Just a question for spirituality in the Workplace, philosophy homework help

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The following is need to answer the question:How important are these motivators (beyond money) for you? What order would you put them in and why? Is there something missing?

1. Higher Purpose: Are we contributing to a better world?

2. Mastery: getting better at what you do

3. Being Self-Directed: people self-select who they work with, self-select what they work on, and decide how they will do it.

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Spirituality in the Workplace Module 8 Motivation in the Workplace RELS 3330 Instructor: David Sable david.sable@smu.ca copyright © 2017 1 Objectives article It’s Not Just a Job ➢ Review video on what motivates us in the workplace ➢ Contemplate the factors that motivate workers beyond money. ➢ Review copyright © 2017 2 Uncertainty and Change New York, 2001 New York, WTC rebuilt (2014) See the article on Blackboard, “It’s Not Just a Job” copyright © 2017 3 Defining our Work as… 1. 2. 3. Jobs – work to get paid Careers – life-long professions that we think contribute to society; work that has prestige Your “Calling” – work that has personal meaning; work that feels naturally fulfilling copyright © 2017 4 What Motivates Us – It Is Not Only About Money ➢ Video: the Surprising Truth about What Motivates Us www.youtube.com/watch?v=u6XAPnuFjJc (The YouTube video may open with an advertisement, but you should be able to skip the ad if you wish) copyright © 2017 5 Review: What Motivates Us Beyond Money Higher Purpose: Are we contributing to a better world?  Mastery: getting better at what you do  Being Self-Directed: people self-select who they work with, self-select what they work on, and decide how they will do it. 1) Visit the Social Venture Network. 2) Read the article by Forbes business magazine on social entrepreneurs  copyright © 2017 6 Examples of Higher Purpose ➢ Whole Foods Market: “…bring whole foods and greater health to the world” ➢ SONY: Original: “Make Japan know for quality”; in 2014: "to be a company that inspires and fulfills your curiosity." ➢ Google: “to organize the world’s information and make it universally accessible and useful.” copyright © 2017 7 Weekly Assignment ➢ How important are these motivators (beyond money) for you? What order would you put them in and why? Is there something missing? 1. Higher Purpose: Are we contributing to a better world? 2. Mastery: getting better at what you do 3. Being Self-Directed: people self-select who they work with, self-select what they work on, and decide how they will do it. copyright © 2017 8 Culture Matters: The Soul of CSR in Emerging Economies By Allen L. White Senior Advisor, BSR July 2008 Preface At the annual BSR Conference in 2006, we hosted a session to discuss a topic not commonly addressed in the business community — religion. Through this vibrant conversation, led by rabbi, a pastor and an Islamic scholar, we began to understand the powerful interplay of spiritual practice and corporate social responsibility in many parts of the world. What emerged from that discussion was a recognition that, as Allen White writes in this paper, “In a globalizing world, culture still matters.” In a world where we like to compartmentalize things like government, business and religion, it’s refreshing to discover that in fact these things are often intertwined. It’s for this reason that we have decided to explore how spiritual practices and traditions influence CSR as it is implemented in different cultures around the world. I am excited to introduce this paper as the first in a series of five that explores the relationship between CSR, culture and spirituality in emerging economies. The four papers that follow will focus on China, Brazil, India and South Africa. In many societies, social responsibility is rooted in spiritual traditions, both religious and secular. Such traditions often shape a society’s expectation of business, including how they treat employees, the types of philanthropy they undertake and, in some cultures, how they treat the gods. While this may be of great philosophical interest, it also has deeply pragmatic implications for companies operating in a global economy. As you will see from this paper and the ones that follow, considering the spiritual practices of the countries where your business operates — and considering how those practices influence society’s expectations of a responsible company — can influence your reputation and longterm success in those places. Foreign companies moving into new regions cross not only political but cultural boundaries, where a country’s religion and religious history may play a greater role in setting societal expectations for the conduct of business. Equally, domestic companies may be viewed through the lens of spiritual tradition that, if violated, may take its toll on the company’s reputation, relations with the community and loyalty from consumers. Our goal with this series is to increase awareness of spirituality’s impact on CSR and to provide practical pointers for specific religious traditions in four major emerging economies. With a better