What is informed consent and HIPAA? Is the purpose of consent to benefit the individual or to promote autonomous choice? Do the ethics of research also require informed consent? When can a healthcare provider and or researcher withhold information from a patient/subject? When it is clinically customary? When ca the provider claim therapeutic consent? When the research or treatment can do no harm to the patient/subject? When there is randomization, placebo, trivial risk and or deception, and or the fact that medical records will be searched to gain research information beyond what is needed for routine use? In what ways does a medical/research/health care insinuation and administrators enforce these guideline?