necessary for implementing TQM successfully in the Indian service industries. Further, the present literature review shows that the identified TQM practices are frequently adopted by majority of the service industries. This lead to the following hypothesis: H01: There is no significant difference in the 17 TQM practices as practiced or implemented by Indian service industries. To accomplish the research objective, a survey of selected Indian service industries was conducted using self-administered questionnaire1. Research Design The study design adopted was descriptive cross-sectional type which is similar to the studies conducted on TQM performed by Salaheldin (2009), Wardhani et al. (2009), and Ooi et al. (2012). Electronic mail (e-mail) survey methodology was chosen as the means of data collection as used by similar type of studies (Zu, 2009; Kureshi et al., 2010; and Talib et al., 2013b). Research Instrument In the present research, a self-administered structured instrument was developed based on the previous works of Brah et al. (2000), Sureshchandar et al. (2001), Antony et al. (2002), and Issac et al. (2004). The instrument was first validated by a pilot survey and was then used for collection of primary data. It is divided into two major parts. The first part collects the characteristics of the respondents like profession, gender, years of experience as well as the general background of the company; and the second part gathers information on implementation of TQM practices in the company by marking 17 TQM practices measured by 110 items. A 5-point Likert scale was used in the instrument with 1 = Very low, 3 = Moderate, and 5 = Very high. This is as per the suggestions of Brah et al. (2000) and Salaheldin (2009). Sampling Method and Data Collection Procedure The target population is a list of select Indian service industries published by the i3 (i-cube, Information Infrastructure for Institutions), Centre for Monitoring Indian Economy Private Limited, India (i3, CMIE, 2010). Healthcare, banking, hospitality (hotel and tourism), and ICT which includes telecommunication services, Information Technology enabled Services (ITeS) and computer software services were chosen as the four service industries for further study. The reasons for choosing these four industries are: 1 14 This research questionnaire is a published document and is the property/copyright of one of an esteemed journal. Hence, it is not possible for us to provide the copyright document to other party for publication, verification, etc. The IUP Journal of Operations Management, Vol. XIX, No. 2, 2020 • Their high Gross Domestic Product (GDP) share in Indian economy (about 56%) (i3, CMIE, 2010); • Highly labor-intensive industries that provide substantial employment (MoL&E, 2010); and • There ever increasing contribution of net annual income to the Indian service sector (i3, CMIE, 2010). A total of 1,781 companies were selected in the final list covering all the four categories. A probability sampling technique called stratified sampling was selected for this research. Based on the GDP contribution of each service industry in the total contribution of GDP of the service sector, a minimum sample size was calculated that came out to be 591; the same was increased to 600 to reduce the probability of Type II error (Burgess et al., 2006). This minimum sample size was stratified into four strata. The sample size drawn from each stratum, i.e., healthcare, banking, hospitality, and ICT industries based on proportionate stratified sampling technique was found to be 40, 67, 118, and 375 respectively. The samples were drawn using simple random sample approach. Instrument Administration Top and middle-level administrators/managers having enough experience and qualification in the area, were the target respondents for this research. The survey instruments were e-mailed to 600 companies addressed to the target respondents. After multiple follow-ups and personal contacts, a total of 211 companies responded which is approximately 35.1% of the sample size, and was selected for further study. Further, 39 instruments were found to be unusable leading to only 172 useable survey instruments which were finally included for data analysis, yielding a response rate of 28.6%. The possible reasons for this are: 33 respondents (84.6%) either did not complete the instrument or had missing data and six instruments (15.4%) were undelivered. Method To accomplish the research objective, a research instrument was framed comprising of 17 TQM practices measured by 110 items. Reliability and validity tests were deployed to check the internal consistency of the measuring items and the degree to which the instrument measures the constructs that the items are intended to measure, through various validity tests like face validity and content validity. These validity tests were conducted to ensure the data collected was valid for further analysis. One-way ANOVA was performed to test the proposed hypothesis (H01) through SPSS 20.0 software. Results and Discussion Profile of Respondents The profile of the respondents can be clearly understood through Table 2. The industry variables consist of position of respondent, years of experience, gender, department/section, and