understanding of CSR’s local spiritual or religious dimension, your company is more likely to achieve high performance in its CSR strategies, policies and practices. As globalization pushes us toward greater homogeneity, variations in spiritual traditions will endure in the indefinite future. It behooves companies, both foreign and domestic, to be knowledgeable of such traditions and to integrate them into CSR practices. It is integral to smart, respectful and successful management. Diane Osgood Vice President, CSR Strategy Business for Social Responsibility Business for Social Responsibility | Culture Matters: The Soul of CSR in Emerging Economies 2 A Thai Tale In the early 1980s, DuPont built an agrochemicals reformulation and packaging facility outside of Bangkok. Widely regarded as the chemical industry’s world leader in workplace safety, DuPont had built everything to company standards, down to the last nut and screw. They had taken every possible safety issue into account. Or so they thought, until an unexpected question arose: Where to locate the spirit house? Rooted in ancient animism and later co-mingled with Buddhism, the spirit house is found adjacent to virtually every business in Thailand. Its purpose is to provide an appealing shelter for the spirits (both good and evil), which demand respect from the humans with whom they regularly interact. Mistreating or ignoring the spirits when launching or expanding a business may lead to its failure — clearly a risk plant managers want to avoid. For DuPont, the decision to build the spirit house was a simple one: It satisfied the local needs of the employees, and it was possible to do so within the parameters of DuPont's safety standards. All the company needed was assurance that the spirit house would not impair emergency evacuation if it was located near the entrance to the factory, the typical site of a spirit house. But for the Thai managers, it was more than a matter of meeting safety standards. It was about ensuring that the cultural and spiritual needs of workers were met. Negotiations produced a compromise — the spirit house would remain in front of the facility, but positioned so as to avoid any interference with emergency evacuation at a facility that handles hazardous materials. In the end, both parties were satisfied: DuPont was happy with the safety codes of the structure, and the employees felt safe knowing the spirits had a new home from which they could guard the facility. And as offerings of flower garlands, betel leaves, and a wide range of other edibles and non-edibles found their way to spirit house, ancient animism, Buddhist practice and modern agrochemical production led a happy coexistence. The Nexus of Culture and CSR In a globalizing world, culture still matters. The perception that transnational commerce is homogenizing business practices is only a partial truth. Spurred by a combination of public pressure, efficiency gains associated with standardization and competitive positioning in an increasingly socially minded market, international norms such GRI, ISO and the Global Compact are gradually moving companies toward a set of shared norms. Yet corporate cultures remain distinct in part because national cultures are different. Every country has a unique culture defined by shared spirituality, beliefs, values and rituals. Ultimately, a company’s culture is a product of both its corporate parent as well as the broader national culture of the country where it operates. As global companies spread their operations across regions and continents, these cultural attributes are implanted in overseas Business for Social Responsibility | Culture Matters: The Soul of CSR in Emerging Economies 3 operations and, to one degree or another, they begin to fuse with and change based on local operating environments. This process of adaptation is not without challenges, as the DuPont case illustrates. Sometimes, the venture fails outright, as was the case when Wal-Mart withdrew from South Korea and Germany due to differences in the shopping culture of those countries. Nonetheless, the inexorable forces of globalization have set the stage for a continuing story of cultural diffusion and adaptation. These cultural differences are consequential to the character and practice of CSR in both the North and the South. They operate subtly in shaping corporate behavior, in the subconscious of managers and stakeholders, and overtly in formal statements of company policies. They shape the expectations of citizens toward business, the worldview of managers, and the relationships between managers and employees and between the company and community. The communitarian culture of Asian nations has a direct effect on Asian enterprises, and is expressed in how corporations view their responsibilities toward employees and communities. Linkages such as these are difficult to document, and much more difficult to quantify. In this exploratory piece, we emphasize the former, using both hypothetical and real world examples to suggest how cultural influence, and spirituality in particular, might play out in the minds and decisions of company managers. In China, Confucianism stresses the paramount