NHS-FPX4000 Analyzing a Current Health Care Problem or Issue Essay

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Instructions: Analyzing a Current Health Care Problem or IssueWrite a 4-6 page analysis of a current problem or issue in health care, including a proposed solution and possible ethical implications.

Introduction

In your health care career, you will be confronted with many problems that demand a solution. By using research skills, you can learn what others are doing and saying about similar problems. Then, you can analyze the problem and the people and systems it affects. You can also examine potential solutions and their ramifications. This assessment allows you to practice this approach with a real-world problem.

Instructions

Note: The requirements outlined below correspond to the grading criteria in the scoring guide. At a minimum, be sure to address each point. In addition, you are encouraged to review the performance-level descriptions for each criterion to see how your work will be assessed.

  1. Describe the health care problem or issue you selected for use in Assessment 2 (from the Assessment Topic Areas media piece) and provide details about it.
    • Explore your chosen topic. For this, you should use the first four steps of the Socratic Problem-Solving Approach to aid your critical thinking. This approach was introduced in Assessment 2.
    • Identify possible causes for the problem or issue.
  2. Use scholarly information to describe and explain the health care problem or issue and identify possible causes for it.
    • Identify at least three scholarly or academic peer-reviewed journal articles about the topic.
      • You may find the How Do I Find Peer-Reviewed Articles? library guide helpful in locating appropriate references.
      • You may use articles you found while working on Assessment 2 or you may search the Capella library for other articles.
      • You may find the applicable Undergraduate Library Research Guide helpful in your search.
    • Review the Think Critically About Source Quality to help you complete the following:
      • Assess the credibility of the information sources.
      • Assess the relevance of the information sources.
  3. Analyze the health care problem or issue.
    • Describe the setting or context for the problem or issue.
    • Describe why the problem or issue is important to you.
    • Identify groups of people affected by the problem or issue.
    • Provide examples that support your analysis of the problem or issue.
  4. Discuss potential solutions for the health care problem or issue.
    • Describe what would be required to implement a solution.
    • Describe potential consequences of ignoring the problem or issue.
    • Provide the pros and cons for one of the solutions you are proposing.
  5. Explain the ethical principles (Beneficence, Nonmaleficence, Autonomy, and Justice) if potential solution was implemented.
    • Describe what would be necessary to implement the proposed solution.
    • Explain the ethical principles that need to be considered (Beneficence, Nonmaleficence, Autonomy, and Justice) if the potential solution was implemented.
    • Provide examples from the literature to support the points you are making.

Example Assessment: You may use the following to give you an idea of what a Proficient or higher rating on the scoring guide would look like:

Additional Requirements

Your assessment should also meet the following requirements:

  • Length: 4–6 typed, double-spaced pages, not including the title page and reference page.
  • Font and font size: Times New Roman, 12 point.
  • APA tutorial: Use the APA Style Paper Tutorial [DOCX] for guidance.
  • Written communication: Write clearly and logically, with correct use of spelling, grammar, punctuation, and mechanics.
  • Using outside sources: Integrate information from outside sources into academic writing by appropriately quoting, paraphrasing, and summarizing, following APA style.
  • References: Integrate information from outside sources to include at least three scholarly or academic peer-reviewed journal articles and three in-text citations within the paper.
  • APA format: Follow current APA guidelines for in-text citations of outside sources in the body of your paper and also on the reference page.

Organize your paper using the following structure and headings:

  • Title page. A separate page.
  • Introduction. A brief one-paragraph statement about the purpose of the paper.
  • Elements of the problem/issue. Identify the elements of the problem or issue or question.
  • Analysis. Analyze, define, and frame the problem or issue.
  • Considering options. Consider solutions, responses, or answers.
  • Solution. Choose a solution, response, or answer.
  • Ethical implications. Ethical implications of implementing the solution.
  • Implementation. Implementation of the potential solution.
  • Conclusion. One paragraph.

Competencies Measured:

By successfully completing this assessment, you will demonstrate your proficiency in the following course competencies and scoring guide criteria:

  • Competency 1: Apply information literacy and library research skills to obtain scholarly information in the field of health care.
    • Use scholarly information to describe and explain a health care problem or issue and identify possible causes for it.
  • Competency 2: Apply scholarly information through critical thinking to solve problems in the field of health care.
    • Analyze a health care problem or issue by describing the context, explaining why it is important and identifying populations affected by it.
    • Discuss potential solutions for a health care problem or issue and describe what would be required to implement a solution.
  • Competency 3: Apply ethical principles and academic standards to the study of health care.
    • Explain the ethical principles (Beneficence, Nonmaleficence, Autonomy, and Justice) if potential solution was implemented
  • Competency 4: Write for a specific audience, in appropriate tone and style, in accordance with Capella's writing standards.
    • Write clearly and logically, with correct use of spelling, grammar, punctuation, and mechanics.
    • Write following APA style for in-text citations, quotes, and references.---------------------------------------------------------------

      WHAT ARE PEER-REVIEWED ARTICLES?

    • What are Peer Reviewed ArticlesThis 2 min 41 sec video describes how to locate peer reviewed articles within Capella's library.

    BASICS OF PEER REVIEW

    How do I find peer-reviewed articles?Look for a checkbox in the library's databases:Screenshot showing location of peer review check box in Summon.Screenshot showing location of peer review check box in Ebsco databases.Use the check boxes to make sure that you only get results from peer-reviewed journals. However, peer-reviewed journals may contain content that is not peer-reviewed, such as letters to the editor, editorials, or book reviews.

    What is Peer Review?

    Peer review:
    • Requires approval by expert reviewers before an article is published.
    • Is also called refereed or juried.
    • Is considered the "gold standard" for scholarly publishing.

    Is there a difference between Peer Review and Scholarly?