type of industry which are self-explanatory as can be seen from Table 2. Assessment of Total Quality Management Implementation in Indian Service Industries 15 Table 2: Profile of the Respondents Position/Role of the Respondent Director/Managing Director/Executive Director/CEO/ General Manager Frequency Percentage 8 4.7 Project Manager/Senior Engineer Manager/Senior Manager 32 18.6 Manager/Technical Manager/Operations Manager 38 22.1 Quality Manager/Human Resource Manager/Quality Engineer/ Market Manager/Executive Manager 40 23.3 CMO/Medical Superintendent/Medical Officer/Physicians 17 9.9 Others (Like Project Architect, Consultant, Customer Relation Officer, Service Manager, and Assistant Manager) 37 21.5 n = 172 100 61 35.5 111 64.5 n = 172 100 144 83.7 28 16.3 n = 172 100 Quality 16 9.3 Product and Services 35 20.3 Customer Relation 24 14.0 Marketing 34 19.8 Information Management Services 19 11.0 Others 44 25.6 n = 172 100 Healthcare 17 9.9 Banking 37 21.5 Hospitality (Tourism and Hotels) 34 19.8 ICT (Including ITeS and Computer Software Services) 84 48.8 n = 172 100 Total Years of Experience Less than 5 More than 5 Total Gender Male Female Total Department/Section Total Type of Industry Total 16 The IUP Journal of Operations Management, Vol. XIX, No. 2, 2020 Reliability Test To measure internal consistency among a group of items, reliability is the most commonly followed technique that combines to form a single scale and reflects the homogeneity of the scale. Using the SPSS 20.0 reliability analysis program software, an internal consistency analysis was performed separately for the items of each TQM practice. The alpha values of the study variables are summarized in Table 3. The reliability coefficients of the study variables exceeded the minimum acceptable level of 0.70 (Nunnally and Bernstein, 1994). Ten items were deleted to increase the reliability of the scale after performing this test. Hence, the total items covering 17 TQM practices were reduced from 110 to 100. As can be seen in Table 3, the alpha values range from 0.784 to 0.932, thus, providing strong evidence that the scales developed are judged to be reliable. Final Alpha (Reliability) Final Number of Items Items Deleted Original Alpha (Reliability) Measure Original Number of Items Table 3: Internal Consistency (Scale Reliabilities) for 17 TQM Practices Top-Management Commitment 9 0.865 2 7 0.932 Customer Focus 9 0.876 1 8 0.902 Training and Education 6 0.860 1 5 0.902 Continuous Improvement and Innovation 7 0.793 1 6 0.882 Supplier Management 8 0.910 None 8 0.910 Employee Involvement 6 0.883 None 6 0.883 Information and Analysis 5 0.874 None 5 0.874 Process Management 6 0.775 1 5 0.833 Quality Systems 5 0.667 1 4 0.784 Benchmarking 5 0.891 None 5 0.891 Quality Culture 8 0.843 1 7 0.891 Human Resource Management 7 0.902 None 7 0.902 Strategic Planning 6 0.821 1 5 0.866 Employee Encouragement 6 0.904 None 6 0.904 Teamwork 4 0.871 None 4 0.871 Product and Service Design 8 0.874 1 7 0.902 Communication 5 0.900 None 5 0.900 Total 110 10 100 Note: n = 172. Assessment of Total Quality Management Implementation in Indian Service Industries 17 Face and Content Validity Face and content validity was judged and found to be suitable as in this research most of the scales/items are borrowed from established scales that have already been subjected to tests of face and content validity. Moreover, the content validity of the instrument was also ensured through an extensive review of the literature and detailed evaluation by academicians and practitioners. Items were deleted, added, or modified based on their reviews prior to the analysis. Implementation of TQM Practices Across Indian Service Industries With regard to the implementation level of each TQM practice across the Indian service industries, the significant differences between each of the four categories of service industries have been examined with the help of one-way ANOVA (Mady, 2009; and Selvaraj, 2009). Nevertheless, before conducting the ANOVA, the necessary assumptions must be met. The two assumptions of concern are population normality and homogeneity of variance (Coakes et al., 2006). The population from which the Table 4: Tests of Population Normality and Homogeneity of Variance (Levene’s Test) Skewness Statistic Levene Statistic Significance (p-Value) Top-Management Commitment –0.695 1.504 0.215 Customer Focus –0.314 0.290 0.832 Training and Education –0.288 2.466 0.064 Continuous Improvement and Innovation –0.283 0.679 0.566 Supplier Management 0.466 0.421 0.738 Employee Involvement 0.443 0.481 0.696 Information and Analysis –0.077 2.380 0.071 Process Management –0.124 0.553 0.647 Quality Systems –0.397 1.394 0.246 Benchmarking –0.436 1.441 0.233 Quality Culture –0.320 2.453 0.065 Human Resource Management 0.576 2.535 0.055 Strategic Planning 0.000 0.737 0.531 Employee Encouragement 0.564 0.198 0.898 Teamwork –0.009 1.100 0.351 Product and Service Design 0.037 0.285 0.836 Communication –0.083 2.641 0.053 TQM Practice Note: n = 172; df1 = 3; and df2 = 168. 