Postpartum haemorrhage, biology assignment help

timer Asked: Jul 31st, 2017
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Question Description

powerpoint presentations on physiologic changes during pregnancy

Tutor Answer

School: UT Austin

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Postpartum haemorrhage
primary PPH is ‘the loss of 500 ml or •
more of blood from the genital tract Or
any blood loss causing haemodynamic
instability occuring within 24 h of
birth’, while
secondary PPH is when it occurs more •
than 24 h after delivery

The “big 5” direct causes of
maternal deaths globally


Obstetric Haemorrhage 25%
Infection 15%
Unsafe abortion 13%
Eclampsia 12%
Obstructed labour 8%
Indirect causes 20% (malaria, HIV etc)

Maternal physiology is well prepared for

❖increase in blood volume .
❖hypercoagulable state.
❖the “tourniquet” effect of uterine

❖vital signs may remain near
normal until more than 30% of
blood volume is lost .

❖tachycardia can be attributed
to pregnancy, stress, pain, and


The four components of coagulation
that continuously interrelate are
(1) the vasculature,
(2) platelets,
(3) plasma-clotting proteins,
(4) fibrinolysis.

plasma-clotting proteins
Activation of the clotting system is
initiated in two ways:

the intrinsic or extrinsic

Intrinsic Pathway

requires no extravascular
component for initiation and
begins with Factor XII, which
is activated by contact with
injured epithelium.

Extrinsic Pathway
is activated by the tissue factor
thromboplastin (which subsequently
activates Factor VII) when vascular
disruption occurs. Prothrombin is
converted ...

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