    Scholarly publications are written by scholars in a given discipline, but they don't all go through the extra peer review process described above. This means that all peer-reviewed articles are scholarly, but not all scholarly articles are peer-reviewed.""

    RELATED GUIDES

    Have more questions about searching? Check out these guides!
  • Think Critically About Source Quality

    The questions below will help you determine if a source is credible. If your instructor allows non-scholarly sources, such as trade publications or magazine articles, look for sources that resemble scholarly articles in evidence, audience, and content.Remember: Nearly every library search tool has an option to check a box that says "Scholarly, peer-reviewed." This option instantly weeds out less academic results such as: magazines, newspapers, etc. It saves you time by retrieving only results from peer-reviewed journals.For additional tips on the strengths and weaknesses of different types of sources, see Sources: What can I use for my research?
    • Where was it published, posted, or presented?
      • Is the publisher well regarded? What evidence do you have to trust this publisher?
      • Look at the publisher's website: What else do they publish?
      • Is this source cited in other articles or used in your course readings?
      • Is it on a university department, government agency, or professional organization's website?
      • Does the website end in .org, .edu or .gov.? As a rule, try to avoid websites ending in .com.
      • Was it presented at an academic or professional conference?
    • Is the author a researcher in this field? What are the author's professional affiliations?
      Search for the author's website in a search engine: where do they work and what is their education?
      What other things have been written by this author? Anything in peer-reviewed journals?
      What do you know about the author's reputation in the field?
      Is there anything to indicate he/she might have a bias to be aware of?
      Does it use quality sources and evidence?
    • What sources did the author use as evidence? Is there a long bibliography?
    • Does it report on original or derivative research? (Is it a primary, secondary, or tertiary source?)
    • Does it discuss current theories and use methodologies from your field?
    • Is data analyzed correctly?
    • Does it use the language of the discipline?
    • What do other scholars say about this source?
      • If it's a book, are there reviews of it?
      • Have other scholars used materials from the same source in their research?
      • Are there similar arguments, theories, or ideas circulating in the peer-reviewed literature?
    • What is the audience for this source?
      • Is it intended for other scholars?
      • Does it contain practical information that is more useful for a person working in the field?
      • Is it educational and written for students?