18 The IUP Journal of Operations Management, Vol. XIX, No. 2, 2020 samples have been drawn should be normal and this can be checked by using normality statistics such as skewness. On the other hand, the scores in each group should have homogeneous variance which is checked by Levene’s test that determines whether variances are equal or unequal. Table 4 presents the skewness statistics, Levene statistics, and significance results of each TQM practice. It is observed from the table that the skewness values are generally close to zero indicating that the assumption of population normality appears not to be violated. Also, Levene’s test for homogeneity of variances is not significant (p > 0.05), therefore, one can be confident that the population variances for each TQM practice are approximately equal. Accordingly, it is concluded that the ANOVA can be performed for further analysis. The extent of implementation of TQM practices across Indian service industries has been computed by the mean score of each TQM practice across each service industry as well as total mean score across overall Indian service industries separately. Table 5 reports the mean scores for 17 TQM practices in four categories of service industries as well as total mean score across the Indian service industries for each TQM practice. It also includes the ANOVA results. Through the initial investigation of all the 17 TQM practices with respect to F-value, it can be seen that a significant difference was not found among the six TQM practices (top-management commitment, customer focus, process management, quality systems, teamwork, and communication) in the study. Seven practices (training and education, continuous improvement and innovation, employee involvement, benchmarking, strategic planning, employee encouragement, and product and service design) showed significant difference at 0.05 level, while the remaining four practices (supplier management, information and analysis, quality culture, and human resource management) showed significant difference at 0.01 level. From these results it can be concluded that top-management commitment, customer focus, process management, quality systems, teamwork, and communication are not significantly different across Indian service industries. However, Indian service industries have better training and education, continuous improvement and innovation, and quality culture practices, as indicated by their total mean scores (>3.50). It can be further concluded that Indian service industries have better implementation of these TQM practices to improve continuous improvement culture, training and education program and emphasize the development of quality culture across the industry to enhance quality performance besides the implementation of top-management commitment, customer focus, process management, quality systems, teamwork, and communication. This in turn, will help service industries to achieve better quality over time. When comparing the implementation of different TQM practices across Indian service industries, the significant values of the ANOVA test statistics for ‘training and education’ {F(3, 168) = 3.71, p < 0.05}, ‘continuous improvement and innovation’ {F(3, 168) = 3.18, p < 0.05}; ‘supplier management’ {F(3, 168) = 4.342, p < 0.01}; ‘employee involvement’ {F(3, 168) = 3.617, p < 0.05}; ‘information and analysis’ Assessment of Total Quality Management Implementation in Indian Service Industries 19 20 The IUP Journal of Operations Management, Vol. XIX, No. 2, 2020 2.31 2.48 2.87 2.96 3.73 2.94 3.55 2.20 2.90 2.35 3.13 3.03 2.77 Supplier Management Employee Involvement Information and Analysis Process Management Quality Systems Benchmarking Quality Culture Human Resource Management Strategic Planning Employee Encouragement Teamwork Product and Service Design Communication H5 H6 H7 H8 H9 H 10 H 11 H 12 H 13 H 14 H 15 H 16 H 17 3.16 3.50 3.37 2.84 3.37 2.81 3.61 3.48 3.60 3.44 3.49 3.06 2.82 3.60 3.50 3.56 3.55 Banks 3.35 3.72 3.72 2.85 3.61 2.73 4.10 3.49 3.94 3.31 2.99 2.97 2.88 4.09 3.88 3.92 4.04 Hospitality 3.24 3.42 3.38 3.04 3.38 3.01 3.61 3.15 3.66 3.47 3.34 3.12 3.04 3.75 3.69 3.58 3.70 ICT 3.20 3.46 3.42 2.89 3.38 2.83 3.70 3.27 3.71 3.38 3.25 3.01 2.89 3.77 3.63 3.62 3.74 Total 1.998 3.331 2.505 3.696 3.352 5.578 4.423 3.615 1.107 2.428 4.809 3.617 4.342 3.181 3.710 2.284 2.062 F-Value 0.116(NS) 0.021* 0.061(NS) 0.013* 0.020* 0.001** 0.005** 0.014* 0.348(NS) 0.067(NS) 0.003** 0.014* 0.006** 0.025* 0.013* 0.081(NS) 0.107(NS) Significance (p-Value) ANOVA Test Results Note: * and ** imply significance at p < 0.05 and p < 0.01 respectively; df1 = 3; df2 = 168; and NS = No significant difference. 