importance of social networks and the community as the foundation for societal organization. Chinese leadership’s current emphasis on the creation of a “harmonious society” may be viewed as the modern interpretation of this tradition. At the same time, acknowledgement of one’s position in the social hierarchy, translated into company management practices, implies a likely antipathy toward organized labor and horizontal management structures. Demand for such change in the direction of independent unions and horizontal management systems may well emerge as Chinese enterprises are exposed to international labor standards and supply chain best practices. In a similar vein, it is possible that the increasing willingness of local activists to vocalize concerns about industrial environmental degradation is a sign of a population, including workers, disposed to challenging traditional forms of management-worker hierarchy. Should such pressures materialize, they would reflect significant diminution of the spiritual versus the political and economic forces in Chinese society in the coming decades. Similar intersections of cultural traditions and business practices are discernible in other emerging economies. In India, the Gandhian tradition of trusteeship toward community, and in South Africa, the tradition of Ubuntu (humanity toward others expressed through mutual responsibility), have subtle but enduring effects on how business views its role in society. And in Brazil, the activist Catholic Church and liberation theology, coupled with seemingly intractable social inequities, drive many Brazilian corporations’ commitment to education, health and other social projects. Thus while globalization and international norms are to some extent homogenizing the practices of large companies, there is little doubt that deeply rooted cultural and spiritual traditions will continue to color how executives and managers see their roles, and the role of their organizations in society. How such traditions play out in the real world of corporate decision-making will, of course, vary across countries, companies and specific issues. Business for Social Responsibility | Culture Matters: The Soul of CSR in Emerging Economies 4 Consider the following hypothetical examples: A Chinese vehicle manufacturer seeks a long-term partnership with a South African mining company whose CEO is a leading, new generation of black entrepreneur enabled by South African’s Black Economic Empowerment program. The mining firm faces a high population of people infected with HIV/AIDs in both its workforce and communities, and because of this, the company has committed to provide major education, diagnosis and prevention programs for 10 years. Both its shareholders and its Chinese customer, positioned as a lowcost vehicle manufacturer, are concerned that the program could lead to the loss of a competitive cost structure of a major supplier. The South African firm wavers, struggling to reconcile its social obligations with shareholder and customer pressures. An Indian metal manufacturer acquires a Belgium firm in the same sector. The former’s social commitments represent 3 percent of its net earnings, a figure viewed as exorbitant by both management and shareholders of the acquired firm. At the same time, organized labor in the Belgium is unwelcome by the new Indian parent unaccustomed to dealing with an organized workforce, and instead favoring informal labor relations aligned with the tradition of trusteeship and responsibility for worker welfare. In the rush to close the acquisition, neither of these issues was fully vetted, thereby creating unanticipated tensions in the newly formed enterprise. A U.S. electronics firm acquires a Brazilian firm in a complementary line of business. The U.S. firm has a well-developed CSR initiative focused on labor practices in supply chains, including a monitoring and auditing program it executes in cooperation with trade unions and NGOs. The Brazilian firm has no experience in such practices and, in fact, is skeptical of empowering unions and NGOs to conduct factory inspections and produce publicly available data on the violations associated with such inspections. How will Brazil’s particular cultural and spiritual traditions, characterized in part by a Christian doctrine that stresses social justice as a core belief, help shape the attitudes of the acquired company in adjusting to the monitoring and auditing expectations of its new owners? All three hypothetical cases have the markings of the real world. In no case can it be argued that cultural or spiritual traditions are the sole determinants of either the dilemma or the decisions portrayed in these illustrations. When the hard edge of global competition meets the deep edge of human culture and spirituality, the outcome is anything but predictable. But surely one can say with confidence that no party is immune to some sense of societal obligations and must embrace some version of the “golden rule” common to all spiritual traditions. Four Traditions Emerging economies represent fertile ground for exploring how culture and spirituality affect business behavior. China, India, South Africa and Brazil — four formidable forces in 21st century globalization — all are undoing rapid development against a backdrop of deeply Business for Social Responsibility | Culture Matters: The Soul of CSR in Emerging Economies 5 rooted culture and spiritual traditions. In this sense, they serve as laboratories for testing the resilience of such traditions against the powerful forces of global competitiveness. Will such traditions exert a modulating influence on the evolution of CSR in such countries? Or will globalization trump such traditions and relegate social responsibility to a peripheral role in 1 company strategy, policy and practices? China 2 Since 1980, China’s economic system has changed gradually from a planned economy to market socialism. As the upheavals associated with the Cultural Revolution and the Great Leap Forward faded, markets began making inroads into the highly centralized, planned economy. Increasingly, economic efficiency and global competitiveness have eroded communitarian values. This transformation has resulted in enterprises becoming more profit and growth driven, which are the principal engines behind China’s aspiration to attain global economic leadership and sustain economic expansion to meet the rising expectations and needs of its population for gainful employment and livable wages. At the same time, both domestic and international customers and investors have emerged as powerful stakeholders in shaping managers’ decisions, diluting the effect of government domination characteristic of the post-war period. Beneath the breathtaking pace of the country’s economic growth is an ancient culture and spirituality that still influence how China interprets the role of business in society. Confucianism, the most prominent of such traditions, emphasizes enlightened living and duties arising from the individual’s role in a web of social relationships. In Confucian philosophy, virtuous individuals help create a peaceful society by setting a good example for others. Traditionally, care for the less fortunate is integral to achieving social betterment and a life of virtue. Confucianism also emphasizes the ties of kinship and close personal relationships, and its virtue of righteousness requires behaving in a way that is appropriate for one’s social hierarchy, where the superior bestows approval, protection and favor upon the individual of inferior status. In recent years, China has seen a revival of spirituality in general, especially among the educated classes seeking respite and a sense of higher purpose amid the intensity of rapid industrialization and consumerism. It is a way of bringing order to a chaotic lifestyle.3 Another indication of religious revival is the rapprochement with the Catholic Church. Buddhism, with about 100 million followers, is the largest religion in the country, and Protestants number 50 to 80 million. However, Protestantism, along with Falun Gong, is viewed as alien in contrast to centuries-old Buddhist practice, which is currently being revitalized with the acquiescence of governmental authority. Whether this revival and the growth of other faiths less welcome by the authorities translates into more responsible business practices in Chinese companies remains to be seen. 1 The following sketches of four countries are developed in great depth in four papers that follow this brief overview of each country. This section is informed by the forthcoming, companion paper by Lailai Li, entitled “Chinese SMEs and Their CSR Practice.” 3 R. Scott Macintosh, “China’s Prosperity Inspires Rising Spirituality,” The Christian Science Monitor, March 9, 2006, www.csmonitor.com/2006/0309/p01s04-woap.html. 2 Business for Social Responsibility | Culture Matters: The Soul of CSR in Emerging Economies 6 The blend of collectivist and hierarchical traditions in Chinese culture would suggest some tensions in the practice of CSR. The mindset of hierarchy, rooted in spiritual traditions and reinforced by a half century of command-and-control government management of the economy, implies little room for employees to have a voice in setting company policy and practices. Similarly, tolerance for independent unions has not existed to date. Governmentaffiliated unions are common among China’s public enterprises, but their independence from management falls well short of Western standards of independent unions. The broader domain of stakeholder engagement (and stakeholder governance), which signifies power sharing, is another defining element of contemporary CSR best practices. Will the Chinese culture’s deeply embedded hierarchical mindset make way for such distributed authority in f ...
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PHYLOSOPHY

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Workplace
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PHYLOSOPHY

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SPIRITUALITY IN THE WORK PLACE

We were created as human beings for a purpose. My essence of living is that of a higher
purpose followed by mastery and finally being self-directed. I am making my life meaningful by
investing my time in things that giv...

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