Unformatted Attachment Preview

Analyzing a Current Health Care Problem or Issue Scoring Guide CRITERIA NON-PERFORMANCE BASIC PROFICIENT DISTINGUISHED Use scholarly information to describe and explain a health care problem or issue and identify possible causes for it. Does not use scholarly information to describe or explain a health care problem or issue or identify possible causes for it. Describes a health care problem or issue but does not explain it, or identifies possible causes for a problem or issues but the identification is incomplete or inaccurate. Uses scholarly information to describe and explain a health care problem or issue and identify possible causes for it. Uses scholarly information to describe and explain a health care problem or issue and identify possible causes for it, and indicates which causes are the most likely. Analyze a health care problem or issue by describing the context, explaining why it is important and identifying populations affected by it. Does not analyze a health care problem or issue by describing the context, explaining why it is important and identifying populations affected by it. Identifies a health care problem or issue but does not analyze it. Analyzes a health care problem or issue by describing the context, explaining why it is important and identifying populations affected by it. Analyzes a health care problem or issue by describing the context, explaining why it is important and identifying populations affected by it, and provides examples that support the analysis. Discuss potential solutions for a health care problem or issue and describe what would be required to implement a solution. Does not discuss potential solutions for a health care problem or issue and describe what would be required to implement a solution. Incompletely or inaccurately discusses potential solutions for a health care problem or issue and what would be required to implement a solution. Discusses potential solutions for a health care problem or issue and describes what would be required to implement a solution. Discusses potential solutions for a health care problem or issue, describes what would be required to implement a solution, and describes potential consequences of ignoring the problem or issue. Explain the ethical principles (Beneficence, Nonmaleficence, Autonomy, and Justice) if potential solution was implemented Does not mention ethical principles if the potential solution was implemented. Mentions ethical principles (Beneficence, Nonmaleficence, Autonomy, and Justice) that need to be considered if the potential solution was implemented but does not explain them. Explains the ethical principles that need to be considered (Beneficence, Nonmaleficence, Autonomy, and Justice) if potential solution was implemented. Explains the ethical principles that need to be considered if potential solution was implemented and enriches the analysis with examples from the readings. Write clearly and logically, with correct use of spelling, grammar, punctuation, and mechanics. Does not write clearly and logically, with correct use of spelling, grammar, punctuation, and mechanics. Writes clearly and logically, with correct use of spelling, grammar, punctuation, and mechanics with some errors and lapses. Writes clearly and logically, with correct use of spelling, grammar, punctuation, and mechanics. Writes clearly and logically, using evidence to support a central idea, with correct use of spelling, grammar, punctuation, and mechanics and ensures the paper contains supporting examples for the main points. Write following APA style for in-text citations, quotes, and references. Does not write following APA style for in-text citations, quotes, and references. Writes following APA style for in-text citations, quotes, and references with some errors and lapses. Writes following APA style for in-text citations, quotes, and references. Writes following APA style for in-text citations, quotes, and references without errors and uses current reference sources. Assessment topic areas Introduction Selecting a topic for your written assessments can be challenging, but it’s important to make a thoughtful choice. Choose a topic area of interest to you from the topic suggestions in this media piece. You will use this topic to complete Assessments 2 and 3. Be sure to select a topic that will be manageable for a written assessment. To explore the chosen topic, you should use the Socratic Problem-Solving Approach, focusing on the sections specifically called out in the assessment guidelines. Topic 1: Limited Access to Healthcare Short Description: Consumers face barriers to healthcare access for assorted reasons. For example: due to geographic location, provider availability, transportation issues and mobility. Potential Intervention Approaches: • – Healthcare information online • – Telemedicine • – In–home healthcare services Keywords for Articles: online health information seeking, health care access, health information systems, consumer health information, chronic disease, health information search, health seeking behavior, rural nursing References: Bhandari, N. (2014). Seeking health information online: does limited healthcare access matter? Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association: JAMIA (1067-5027), 21 (6), p. 1113. https://www-ncbi-nlm-nihgov.library.capella.edu/pmc/articles/PMC4215038/ Lee, K., Hoti, K., Hughes, J. D., & Emmerton, L. (2014). Dr Google and the Consumer: A Qualitative Study Exploring the Navigational Needs and Online Health InformationSeeking Behaviors of Consumers with Chronic Health Conditions. Journal of Medical Internet Research, 16(12), e262. http://doi.org.library.capella.edu/10.2196/jmir.3706 Ware, P., Bartlett, S. J., Paré, G., Symeonidis, I., Tannenbaum, C., Bartlett, G., … Ahmed, S. (2017). Using eHealth Technologies: Interests, Preferences, and Concerns of Older Adults. Interactive Journal of Medical Research, 6(1), e3. http://doi.org.library.capella.edu/10.2196/ijmr.4447 Pratt, D. (2015). Telehealth and telemedicine. Albany Law Journal of Science & Technology. (1059-4280), 25 (3), p. 495. http://www.lexisnexis.com.library.capella.edu/hottopics/lnacademic/?shr=t&csi=148364 &sr=TITLE(%22Telehealth+telemedicine+in+2015%22)+and+date+is+2015 Topic 2: Healthcare Disparities Short Description: In 2010, the Federal Department of Human and Health Service (DHHS) launched the Healthy People 2020 goals to include a goal to eliminate health inequality/disparity. Healthy People 2020 defines a health disparity as “a particular type of health difference that is closely linked with social, economic, and/or environmental disadvantage. Health disparities adversely affect groups of people who have systematically experienced greater obstacles to health based on their racial or ethnic group; religion; socioeconomic status; gender; age; mental health; cognitive, sensory, or physical disability; sexual orientation or gender identity; geographic location; or other characteristics historically linked to discrimination or exclusion” (Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, 2017, p.1). Potential Intervention Approaches: • – Federal goals • – Community health improvement plans • – Patient advocacy efforts • – “Triple Aim” for populations Keywords for Articles: health disparities, community health assessment, community health improvement plan, strategic planning, local health departments, health inequities References: Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. (2017). Disparities. Retrieved from https://www.healthypeople.gov/2020/about/foundation-health-measures/disparities Shah G.H., & Sheahan J.P. (2016). Local health departments’ activities to address health disparities and inequities: Are we moving in the right direction? International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2016; 13(1):44. http://www.mdpi.com/1660-4601/13/1/44 Institute for Healthcare Improvement. (2017). Triple Aim for Populations. http://www.ihi.org/Topics/TripleAim/Pages/Overview.aspx Topic 3: Medication Errors Short Description: A medication error is a preventable adverse effect of a patient taking the wrong medication or dosage, whether or not it is evident or harmful to the patient. Medication errors can be a source of serious patient harm, including death. Potential Intervention Approaches: • – Medical staff education • – Packaging improvements • – Patient medication safety training Keywords for Articles: medication administration, medication errors, medication safety References: Cohen, M. (2016). Medication errors (miscellaneous). Nursing. 46(2):72, February 2016. DOI: 10.1097/01.NURSE.0000476239.09094.06 Institute for Healthcare Improvement. (2017). Improve Core Processes for Administering Medications. http://www.ihi.org/resources/Pages/Changes/ImproveCoreProcessesforAdministeringM edications.aspx Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. (2012). Table 6: Categories of Medication Error Classification. http://www.ahrq.gov/professionals/quality-patient-safety/patientsafety-resources/resources/match/matchtab6.html Schmidt, K., Taylor, A., & Pearson, A. (2017). Reduction of medication errors: A unique approach. Journal of Nursing Care Quality. 