3.56 3.11 Training and Education H3 Continuous Improvement and Innovation 3.35 Customer Focus H2 H4 3.77 Healthcare Top-Management Commitment TQM Practice H1 Hypothesis Mean Score in Table 5: ANOVA Results of TQM Practices Implementation Across Indian Service Industries (Mean and F-Test Results) {F(3, 168) = 4.809, p < 0.01}; ’benchmarking’ {F(3, 168) = 3.615, p < 0.05}; ‘quality culture’ {F(3, 168) = 4.423, p < 0.01}; ’human resource management’ {F(3, 168) = 5.578, p < 0.01}; ’strategic planning’ {F(3, 168) = 3.352, p < 0.05}; ‘employee encouragement’ {F(3, 168) = 3.696, p < 0.05}, and ‘product and service design’ {F(3, 168) = 3.331, p < 0.05} practices in Table 5 supported the rejection of the hypothesis that level of implementation of these 11 TQM practices are equal across Indian service industries or in other words it can be concluded that significant differences exist amongst these 11 TQM practices across the Indian service industries. Thus, hypothesis H01 was rejected for these 11 TQM practices (i.e., H3, H4, H5, H6, H7, H10, H11, H12, H13, H14, and H16). A close investigation of these 11 TQM practices with respect to their mean scores in each category of service industry and overall mean of each practice provides a better understanding of these reported significant differences at the two levels. For instance, concerning the ‘supplier management’ practice, the mean score obtained by ICT is 3.04 which indicates moderate implementation of supplier management practice while the same for healthcare (2.31), banking (2.82), and hospitality (2.88) indicate low implementation of supplier management practice. The overall mean score of 2.89 further supports the above argument that the level of implementation of supplier management across Indian service industries is low. This was also reported by Al-Khalifa and Aspinwall (2000), Tsang and Antony (2001), and Talib and Rahman (2012). Similarly, the significant difference in the level of use of ’human resource management’ practice was also found to be existing. The mean score obtained by ICT is 3.01 which again indicates moderate usage of human resource management practice, while in healthcare, human resource management is least practiced or implemented (2.20). Further, banks (2.81) and hospitals (2.73) also show low implementation of human resource management practice. The overall mean score of 2.83 further supports the above statement. This was also claimed by Issac et al. (2004). Similarly, other practices also showed wide variation in their mean scores across different service industries and hence, significant differences were found in these practices as can be seen from Table 5. Further, rejecting the overall hypothesis of equal implementation level by the ANOVA does not indicate that every TQM practice mean differs significantly from every other industry mean as in case of training and education, employee involvement, quality culture, strategic planning, and product and service design. For that, Roscoe (1969) and Mady (2009) recommended the use of post hoc Scheffe multiple comparison tests which can be utilized to test this proposition, which is beyond the scope of the present study as it is confined to Indian service industries as a whole and not for a specific service industry. In contrast to the above analysis, the implementation level of practices like ‘topmanagement commitment’ {F(3, 168) = 2.062, p = 0.107 > 0.05}; ‘customer focus’ {F(3, 168) = 2.284, p = 0.081 > 0.05}; ‘process management’ {F(3, 168) = 2.428, Assessment of Total Quality Management Implementation in Indian Service Industries 21 p = 0.067 > 0.05}; ‘quality systems’ {F(3, 168) = 1.107, p = 0.348 > 0.05}; ‘teamwork’ {F(3, 168) = 2.505, p = 0.061 > 0.05}; and ‘communication’ {F(3, 168) = 1.998, p = 0.116 > 0.05} in Table 5 do not differ significantly. Accordingly, hypothesis H01 was not rejected for these six TQM practices (i.e., H1, H2, H8, H9, H15, and H17). For better understanding of the above reported results, again all these six practices were verified with respect to their mean scores in each category of service industry and with the overall mean score. For instance, concerning the ’top-management commitment’ practice, the mean score obtained by hospitality is 4.04 which indicated high implementation of top-management commitment practice. Similarly, in other three industries the levels of implementation of top-management commitment practice were found to be moderately high (healthcare = 3.77; banks = 3.55; and ICT = 3.70). The overall mean score of 3.74 further supports the above claim and hence, it can be argued that top-management commitment as a TQM practice is highly implemented across Indian service industries. Majority of the studies have supported this argument and claimed that top-management commitment is the key TQM practice for successful implementation of TQM (Al-Khalifa and Aspinwall, 2000; Lee et al., 2001; Issac et al., 2004; and Yusuf et al., 2007). Similarly, a significant difference was not found among the various levels of use of ‘customer focus’ as a TQM practice. The mean score obtained by hospitality is 3.92 while for ICT, healthcare, and banks it is 3.58, 3.35 and 3.56 respectively, which are all above the moderate level of implementation. This means ’customer focus’ is implemented equally across all the four categories of service industries. This was also true for ‘process management’, ‘quality systems’, ‘teamwork’, and ‘communication’ as depicted in Table 5. It is finally concluded that, out of the 17 TQM practices identified in the present study, only six practices (top-management commitment, customer focus, process management, quality systems, teamwork, and communication) are effectively implemented in Indian service industries, while the remaining 11 are partially implemented and considered in different categories of service industries. Emphasis is to be given to other important TQM practices particularly to quality culture, benchmarking, continuous improvement and innovation, training and