32(2), April/June 2017, 150–156. Topic 4: Healthcare System Errors Short Description: The health care system in the United States has been the subject of much debate as experts try to determine the best way to deliver high-quality care. In Crossing the Quality Chasm, the Institute of Medicine (2001) called for the redesign of health care delivery systems and their external environments to promote care that is safe, effective, patient-centered, timely, efficient, and equitable. Potential Intervention Approaches: • – Systemwide transformation • – Process redesign • – Electronic health records Keywords for Articles: multi-stakeholder collaboration, healthcare system redesign References: Institute of Medicine (US) Committee on Quality of Health Care in America. (2001). Crossing the Quality Chasm: A New Health System for the 21st Century. Washington (DC): National Academies Press (US).Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. (2017). Hospitals and Health Systems. http://www.ahrq.gov/professionals/systems/index.html Roberts, B. (2017). Relationship-based care: The institute of medicine’s core competencies in action. Creative Nursing, 05/2016, 22(2). Socratic Problem-Solving Approach The Socratic Method is a teaching style in which teachers ask students questions designed to stimulate more complete thinking and deeper insight. It also relates to the steps of performing scientific research. When the Socratic approach is applied, students are prompted to look more closely at your ideas, question your assumptions and accepted premises, and view your choices through a rigorous lens. Apply the Socratic approach Applying the Socratic approach to problem solving helps you identify gaps and improve your thinking when writing papers or completing projects. The questions may be used to spark new insights when responding to discussion topics and posts. ➢ Identify the elements of the problem, issue, or question Supporting actions: • • • • • • • Break the problem down into pieces, elements, or components. Recognize how the pieces or components are related to each other. Look for missing information or gaps in what you know. Note the information that you do not have, cannot find, or is unavailable. Separate symptoms from underlying causes. Avoid judgments and premature solutions. Gather information. Supporting questions: • • • What problem am I trying to solve? What are the key issues in this problem? What facts do I have? A fact is "something that actually exists; reality; truth; a truth known by actual experience or observation; something known to be true."* • • • • • • • • • What evidence do I have? Evidence is "that which tends to prove or disprove something; grounds for belief; proof."* Which pieces of information are opinions? Opinion is "a belief or judgment that rests on grounds insufficient to produce complete certainty; a personal view, attitude, or appraisal."* Which pieces of information are inferences? To infer is "to derive by reasoning; conclude or judge from premises or evidence."* Are the inferences well or poorly reasoned? Can alternative inferences be drawn from the same facts or observations? Which pieces of the information are theories? A theory is "a more or less verified or established explanation accounting for known facts or phenomena."* What do I not know? What information is missing, and is it possible to get the information I do not have? What are the possible sources of information? What must remain unknown for now? ➢ Analyze, define, and frame the problem, issue, or question Supporting actions: • • • • • • • • • • Gather information that you need to know more about the context surrounding this problem. Decide which pieces of information are important. Identify your point of view. Consider how your cultural values shape your perception of the problem. Evaluate conflicting evidence. Separate symptoms from underlying causes. Avoid value judgments and premature solutions. Analyze arguments. Identify what you do not understand and the complexities of the problem. Define a research problem. Supporting questions: • • • What are my goals? What am I trying to accomplish? Which pieces of information are the most important in relationship to this problem? Is the information, or presented evidence, relevant to the problem? Are there other ways to interpret the information? • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • How does the information relate to: o What I already know? o My personal and professional experiences? How does this information support or match my experiences? How does it contradict or differ from my experiences? What information opposes my position? What theories in my discipline shed light on this problem? What are the values, beliefs, and assumptions (i.e. or the things that are taken for granted and usually unstated) implied in the problem statement? What are my values and beliefs in relationship to this problem? Am I ignoring evidence that does not fit with my beliefs? Am I failing to consider or investigate evidence that may contradict the theory I support? What are my assumptions in relationship to this problem? What support or evidence do I have to back up these assumptions? What are the values, beliefs, and assumptions of my sources of information and references in relationship to this problem? How does my culture or my world view shape my approach to this problem? How would someone from another culture or world view approach this problem? What are the possible causes of this problem? What blind spots are keeping me from seeing additional causes? What evidence supports my assertions? How reliable is this evidence? What evidence supports others' assertions? How reliable is this evidence? What other issues relate to this problem? Am I considering the complexities of this problem? How important is the problem relative to other problems? • ➢ Consider solutions, responses, or answers Supporting actions: • • • • Consider the evidence for and against: o Your theory or viewpoint. o Others' theories or viewpoints. Analyze arguments. Imagine the implications of each possible solution. Formulate research questions or hypotheses. Supporting questions: • • • • • What theories relate to these solutions? What are the possible expert views that may be held on this problem? Which views are best supported by evidence? What are all the possible solutions, resources, and constraints to this problem? Additional solutions o What blind spots are keeping me from seeing them? o What are the implications of these? o What might be the consequences of these? o What world view does each imply? ➢ Choose a solution, response, or answer Supporting actions: • • • Evaluate your choice from alternative viewpoints, or put yourself in someone else's shoes. Question and consider the problems that may arise from your choice. Choose research questions or hypotheses. Supporting questions: • • • • • • • • • • What theories in the discipline provide support for this solution? How did I reach this conclusion? Is this solution aligned with my goals? Does this solution address the problem's most critical aspects? Why do I prefer this solution, response, or answer? How is this solution, response, or answer supported by, or dependent upon,: o Data, facts, and evidence? o Opinions or inferences? What are the costs of this solution? What are the possible risks of this solution? How likely are those risks? What are the possible benefits of this solution? How likely are those benefits? How do my biases affect my choice? What alternative biases might be held by others, and how would these affect their choices? What assumptions, values, and goals does my choice imply? • ➢ Implement your choice Supporting actions: • • Develop an action plan. Test research questions or hypotheses. Supporting questions: • • • Is the implementation supported by theory? Is the implementation supported by the facts? Is the implementation consistent with my purpose? • ➢ Evaluate the results Supporting actions: • • Analyze the results of your actions. Analyze research data and formulate new questions based on the results. Supporting questions: • • • • • Did I make progress toward solving the problem? What did I learn? How do the results relate to existing theories? How do the results shed light on the existing body of evidence? What new questions are raised by the results? • Socratic problem-solving references Paul, R., & Elder., L. (2006) The miniature guide to critical thinking concepts & tools (4th ed.). Dillon Beach, CA: The Foundation for Critical Thinking. Wertheim, E. G. (n.d.). A model for case analysis and problem solving. College of Business Administration, Northeastern University. Retrieved August 7, 2007, from http://web.cba.neu.edu/ewertheim/introd/cases.htm (Material no longer available at this link.) *Source: Dictionary.com RELATED RESOURCES Apply critical thinking Learn more about applying the Socratic approach when creating discussion posts. Socratic problem-solving approach Identify gaps and improve your thinking when writing a course paper or completing a project. Practice Activity Use the Socratic approach when responding to a discussion question. 1 Analyze a Current Health Care Problem or Issue Learner’s Name Capella University NHS4000: Developing a Health Care Perspective Instructor Name August, 2020 Copyright ©2020 Capella University. Copy and distribution of this document are prohibited. 2 Analyze a Current Health Care Problem or Issue Patient safety, as discussed in the previous assessment, is an important element of quality health care. This assessment will expand upon patient safety issues that occur when patients are exposed to inadvertent harm or injury while receiving medical care. Health care organizations should maintain and develop a safety culture to prevent patient safety issues. Patient safety culture is defined as a system that promotes safety by shared organizational values of what is important and beliefs about how things work. It also encompasses how these values and beliefs interact with the work unit, organizational structures, and systems to produce behavioral norms (Ulrich & Kear, 2014). As such, care should be taken to improve the infrastructure of health care organizations. Improving patient safety should be discussed and addressed by every individual associated with public health care. Elements of the Problem/Issue Research shows that while getting treated at health care organizations, patients might be at risk of experiencing the harm or injuries associated with medical care. The most likely causes of patient safety issues are preventable adverse events, which are adverse events attributable to error. These errors can be classified as diagnostic errors, contextual errors, and communication errors (Ulrich & Kear, 2014). Diagnostic errors take place when health care professionals provide a wrong or delayed diagnosis or no diagnosis at all (James, 2013). An example of a wrong diagnosis is a health care professional diagnosing a patient with gastric troubles when the patient is actually experiencing a heart attack. An example of a delayed diagnosis is a patient not being notified of an abnormal chest X-ray, thereby delaying diagnosis of a serious medical condition. An example of a missed diagnosis is a patient not being diagnosed with heart failure despite warning symptoms. Copyright ©2020 Capella University. Copy and distribution of this document are prohibited. 3 Contextual errors occur when health care professionals fail to consider their patients’ personal or psychological limitations while planning appropriate care for them. An example is a health care professional’s failure to recognize that basic follow-up discharge instructions may not be understood by patients with cognitive disabilities (James, 2013). It is important for health care professionals to be aware of their patients’ mental and physical abilities before they formulate a plan of care. Communication errors occur when there is miscommunication or lack of communication between health care professionals and patients (James, 2013). They can cause severe harm to patients. An example of this is a nurse failing to tell a surgeon that a patient experienced abdominal pain and had a drop in red blood cell count after an operation, resulting in the death of the patient due to severe internal bleeding. Limited health care knowledge; language barriers; and auditory, visual, and speech disabilities could also lead to communication errors and cause safety issues. Analysis As a medical transcriptionist, it is important for me to be aware of potential transcription errors and privacy standards, which affect patient safety. Errors like these pose dangerous risks; therefore, it is necessary to have an overall quality evaluation of the transcribed documents. Also, I must ensure that serious difficulties in transcription resulting from poor-quality voice files are reported immediately to the manager, who will then convey this to the health care professionals involved in the process. This will help ensure that patient safety is not compromised. Context for Patient Safety Issues With the advancement of medical technology, health care processes have become extremely complex. Health care professionals are required to stay up to date with a lot of new Copyright ©2020 Capella University. Copy and distribution of this document are prohibited. 4 knowledge and innovations obtained from research. This often overburdens them as there is a need to apply the learning from research in their practice. Also, at the individual level, there is a dearth of well-balanced continuing education programs, which has resulted in a lack of attention to patient safety among health care professionals. At the system level, organizations fail to deliver optimum health care as a result of being understaffed, an inability to provide appropriate technology, and ineffective execution of patient care transfer (James, 2013). Overcrowding and understaffing delays initiation of treatment and puts critically ill patients at significant risk. All of these factors contribute to a rise in patient safety issues. Populations Affected by Patient Safety Issues Patients with a psychiatric history are also a vulnerable group of people who face patient safety issues because their psychiatric records are often combined with their current symptoms. Patients with a documented history of psychiatric illness may avoid seeking health care services as they feel that their care will be based on their past record of illnesses and not their present needs. Therefore, psychotherapists should implement measures such that their psychiatric data is concealed from their medical records before it is shared with the third party, which helps protect patients’ confidentiality (Shenoy & Appel, 2017). Considering Options Patient safety in hospitals can be achieved by creating a culture of safety that involves effective communication, correct managerial leadership styles, and the use of Electronic Health Records (EHRs). Effective communication while passing patient-specific information from one health care professional to another is essential in ensuring continuous and safe patient care. Training the team could likely improve consistent successful communication and help prevent errors. Standardizing critical content that needs to be communicated by the initial health care professional ensures safe transfer of care (Farmer, 2016). Copyright ©2020 Capella University. Copy and distribution of this document are prohibited. 5 It is essential for leadership teams to adopt organizational strategies that would improve patient safety and transform their organizations into reliable systems for enhanced patient satisfaction. They should set strategic safety goals, which could include adhering to standards of health, assessing quality, using patient satisfaction reviews, and analyzing adverse event reports to determine improvement in safety issues (Parand et al., 2014). An EHR is another potential solution to prevent patient safety issues. It is a digital record of a patient’s medical information that includes history, physical examination, investigations, and treatment (Ozair et al., 2015). It helps manage multiple processes in the complex health care system and prevents errors. EHRs utilize less storage space compared to paper documentation and allow an infinite number of records to be stored. In addition to being cost-effective and preventing a loss of records, EHRs help conduct research activities and provide quick data transfer (Ozair et al., 2015). Solution In health care, because transmission of information takes place among different people and electronic devices, there is a high likelihood of errors occurring. For example, transcription errors (which occur due to poor audio quality or the lack of a quality evaluation process) can be prevented by using recording equipment with good sound quality and by maintaining proofreading and quality checks. However, integrating transcription processes with the HER system helps prevent errors, helps access the required information faster, and allows health care professionals to take accurate decisions about patients’ care. Implementation An EHR is an important mechanism for improving patient safety. Its advancement has made it a viable option to prevent medical errors. However, the use of EHRs has certain ethical implications such as security violation, data inaccuracies, lack of privacy and confidentiality, and Copyright ©2020 Capella University. Copy and distribution of this document are prohibited. 6 challenges during system implementation. Security violation takes place when patients’ confidential health information is accessible to others without their permission. To avoid security violation, data should not only be password protected but also encrypted to restrict access to unauthorized individuals. Firewalls and antivirus software should be used to protect data (Ozair et al., 2015). Though EHRs improve patient safety by reducing medical errors, data inaccuracies are increasing. Loss of data during data transfer leads to inaccuracies that affect decision-making related to patient care. A problem of concern related to data inaccuracy is medical identity theft, which leads to incorrect information being filed into a person’s medical record, which in turn leads to insurance fraud and wrong billing (Ozair et al., 2015). In health care, information that is shared during physician–patient interactions should be kept confidential and should be made inaccessible to unauthorized individuals. Enabling rolebased access controls based on user credentials will restrict access to the EHR system to authorized users. The user should also be made aware that he or she is responsible for any information that he or she misuses (Ozair et al., 2015). As EHR is a complex software, there is a high likelihood that software failure may result in inaccurate recordings of patients’ data. Therefore, EHR system implementation may have ethical implications due to the violation of data integrity (Ozair et al., 2015). EHRs can safeguard patient confidentiality by using various methods that prevent security breaches. In addition to this, creating reminders that ask for a confirmation before accessing confidential information can help protect data. A nesting system could be developed, which would allow, for example, a health care professional from a specific specialty clinic to access patient records by signing into the specialty domain (Shenoy & Appel, 2017). These methods will enable the safe and efficient use of EHRs and ensure patient safety. Copyright ©2020 Capella University. Copy and distribution of this document are prohibited. 