education, and strategic planning which can enhance the quality performance of the service industries and efforts should be made to properly implement these TQM practices for steady growth and in achieving sustainability in the organization. Conclusion This paper successfully accomplishes the objective and assesses the degree to which TQM practices are implemented in Indian service industries. It was hypothesized that there is no significant difference in the 17 TQM practices as practiced or implemented by Indian service industries. The purpose of this hypothesis was to examine the extent to which TQM practices are implemented in Indian service 22 The IUP Journal of Operations Management, Vol. XIX, No. 2, 2020 industries. Based on the empirical evidence obtained from one-way ANOVA, the results showed that only six practices, i.e., top-management commitment, customer focus, process management, quality systems, teamwork, and communication are effectively implemented across the Indian service industries, while the remaining 11 are partially implemented and considered in different categories of service industries. Thus, no significant difference was found in above six practices while there was a significant difference observed among the remaining 11 practices across Indian service industries for their implementation potential. Thus, hypothesis H 01 was accepted for top-management commitment, customer focus, process management, quality systems, teamwork, and communication, thereby meaning that these practices are significantly practiced or implemented in Indian service industries while the practices of training and education, continuous improvement and innovation, supplier management, employee involvement, information and analysis, benchmarking, strategic planning, employee encouragement, quality culture, human resource management, and product and service design are insignificant or there exists a significant difference among these 11 TQM practices. Thus, hypothesis H01 was rejected for these 11 practices. The uniqueness of this research work is that it provides a useful framework and research model for implementation of TQM program in Indian service industries. This kind of study has not been undertaken before in previous researches in the Indian context. This work not only confirms that service industries can implement TQM program successfully, but also suggests that it has a positive and significant impact on an industry performance. The findings of the present study provide some insights as to how the managers and practitioners of the service industries can improve their performance and how they can implement TQM program successfully in their industries. Researchers can adopt the present TQM model in their future work that can improve their research and academic performance significantly. Additionally, the proposed research model will allow managers to assess the level of industry quality management against other models proposed by various researchers. Limitations and Scope for Future Studies: Furthermore, this paper focused particularly on four service industries, namely, healthcare, ICT, banking, and hospitality. The research can be extended to other emerging Indian service industries like aquaculture, airline, e-purchase, m-government, halal foods and many more. Finally, the study can be extended to assess the impact of identified set of TQM practices on measures of sustainability such as business growth, competitive advantage and change management. References 1. Abusa F M and Gibson P (2013), “TQM Implementation in Developing Countries”, Benchmarking: An International Journal, Vol. 20, No. 5, pp. 693-711. 2. Ahire S L, Golhar D Y and Waller M A (1996), “Development and Validation of TQM Implementation Constructs”, Decision Sciences, Vol. 27, No. 1, pp. 23-56. Assessment of Total Quality Management Implementation in Indian Service Industries 23 3. Ahmad M M and Elhuni R (2014), “Critical Quality Factors for Successful TQM Implementation in Libyan Oil and Gas Sector”, Benchmarking: An International Journal, Vol. 21, No. 5, pp. 713-733. 4. 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Jayaram J, Ahire S L and Dreyfus P (2010), “Contingency Relationships of Firmsize, TQM Duration, Unionization, and Industry Context on TQM Implementation: A Focus on Total Effects”, Journal of Operations Management, Vol. 28, No. 4, pp. 345-356. 24. Jha U C and Kumar S (2010), “Critical Success Factors (CSFs) of TQM: A Literature Review and Analysis”, Paper Presented at Oxford Business and Economics Conference Program, Hugh’s College, Oxford University, Oxford. 25. Kanji G K and Wallace W (2000), “Business Excellence Through Customer Satisfaction”, Total Quality Management, Vol. 11, No. 7, pp. 979-998. 26. Khamalah J N and Lingaraj B P (2007), “TQM in the Service Sector: A Survey of Small Business”, Total Quality Management, Vol. 18, No. 9, pp. 973-982. 27. Kristianto Y, Ajmal M M and Sandhu M (2012), “Adopting TQM Approach to Achieve Customer Satisfaction”, The TQM Journal, Vol. 24, No. 1, pp. 29-46. 28. 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Mady M T (2009), “Quality Management Practices: An Empirical Investigation of Associated Constructs in Two Kuwaiti Industries”, International Journal of Quality and Reliability Management, Vol. 26, No. 3, pp. 214-233. 