7 Conclusion Patient safety involves preventing the risk of harm or injuries to patients by establishing a safety culture and providing high-quality medical care. Health care organizations must understand patient safety issues and find solutions for these issues by designing systems that prevent errors from occurring. Potential solutions include effective communication, changes in leadership style, and the use of EHRs. The ethical implications of these solutions should be considered before implementing them in a health care setting. It is also important that health care professionals undergo continuous education and effective training, provide appropriate medical care, prevent errors, and follow safety practices to improve clinical outcomes. Copyright ©2020 Capella University. Copy and distribution of this document are prohibited. 8 References Farmer, B. M. (2016). Patient safety in the emergency department. Emergency Medicine, 48(9), 396–404. https://mdedge.com/emed-journal/article/113659/trauma/patient-safetyemergency-department Flood, B. (2017). Safety of people with intellectual disabilities in hospital. What can the hospital pharmacist do to improve quality of care? Pharmacy, 5(3). https://ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5622356/ James, J. T. (2013). A new, evidence-based estimate of patient harms associated with hospital care. Journal of Patient Safety, 9(3), 122–128. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PTS.0b013e3182948a69 Ozair, F. F., Jamshed, N., Sharma, A., & Aggarwal, P. (2015). Ethical issues in electronic health records: A general overview. Perspectives in Clinical Research, 6(2), 73–76. http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/2229-3485.153997 Parand, A., Dopson, S., Renz, A., & Vincent, C. (2014). The role of hospital managers in quality and patient safety: A systematic review. BMJ Open, 4(9). http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2014-005055 Shenoy, A., & Appel, J. M. (2017, April). Safeguarding confidentiality in electronic health records. Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics, 26(2), 337–341. https://searchproquest-com.library.capella.edu/docview/1882434628?pqorigsite=summon&https://library.capella.edu/login?url=accountid=27965 Ulrich, B., & Kear, T. (2014). Patient safety and patient safety culture: Foundations of excellent health care delivery. Nephrology Nursing Journal, 41(5), 447–456, 505. https://searchproquest- Copyright ©2020 Capella University. Copy and distribution of this document are prohibited. 9 com.library.capella.edu/docview/1617932572/fulltextPDF/1486CC30B3624B3CPQ/1?ac countid=27965 Copyright ©2020 Capella University. Copy and distribution of this document are prohibited. 1 Document Format: Margins are 1 in. (2.54 cm) on all sides. All text in the document should be double-spaced. The font is 12-point Times New Roman. Other choices are 11-point Arial and 11-point Calibri. The title page is page 1. There is no running head for learner assignments. (See Academic Writer: Publication Manual §§ 2.1–2.24 for paper requirements.) Full Title of Your Paper Learner’s Full Name (no credentials) School of Nursing and Health Sciences, Capella University Course Number: Course Name Instructor’s Name Month, Year 2 Abstract An abstract is useful in professional papers, but not always in learner assignments. In fact, unless you are instructed by your faculty or in the course syllabus, do not expect to use abstracts very often at Capella. If you are submitting for publication, remember to check with the journal or professional organization about their criteria for an abstract. The abstract tells your reader about the article, is brief, and stands alone, so no citations are included. The format for an abstract is a single paragraph (not indented on the first line) that follows the title page and is less than 250 words in length. A structured abstract will have a single paragraph without indentation but having labels (e.g., Objective, Method, Results, and Conclusions) on the same line as the text and bold. For published works, the publishing organization will give you guidance on these. However, for student papers, no abstract is needed unless the faculty request one or the assignment requires it. Remember, no citations. Keywords: include keywords in the abstract—they should be labeled like this, with the words all in lowercase and separated by commas. Only the first line is indented, like a regular paragraph. No period at the end. 3 APA Style Seventh Edition Paper Template: A Resource for Academic Writing American Psychological Association (APA) style is one of the most popular methods used to cite sources in the social sciences, but it is not the only one. When writing papers in the programs offered at Capella University, you will likely use APA style. This document serves as an APA style resource for the seventh edition guidelines, containing valuable information that you can use when writing academic papers. For more information on APA style, refer to the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, also referred to as the APA manual (American Psychological Association, 2020b). The first section of this paper shows how an introduction effectively introduces the reader to the topic of the paper. In APA style, an introduction never gets a heading. For example, this section did not begin with a heading titled “Introduction,” unlike the following section, which is titled “Writing an Effective Introduction.” The following section will explain in greater detail a model that can be used to effectively write an introduction in an academic paper. The remaining sections of the paper will continue to address APA style and effective writing concepts, including section headings, organizing information, the conclusion, and the reference list. Writing an Effective Introduction An effective introduction often consists of four main components, including (a) the position statement, thesis, or hypothesis, which describes the author’s main position; (b) the purpose, which outlines the objective of the paper; (c) the background, which is general information needed to understand the content of the paper; and (d) the approach, which is the process or methodology the author uses to achieve the purpose of the paper. This information will help readers understand what will be discussed in the paper. It can also serve as a tool to grab the reader’s attention. Authors may choose to briefly reference sources that will be 4 identified later in the paper as in this example (American Psychological Association, 2020a; American Psychological Association, 2020b). The Writing Center has developed the acronym POETS to help describe the proper writing style for submissions. POETS is the acronym for purpose, organization, evidence, tone, and sentence structure (Capella Writing Center, n.d.). There will be more on this later. In an introduction, the writer will often present something of interest to capture the reader’s attention and introduce the issue. Adding an obvious statement of purpose helps the reader know what to expect, while helping the writer to focus and stay on task. For example, this paper will address several components necessary to effectively write an academic paper, including how to write an introduction, how to write effective paragraphs, and how to effectively use APA style. Level 1 Section Heading Is Centered, Bold, and Title Case Using section headings can be an effective method of organizing an academic paper. Section headings are not required according to APA style; however, they can significantly improve the quality of a paper by helping both the reader and the author, as will soon be discussed. Level 2 Section Heading Is Aligned Left, Bold, and Title Case The heading style recommended by APA consists of five levels (APA, 2020b, pp. 47– 48). This document contains multiple levels to demonstrate how headings are structured according to APA style. Immediately before the previous paragraph, a Level 1 section heading was used. That section heading describes how a Level 1 heading should be written, which is centered, bold, and using uppercase and lowercase letters (also referred to as title case). For another example, see the section heading “Writing an Effective Introduction” on page 3 of this 5 document. The heading is centered and bold and uses uppercase and lowercase letters. If used properly, section headings can significantly contribute to the quality of a paper by helping the reader, who wants to understand the information in the document, and the author, who desires to effectively describe it. Section Heading Purposes Section Headings Help the Reader. Section headings serve multiple purposes, including helping the reader understand what is being addressed in each section, maintain an interest in the paper, and choose what they want to read. For example, if the reader of this document wants to learn more about writing an effective introduction, the previous section heading clearly states that is where information can be found. When subtopics are needed to explain concepts in greater detail, different levels of headings are used according to APA style. Section Headings Help the Author. Section headings not only help the reader; they also help the author organize the document during the writing process. Section headings can be used to arrange topics in a logical order, and they can help an author manage the length of the paper. In addition to an effective introduction and the use of section headings, each paragraph of an academic paper can be written in a manner that helps the reader stay engaged. Section Headings Can Demonstrate Fine Detail. Short papers and assignments may not require or need a Level 5 heading, but these will be indented, bold, italic, and title case and end with a period. Note the text starts on the line at the end of the heading following the period. How to Write Effective Paragraphs Capella University’s Writing Center (n.d.) has adopted a new set of writing standards to assist learners in their goals to improve their scholarly writing. It is based on five skills known by the mnemonic POETS. In other words, a well-developed Capella paper will demonstrate the 6 following standards. The paper will have a clear purpose statement, be logically organized, utilize current and appropriate evidence that is properly cited, maintain a scholarly tone, and demonstrate proper grammar and writing mechanics in the sentence structure (Capella Writing Center, n.d.). Academic writing is sometimes considered dry and boring. A learning experience may need that formula to encourage learning in different ways as the learner moves from passive learner to active scholar. This growth, according to Gilmore et al. (2019), requires the writer to not only think but also to write differently. Bias-Free Language In the seventh edition of the APA manual, another focus is on eliminating bias in language in order to provide a more inclusive tone in scholarly writing. While long considered a grammar issue, it is acceptable in APA to utilize they as a singular pronoun (APA, 2020b). In fact, there is an entire chapter of the manual dedicated to ways to reduce bias in scholarly writing. It is important to use an appropriate level of specificity in descriptions and use sensitivity with the use of labels. Other sections include guidelines on age, disability, gender, race and ethnicity, sexual orientation, socioeconomic status, and participation in research. Be aware of intersectionality, a term used to describe a person based on their identified multiple identities, interconnectivity, social context, power relations, complexity, social justice, and inequalities that can result in oppression (Cole, 2019; Hopkins, 2017). Considering Direct Quotations Another important point to consider is the use of direct quotations in papers. While plagiarism is considered an academic integrity issue, many learners are concerned with issues such as self-plagiarism and unintentional plagiarism, and there are others who may go as far as purchasing papers for submission (Colella & Alahmadi, 2019). As a learner travels along their 7 chosen academic pathway, their writing skills and mechanics are expected to improve. It is imperative that the learner transition from finding information and quoting the author word for word to using the information to support an idea, paraphrase, and then synthesize and express the findings in one’s own words. Having said that, there are situations in which quotations may be appropriate, so it is important to cite them properly. According to the seventh edition of the APA manual, “When quoting directly, always provide the author, year, and page number of the quotation in the in-text citation in either parenthetical or narrative format” (APA, 2020b, p. 270). If there are not page numbers, identify the location in another manner (such as a paragraph number). Notice that the above quote contains fewer than 40 words. There is a different style for quotes containing 40 words or more. These longer quotes use a block quotation format: Do not use quotation marks to enclose a block quotation. Start a block quotation on a new line and indent the whole block 0.5 in. from the left margin. If there are additional paragraphs within the quotation, indent the first line of each subsequent paragraph an additional 0.5 in. Double-space the entire block quotation; do not add extra space before or after it. Either (a) cite the source in parentheses after the quotation’s final punctuation or (b) cite the author and year in the narrative before the quotation and place only the page number in parentheses after the quotation’s final punctuation. Do not add a period after the closing parenthesis in either case. (APA, 2020b, p. 272) Conclusion A summary and conclusion section, which can also be the discussion section of an APA style paper, is the final opportunity for the author to make a lasting impression on the reader. The author can begin by restating opinions or positions and summarizing the most important points 8 that have been presented in the paper. For example, this paper was written to demonstrate to readers how to effectively use APA style when writing academic papers. Various components of an APA style paper that were discussed or displayed in the form of examples include a title page, introduction section, levels of section headings and their use, the POETS format, bias-free language, in-text citations, a conclusion, and the reference list. 9 References American Psychological Association. (2020a). Ethical principles of psychologists and code of conduct (2002, amended effective June 1, 2010, and January 1, 2017). https://doi.org.apa.org/ethics/code/index.aspx American Psychological Association. (2020b). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (7th ed.). Capella University. (n.d.). Writing Center. https://campus.capella.edu/writing-center/home Cole, N. L. (2019, October 13). Definition of intersectionality: On the intersecting nature of privileges and oppression. ThoughtCo. https://www.thoughtco.com/intersectionalitydefinition-3026353 Colella, J., & Alahmadi, H. (2019). Combating plagiarism from a transformation viewpoint. Journal of Transformative Learning, 6(1), 59–67. https://jotl.uco.edu/index.php/jotl/article/view/184 Gilmore, S., Harding, N., Helin, J., & Pullen, A. (2019). Writing differently. Management Learning, 50(1), 3–10. https://doi.org/10.1177/1350507618811027 Hopkins, P. (2017). Social geography I: Intersectionality. Progress in Human Geography, 43(5), 937–947. https://doi.org/10.1177/0309132517743677 10 Appendix Tips for the Reference List • Always begin a reference list on a new page. It should be placed before any appendices, figures, or tables and titled References. • Set a hanging indent that starts with the second line and is double-spaced. You can look in the Paragraph menu of Microsoft Word for formatting the hanging indent so that you will not have to tab the indent. It gives the text a smoother look that remains consistent, even if you make edits. • The reference list is in alphabetical order by the first author’s last name. A reference list only contains sources that are cited in the body of the paper, and all sources cited in the body of the paper must be included in the reference list. If you did not cite it, do not list it. • The reference list above contains an example of how to cite a source when two documents are written in the same year by the same author. • • o The lowercase letters are used after the date to differentiate the sources. The “a” reflects the alphabetical order in the reference list—not whether it appeared first in the text. o The year is also displayed using this method for the corresponding in-text citations, as in the following sentence: The author of the first citation (American Psychological Association, 2020b) is also the publisher; therefore, the word Author is no longer used in the seventh edition. DOI is the digital object identifier. o It can be found on the first page of an article, on the copyright page of a book, in the database record of a work, or by searching Crossref. o Even if the book is in print, if there is a DOI, use it. o Always use the hyperlink format for a DOI—it will always start with https://doi.org/ and will be followed by a number. If the DOI is not in this format, convert it. Do not alter this format, and do not add a final period. o There is a short DOI service at http://shortdoi.org/. URL is the uniform resource locator. o If there is no DOI, the URL should be used in the reference. o Copy and paste the URL directly into your list. o Do not add a period at the end. o Do use “Retrieved from” before a URL. • The Colella and Alahmadi reference is an example of how to cite a source using a URL. Please note that you will not use the Capella link that is often provided in the courseroom. If the URL contains a database title, such as EBSCO or ProQuest, or the name Capella, do not use that in your citation as it will only work for Capella learners and faculty. • For examples and further information on references go to: o Academic Writer: Sample References. o Academic Writer: Reference List.
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1