33. Mahmood K, Ahmad I M A and Nisar Q (2014), “An Empirical Study on Measurement of Performance Through TQM in Pakistani Aviation Manufacturing Industry”, International Journal of Quality & Reliability Management, Vol. 31, No. 6, pp. 665-680. 34. Martinez-Costa M and Jimenez-Jimenez D (2008), “Are Companies That Implement TQM Better Learning Organizations?”, Total Quality Management, Vol. 19, No. 11, pp. 1101-1115. 35. MoL&E, GOI (Ministry of Labor and Employment, Government of India) (2010), available at http://labour.nic.in/. Assessed on August 1, 2010. 36. Nasim K, Iqbal M Z and Khan I A (2014), “Antecedents of TQM Implementation Capability: A Review with a Conceptual Model”, Total Quality Management & Business Excellence, Vol. 25, No. 12, pp. 1395-1409. 37. Nunnally J C and Bernstein I H (1994), Psychometric Theory, McGraw-Hill, New York. 38. Ooi K B, Cheah W C, Lin B and Teh P L (2012), “Total Quality Management Practices and Knowledge Sharing: An Empirical Study of Malaysia’s Manufacturing Organizations”, Asia Pacific Journal of Management, Vol. 29, No. 1, pp. 59-78. 39. Prajogo D I (2005), “The Comparative Analysis of TQM Practices and Quality Performance Between Manufacturing and Service Firms”, International Journal of Service Industry Management, Vol. 16, No. 3, pp. 217-228. 40. Psomas E, Vouzas F and Kafetzopoulos D (2014), “Quality Management Benefits Through the ‘Soft’ and ‘Hard’ Aspect of TQM in Food Companies”, The TQM Journal, Vol. 26, No. 5, pp. 431-444. 41. Rahman Z and Siddiqui J (2006), “Exploring Total Quality Management for Information Systems in Indian Firms: Application and Benefits”, Business Process Management Journal, Vol. 12, No. 5, pp. 622-631. 42. Roscoe J (1969), Fundamental Research Statistics for Behavioral Sciences, p. 239, Holt, Rinehart and Winston, Austin, TX. 43. Salaheldin S I (2009), “Critical Success Factors for Total Quality Management Implementation and Their Impact on Performance of SMEs”, International Journal of Productivity and Quality Management, Vol. 58, No. 3, pp. 215-237. 26 The IUP Journal of Operations Management, Vol. XIX, No. 2, 2020 44. Samat N, Ramayah T and Saad N H (2006), “TQM Practices, Service Quality, and Market Orientation-Some Empirical Evidence from a Developing Country”, Management Research News, Vol. 29, No. 11, pp. 713-728. 45. Saraph J V, Benson P G and Schroeder R G (1989), “An Instrument for Measuring the Critical Factors of Quality Management”, Decision Sciences, Vol. 20, No. 4, pp. 810-829. 46. Saravanan R and Rao K S P (2004), “An Instrument for Measuring Total Quality Management Implementation in Service-Based Business Units in India”, Proceedings of the International Conference on Manufacturing and Management, Tamil Nadu, India, pp. 625-630. 47. Selvaraj M (2009), “TQM in Indian Commercial Banks: A Comparative Study”, Journal of Marketing and Communication, Vol. 4, No. 3, pp. 59-70. 48. Singh P J, Feng M and Smith A (2006), “ISO9000 Series of Standards: Comparison of Manufacturing and Service Organizations”, International Journal of Quality and Reliability Management, Vol. 23, No. 2, pp. 122-142. 49. Sureshchandar G S, Rajendran C and Anantharaman R N (2001), “A Holistic Model for Total Quality Service”, International Journal of Service Industry Management, Vol. 12, No. 4, pp. 378-412. 50. Sureshchandar G S, Chandrasekharan R, Ananthearaman R N and Kamalanabhan, T J (2002), “Management’s Perception of Total Quality Service in the Banking Sector of Developing Economy: A Critical Analysis”, International Journal of Bank Marketing, Vol. 20, No. 4, pp. 181-196. 51. Talib F (2013), “An Overview of Total Quality Management: Understanding the Fundamentals in Service Organization”, International Journal of Advanced Quality Management, Vol. 1, No. 1, pp. 1-20. 52. Talib F and Rahman Z (2010), “Critical Success Factors of TQM in Service Organizations: A Proposed Model”, Services Marketing Quarterly, Vol. 31, No. 3, pp. 363-380. 53. Talib F and Rahman Z (2012), “Total Quality Management Practices in Manufacturing and Service Industries: A Comparative Study”, International Journal of Advanced Operations Management, Vol. 4, No. 3, pp. 155-176. 54. Talib F, Rahman Z and Qureshi M N (2010), “The Relationship Between Total Quality Management and Quality Performance in the Service Industry: A Theoretical Model”, International Journal of Business, Management and Social Sciences, Vol. 1, No. 1, pp. 113-128. 55. Talib F, Rahman Z, Quershi M N and Siddique J (2011a), “Total Quality Management and Service Quality: An Exploratory Study of Management Practices and Barriers in Service Industries”, International Journal of Services and Operations Management, Vol. 10, No. 1, pp. 94-118. Assessment of Total Quality Management Implementation in Indian Service Industries 27 56. Talib F, Rahman Z and Qureshi M N (2011b), “An Interpretive Structural Modeling (ISM) Approach for Modeling the Practices of Total Quality Management in Service Sector”, International Journal of Modeling in Operations Management, Vol. 1, No. 3, pp. 223-250. 