Current Health Care Issue

Name
Institution
Professor
Date

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Current Health Care Issue
Introduction
Many people, particularly children, have died or been paralyzed as a result of medication
errors, often caused by incorrect administration of medications. Even though serious medication
errors are rare, it is commendable that it took so long to recognize that remedial action was
required. However, this error continues to be made. Medication errors are one of the most
frequently encountered healthcare issues. There are several causes and types of medication
errors, for instance, improper use, omission, prescribing error, wrong time, expired product, and
unauthorized drug (Tariq et al., 22021). That is a preventable adverse effect of a patient taking
the incorrect medication or dosage, regardless of whether it is visible or harmful to the patient in
any way. Errors in medication administration can result in serious patient harm, including death.
A medication error occurs when there is a failure in the treatment process that results in, or poses
a risk of resulting in, harm to the patient. It usually occurs when deciding which medication to
use and what dosage regimen to follow. Despite that, some solutions can be implemented to
ensure that the errors are minimized. Therefore, the paper aims to analyze medication errors as a
health care issue, identify the solutions, and show how they are implemented.
Elements of the Issue
Even though it is less probable, patients are likely to experience some problems when
undergoing treatment. Medication errors are common in healthcare, but more so in
pharmaceutical institutions. There are several different approaches to classifying medication
errors. It is possible to define broad error categories, quantify them, and devise an intervention to
prevent them (World Health Organization, 2017). It can also be categorized by the stage of

3
medication use, namely the prescribing, dispensing, or administration. This method classifies
errors as errors, slips, or lapses. This includes knowledge-based error related to any form of
knowledge, whether broad, spec...


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