57. Talib F, Rahman Z and Qureshi M N (2011c), “Identifying the Key Practices of TQM in Indian Service Industries: An Empirical Analysis”, Proceedings of International Conference on Advances in Supply Chain and Manufacturing Management (ASCMM 2011), December 16-18, Department of Industrial Engineering and Management, Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, India. 58. Talib F, Rahman Z and Qureshi M N (2013a), “Survey on the Usage of Total Quality Management Tools and Techniques in Indian Service Industries: An Empirical Analysis”, International Journal of Quality and Innovation, Vol. 2, No. 2, pp. 105-119. 59. Talib F, Rahman Z and Qureshi M N (2013b), “An Empirical Investigation of Relationship Between Total Quality Management Practices and Quality Performance in Indian Service Companies”, International Journal of Quality and Reliability Management, Vol. 30, No. 3, pp. 280-318. 60. Tsang J H Y and Antony J (2001), “TQM in UK Service Organizations: Some Key Findings from a Survey ”, Managing Service Quality, Vol. 11, No. 2, pp. 132-141. 61. Ueno A (2008), “Which Managerial Practices are Contributory to Service Quality?”, International Journal of Quality and Reliability Management, Vol. 25, No. 6, pp. 585-603. 62. Wardhani V, Utarini A, Van Dijk J P and Post D (2009), “Determinants of Quality Management Systems Implementation in Hospitals”, Health Policy, Vol. 89, No. 3, pp. 239-251. 63. Yapa S (2012), “Total Quality Management in Sri Lankan Service Organizations”, The TQM Journal, Vol. 24, No. 6, pp. 505-517. 64. Yusof S M and Aspinwall E (2000), “TQM Implementation Frameworks: Comparison and Review”, Total Quality Management, Vol. 11, No. 3, pp. 281-294. 65. Yusuf Y, Gunasekaran A and Dan G (2007), “Implementation of TQM in China and Organizational Performance: An Empirical Investigation”, Total Quality Management, Vol. 18, No. 5, pp. 509-530. 66. Zu X (2009), “Infrastructure and Core Quality Management Practices: How do They Affect Quality?”, International Journal of Quality and Reliability Management, Vol. 26, No. 2, pp. 129-149. Reference # 07J-2020-05-01-01 28 The IUP Journal of Operations Management, Vol. XIX, No. 2, 2020 Focus T his issue is dedicated to quality and process improvement linked to operations management and focuses on Total Quality Management (TQM) and lean and process time optimization aspects, portrayed through carefully chosen research papers arranged in a logical sequence. The three papers create a nuanced understanding triad for both the practitioners and also the academic research fraternity. The first paper, “Assessment of Total Quality Management Implementation in Indian Service Industries”, by Faisal Talib and Mohd. Nishat Faisal, examines the extent to which TQM practices have been implemented in Indian service industries. Using a self-structured instrument, the authors have collected data from four different service industries, viz., healthcare, banking, hospitality and Information and Communication Technology (ICT) targeting the top and middle managers in Indian service industries. The paper uses one-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) to examine the extent of TQM implementation in Indian service industries. The results reveal that six TQM practices, i.e., top-management commitment, customer focus, process management, quality systems, teamwork, and communication, are effectively implemented across the Indian service industries, suggesting that no significant difference is found in their implementation. However, the results highlight 11 practices which are partially implemented having significant observed difference in their implementation. The contribution of the paper lies in its proposed framework, which can help Indian service managers and practitioners make the process of TQM implementation effective by proper implementation of the identified set of TQM practices to gain maximum benefits and advantages of the TQM program. The second paper, “Lean Fails a Lot, Even Today – Are Organizations Taking Care of All Success Factors to Implement Lean?”, by A S M Touhidul Islam, indicates that success of lean implementation can bring tremendous benefits to any organization; however, it cautions that chance of failure remains very high. Aimed at successful lean implementation, this paper investigates the success factors for lean implementation comprehensively analyzing the available extant literature over the past 20 years. Out of the 36 identified exhaustive factors, influencing lean implementation, the paper highlights nine factors as the potentially high impacting ones with specific emphasis and focus towards concluding that ‘leadership from top management’, ‘organizational culture’, ‘effective communication’, and ‘knowledge and mindset’ are the top factors for successful lean implementation. The key contribution of this research lies in a dependable and up-to-date list of all success factors which may be used as a guidance tool for industry practitioners and managers for prioritizing lean enhancing factors across contexts, thereby facilitating organizations to prepare well for successful and sustainable implementation of lean. Reproduced with permission of copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
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Running Head: TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT ANALYSIS

Management Question: Option 1 – Assessment of Total Quality Management

Name
Prof
Course
Date

1

2

TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT ANALYSIS
Introduction
The article “Assessment of Total Quality Management Implementation in Indian Service
Industries” by Mohd and Talib investigates the degree or scope to which Total Quality
Management (TQM) practices have impacted service industries in India. It also examines how
these practices have been implemented. The 17 TQM practices investigated are listed below;
1. Communication

10. Process Management

2. Product and Service Design

11. Information and Analysis

3. Teamwork

12. Employee Involvement

4. Employee Encouragement

13. Supplier Management

5. Strategic Planning

14. Continuous Improvement and

6. Human Resource Management

Innovation

7. Quality Culture

15. Training and Education

8. Benchmarking

16. Customer Focus

9. Quality Systems

17. Top-Management Commitment

The investigation used a structured questionnaire to collect data from four industries,
including Information and Communication Technology (ICT), hospitality, banking, and
healthcare. These industries were chosen because of their increasing net annual income, strong
employment capability, and high GDP. Through a stratified sampling methodology, findings
were collected and reported using empirical data from 172 middle and top managers of the
industries, as mentioned earlier. Results were validated and tested via validity and reliability
tests. The degree of implementation of the TQM practices was determined using a one-way
Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). This paper summarizes the investigation, the 17 Total Quality
Management concepts covered, and the conclusion reached about those 17 T...


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